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Preface 


The present work is the result of many years of private study to which has been added three 
years of evening and off-duty work, mainly at the University Extension Division of Rutgers — 
The State University of New Jersey. 

Notes were collected and compiled from many lengthy travels to faraway producing areas. 
Samples were submitted to the author from other areas, and first-hand information was 
received from research stations, universities, distilleries, growers and exporters all over the 
world. 

By august 1958, the author found himself in possession of an almost complete collection of 
perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. These materials were all available or could be 
made available upon request at due notice. Dozens of varieties and different qualities of each 
individual raw material were closely studied for appearance, odor, flavor and possible 
adulterations. Suggestions have been made in this book for the use of these materials in 
perfumes and flavors, based partly upon the author's previous work, partly upon entirely new 
experiments which were carried out at the University Extension Division of Rutgers, The State 
University of New Jersey. 

During three years of lecturing at the University Extension Division, the author became aware 
of the fact that the perfumery and flavor literature does not include any work that describes 
the odor and flavor of the raw materials from nature in everyday words. There is no recent or 
up-to-date handbook of raw materials suggesting the use of the materials, the replacement of 
one material for another, the proportional strength of flavor materials, etc. Furthermore, there 
was no up-to-date work which gave any practical indication of availability and present world 
production of these materials. Export figures are obviously not always indicative of the true 
production. 

In order to present the compiled material in the handiest and most up-to-date form, the 
author decided to publish a one-volume dictionary form of practical handbook. The two- 
column set-up is a, suggestion for which the author gives his printers all the credit and praise. 
The photographs are, with a few exceptions, taken by the author. Two-thirds of the 
photographs were taken during may-july 1960, and not a single photograph is more than five 
years old when this book appears. It was the author's express wish that this work should 
include full-color reproductions of some of the flower photographs. 

A work of this type is strongly subjective by its very nature. All odor and flavor experiments 
were carried out by the author personally, and were repeated as recently as possible in order 
to make the information most true to the facts. When literature sources are not given, it is 
because information was never taken for granted if it was at all possible for the author to 
check and re-check the information personally. This principle has been carried out throughout 
the book, and the author is convinced that this policy should be of definite advantage to the 
reader who seeks actual and practical information. No information or statement has been 


1 



entered in the book without being checked during the five-year period 1956—1960, and the 
greater part of all information has been re-checked during 1959—1960. 

The perfume and flavor trade has been veiled and concealed for decades, if not for centuries. 

It is true that perfumery and flavor creation is an art and a science, and we all realize that the 
art cannot be taught or developed by research through generations. But it is the author's firm 
belief that science is a necessary part of perfumery and flavor creation. Consequently, we 
should not conceal what is already known or what can be concluded from the facts. In science, 
we all stand on the shoulders of our predecessors; our present knowledge is greater because 
they gave us a flying start. The same applies to that part of perfumery and flavor creation 
which is dependent upon science. It is the author's hope that the present work may contribute 
to the wider and further expanded knowledge of perfume and flavor materials from nature. 

Elizabeth, New Jersey (US.A.) 

August, 1960. 

STEFFEN ARCTANDER 


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Acknowledgements 


Although this work is an entirely personal undertaking, the author wishes to express his 
gratitude to a large number of individuals: friends in the industry, growers and distillers, 
scientists and artists, laymen and specialists in the perfume and flavor fields. Without the 
correct and highly up-to-date information graciously supplied by these people and institutions, 
this work would not have been possible. 

The University Extension Division, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (U.S.A.) has 
been most helpful to the author in his making contact with authoritative sources of 
information on certain subjects. 

The perfume and flavor industry has lent great support to the author in the areas of verifying 
information, procuring samples of certain rare materials, welcoming his personal visits to 
various installations, etc. 

Planters and distillers all over the world have been most cooperative with respect to furnishing 
samples and information of production, future aspects, local use, etc. of many of the materials 
in the book. 

Fellow perfumers and students at the University Extension Division have contributed greatly to 
the completion of this work by their direct and indirect encouragement to the author. 

Through their correspondence with the author since long before the book was conceived, 
agricultural institutes, research stations, laboratories, etc. all over the world have been most 
helpful and co-operative in exchanging information, samples, etc. with the author. 

Certain periodicals, technical monthly reviews, etc. have encouraged the author to a great 
measure, and have connected him with important sources of information, etc. 

The printers in Copenhagen, Denmark, cannot be praised highly enough. Without their 
immediate readiness, this work would have lost years in achieving actuality. The entire 
outlining of the shape, set-up, binding and two-column printing, etc. was the prompt routine 
work of the printers. Proofreading was reduced through their outstanding accuracy. The 
reproduction of the author's photographs in black/white and in color has the unreserved 
admiration of the author. 

The author's thanks also go to Natalie Fine for her efforts in correcting linguistic and 
grammatical errors committed by the author in his rough manuscript, and for her expert 
advice with respect to phraseology, etc. The author wishes to add that he takes full 
responsibility for omissions in this important part of the work of writing; changes and additions 
inevitably had to be made right up to the eleventh hour of the book's production. 


3 



The author wishes finally to state his affectionate appreciation of the patience and co¬ 
operation offered by his wife. The long hours of collecting and collating information, taking 
care of lengthy and prolific correspondence, and the never-ending checking and re-checking of 
flavor and odor experiments were only made possible through her loyal and patient 
encouragement. 

Elizabeth, New Jersey (US.A.) August, 1960. 

STEFFEN ARCTANDER 


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Table of Contents 


Preface.1 

Acknowledgements.3 

Part One.7 

Definitions and Methods of Processing.7 

Part Two.40 

Monographs on Crude and Processed Raw Materials of Natural Origin.40 

Tables.483 

Tonage of World Production of important natural perfume and flavor materials.483 

Value of World Production of important natural perfume and flavor material.484 

Location of the most important centers of production with respect to quantity.485 

Location of the most important centers of production with respect to value for the local 
community.486 

Grouping.487 

Index to Part One Definitions and Methods of Processing.509 

Index to Part Two Monographs.510 

French-German-Spanish condensed index.511 


5 


















The materials are listed alphabetically, using the most common commercial names in English. 
Reference is made to synonyms and foreign names on the widest possible scale. In many 
cases, however, it has been necessary to use the botanical Latin name where no commercial 
name exists, or where the English name does not describe the material unambiguously. 
Condensed French, German and Spanish indices are included at the end of the book. 

Bold type is used in the text to indicate reference from the index and to emphasize the 
location of the topic name, etc., thus saving time for the reader who wants a brief information 
on a certain specific subject. 

The strict alphabetical order suffers from certain drawbacks: 

Lemongrass Oil is placed between Lemon Aroma and Lemon Oil. Gingergrass Oil is between 
Ginger Absolute and Ginger Oil. Ho Leaf Oil and Ho Wood Oil are separated by the entries of 
Hop and Horseradish, etc. 

Abbreviations 

°C. = 

cms. = 

milligrams per 100 grams = 

ml. = 

mm. Hg. = 

sp. = 
tons = 
var. = 


degrees centigrade, 
centimeters. 

thousandth of one percent. One mg% equals ten parts per 

million (10 ppm.). 

millilitres. 

millimeters of mercury pressure, an indication of low pressure 
in connection with vacuum distillation, 
species (of plants). 

metric tons (one ton = 1000 kilos or 2200 lbs.), 
variety of (Latin: varietas) a botanical species. 


6 



Part One 


Definitions and Methods of Processing 
A 

Absolute. 

An Absolute is a prepared perfume material. Absolutes are highly concentrated, entirely 
alcohol soluble and usually liquid perfume materials. They are obtained by alcohol-extraction 
of concretes (see this monograph) or other hydrocarbon types of extracts or from fat-extracts 
of plant material (see below). Waxes, terpenes, sesquiterpenes and most of the odorless 
matters are eliminated from the concretes during the preparation of absolutes. The concrete is 
usually extracted at room temperature or under gentle heat. Several extractions may be 
required in order to completely exhaust the odorous matter from the concrete. The mixed 
alcoholic extracts are then chilled under stirring for a considerable length of time (up to several 
weeks). Waxes, sesquiterpenes etc. are precipitated in the cold and by subsequent cold 
filtration of the alcoholic extract, or by centrifuging, the alcoholic solution of the absolute is 
obtained. The alcohol is recovered by evaporation, which requires a gentle vacuum towards 
the end of the distillation. Most absolutes will contain traces of ethylalcohol (i. e. 2% or less). If 
the ethylalcohol has been denatured with a nonvolatile or high-boiling material, this 
denaturant will be present in the absolute in significant amounts, since the extraction of an 
absolute requires many times the quantity of alcohol. 

Absolutes can in exceptional cases be solid or semi-solid (e. g. sage clary absolute, beeswax 
absolute, bruyere absolute, etc.). Under Hyacinth Absolute (see this monograph in Part Two of 
this book) is described briefly an adsorption method for the production of absolutes. 

Occasionally the alcohol-soluble fraction of a Resinoid is called an Absolute. The resulting 
product is not identical to the so-called alcohol resinoid, also commercially known as Resin 
Absolute. The latter is prepared by direct alcohol extraction of the natural raw material (gum 
resin, oleoresin, etc.). See monograph on Resin Absolute in Part One of this book. 

If a natural raw material is first extracted with petroleum ether to produce a Resinoid (see 
this) and the resinoid in turn is extracted with alcohol, this process will yield a highly refined 
and pale colored "Absolute". Under Labdanum Absolute from Resinoid in Part Two of this 
book is described one such material. Petroleum ether extraction of natural gum resins, 
oleoresins etc. often yield very light colored resinoids, very suitable for further processing to 
Absolutes of attractive appearance and odor. 

Butaflor is a registered name (P. Robertet & Cie.) given to a series of highly concentrated 
perfume materials produced by extraction with butane at subnormal temperature. The solvent 
is recovered by evaporation at room temperature (boiling point of butane is —0°.50C.). The 


7 



low extraction temperature and the selective solvent result in a pale-colored, almost waxfree 
and terpeneless product. The method is particularly useful and advantageous when applied to 
very delicate or heat-sensitive botanical materials, e. g. lilac flowers, lily of the valley (muguet), 
orange flowers, jasmin, rose, etc. Certain staple materials are also treated by this method, e.g. 
ginger rhizomes. It should be kept in mi, that not all Butaflors are completely alcohol-soluble. 


Absolute from Chassis. 

See also Pommade. When the flowers are removed in the daily batches from the greased trays 
("chassis"), some fat will adhere to these exhaust flowers. The fat contains perfume oil. 
Extraction of the flowers with a hydrocarbon type of solvent will isolate the perfumed fat as a 
"concrete de chassis" from which an Absolute from Chassis is in turn produced by alcohol 
extraction, chilling, filtration and evaporation. 

Absolute from distillation water. 

During the steam - or water distillation of geranium oil, lavandin, lavender, neroli, petitgrain, 
rose etc. the distillation waters contain significant amounts of dissolved or dispersed odorous 
matter which will not readily separate. Such distillation waters are often extracted with 
petroleum ether or benzene. After solvent recovery the residual "distillation water concrete" is 
extracted with alcohol, or it may be used as it comes from the first extraction. Lavender 
Water-Absolute, Rose Water Absolute, etc. are prepared this way. These absolutes are 
practically terpeneless and consist mainly of water-soluble components of the essential oil in 
the plant material. In certain cases, they are "the missing links" between absolutes and 
essential oils from same plant material. Water absolutes present highly interesting perfume 
notes which are often missing or wanted in essential oils or perfume bases. Various Water- 
Absolutes are described under the monographs of the respective plant materials in Part Two 
of this book. 

Absolute from Pommade. 

These materials are by some authors considered as essential oils in the sense, that they are 
"volatile oils". This reasoning is also justified by the definitions given in the present book. 
Pommade absolutes are prepared in the same way as described under Absolute (from 
Concrete), but the starting material in this case is a Pommade (see this monograph). Under 
certain circumstances, the pommade-absolutes are prepared from a Concrete from Pommade 
(see this). Absolute from Pommade is also known as: Pommade Concentrate. 

Absolute Oil. 

This term usually refers to the steam distillable part of an Absolute. Very few, if any, absolute 
oils are commercially available. They are, however, frequently prepared in analytical 
laboratories in order to establish datas of the constituents of an absolute as compared to the 
corresponding essential oil. Absolute Oils constitute only a fraction of the quantity of the 
parent absolute, but they often display the most refined notes of its fragrance. 

Anhydrols are a form of diluted Absolute Oils, (see Anhydrol). 


8 


Adulteration. 


The reader may find that this term occurs rather frequently in this book. The author has 
endeavoured to reduce the frequency of the occurrence of this word, in order not to 
discourage the readers beyond the inevitable and justified measure. Terms like 
"Sophistication", "Cutting", "diluting", "Bouquetting" (from the French: bouquettage), 
"rounding-off" etc. etc. are all more or less poor attempts to disguise the cruel truth: plain 
adulteration. Certain suppliers with highly developed imagination will even use the term 
"enobling" for the disfiguration of an essential oil. 

The author has nothing in principle against the addition of foreign or "unnatural" materials to 
essential oils etc. as long as the intention and the result is an indisputable improvement in 
respect to perfumery performance and effect. To the author's opinion it is up to every 
perfumer to improve perfume materials, and this may be achieved with no ban whatsoever on 
the means or materials used. The author is well aware that such statements are bound to 
release a landslide of disagreements, but it is his firm belief that most perfumers at the bottom 
of their hearts will agree that this matter is a development which we have to face. It is a 
natural result of the appearance of a rapidly growing number of interesting synthetic perfume 
materials. 

The synthetic perfume materials are supposed to enhance and support the use of natural raw 
materials, not to replace them, nor in any way to beat them off the market. The synthetic 
chemicals present a certain challenge to nature, and the perfumer can assist nature in her fight 
by utilizing the synthetic materials to the advantage of the natural raw materials. 

However, the above philosophy should not indicate that the author approves of Adulteration 
of natural perfume materials. On the contrary. But the meaning of the term Adulteration 
should be taken literally: with the intention of acquiring the business (order) through a 
devaluation of the oil in relation to the labeling of its container. The consumers of perfume oils 
are buying odor, not certain physicochemical data. If the odor and the perfumery (or flavor-) 
effect is in agreement with the customer's standards, there is no reason to talk about 
adulteration: the oil is then worth the full price of a true, natural oil and the "adulteration", if 
any, has not been a means of direct economical gains. One could speak only of a more or less 
ethical handling of the natural materials and their labeling. The author assumes in the above 
case, that the customer's standards are representative of average commercial lots of the 
materials in question. 

In certain cases there is a special reason for bouquettage" or "doctoring" of an essential oil. 
Cumin oil, e.g. and other umbellifer-fruit oils, oil of black pepper, etc. will, immediately after 
distillation often present a most obnoxious or putrid top-note. Other examples are the 
common 'still-notes", where a distinctly burnt-acrylic or sweet-furfuralic or protein-like note is 
present in freshly distilled oils, or in drums of crude oils, for a long time kept closed. Essential 
oils from primitive stills, from direct-fire stills and in general oils from stills in warn countries 
contain a substantial amount of water. When these oils are shipped to colder countries, the 
water separates (often 34 to 1% or more) in the drum. Through decay or other micro-organism 
activity, this water can produce quite unpleasant off-notes. Well-known examples are: bois de 


9 


rose oil, citronella oil, geranium oil, petitgrain Paraguay oil, etc. The aforementioned still-notes 
can be subdued or eliminated by a special bouquettage, e.g. an addition of one or more 
perfume materials which may conceal the putrid note. The latter "water-and-decay" note may 
often be eliminated by simple aeration (airing) of the oil, by washing and drying, by filtration 
etc. generally known as "conditioning". A redistillation will also eliminate the water content in 
these natural oils. 

Much emphasis has been attached to the mention of possible or known adulterations of 
materials listed in this book. The author wants to repeat, that this primarily aims at the 
numerous cases of "unethical" handing of the oil, where the customer is actually deprived of 
the full yield of natural odor or flavor effect when he buys such "cut" oils. 

Anhydrol. 

Anhydrols are processed perfume- or flavor materials. Anhydrol is the brand name of a series 
of distilled extracts, produced by L. Givaudan & Cie. in Geneva or by Givaudan-Delawanna Inc. 
in the United States. As indicated through the name, these materials are produced from 
natural raw materials without the presence of water (or steam). Anhydrols are usually viscous 
liquids of pale color. They are tine results of a combination of extraction of the natural raw 
material and subsequent molecular distillation of the extract. The solvent may be 
ethyleneglycol, other glycols, isopropylmyristate or other high-boiling, odorless solvents, 
mostly of the oil-soluble type. 

The resulting extract may then be distilled in a molecular still at approximately 10' 3 torr. A 
molecular distillation is a physical process, during which a liquid or a low-melting solid of high 
boiling point is converted into vapor phase, removed from the liquid phase and condensed 
back to liquid phase, separated from the liquid in the still. The new liquid phase, the 
condensate, is the molecular distillate. There is no fractionation, no reflux, no column on the 
still. It is basically a simple distillation at very reduced pressure and under such circumstances, 
that the material to be distilled is exposed to the heat as briefly as possible. There are many 
types of stills and various designs of rotating heaters, where the liquid is spread as a film to 
speed the evaporation and reduce tine heating time. 

Obviously, the Anhydrols will contain significant amounts of tine solvent with which they have 
been extracted. But this co-distillation is just one of the advantages of tine process. Tine 
solvent may form so-called azeotropes with one or more of the odorous ingredients in the 
extract and thus reduce the distillation temperature. Plant colors and other odorless matter 
will be retained in tine still. According to some theories, anything that has a measurable vapor 
pressure, also has an odor. According to that theory tine Anhydrols should be ideal: no 
odorless material at all. Many aromatic components of the extracts, which are not distillable 
with steam, will distil in tine molecular co-distillation process. Consequently, this method is 
mainly applied to such perfume or flavor materials which yield little essential oil on steam or 
water distillation or which are too high-boiling to yield an oil unchanged. 

Among available Anhydrols are myrrh, olibanum, oakmoss, opopanax, patchouli, Peru balsam, 
Virginia tobacco leaf, tea leaf, tolu balsam, vetiver, etc. 


10 


Anhydrols are soluble in alcohol and essential oils as well as in most synthetic perfume 
materials. 

Resinoines are purified, partially decolorized, concentrated products. Some are low-pressure- 
distillates of extracts, others are mixtures of distillates and extracts. Resinoine is a brand name 
of the Grasse house, P. Robertet et Cie. Well- known Resinoines are, e. g. labdanum, patchouli, 
tabac, the, tolu, etc. 

Aroma. 

The term Aroma is often used for the rather intangible conception "odor + flavor". In the 
following, however, Aroma refers to a processed raw material used by the flavorist. Thus we 
meet again wild confusion, if we try to establish a standard, not to speak of a definition. 

The conventional Aroma is a highly concentrated solution of a partially terpeneless oil or plant 
extract in a solvent which also contains a certain amount of water. 

Alcohol-aromas: The essential oil is stirred vigorously with one, two or more parts of pure 
ethylalcohol. If the oil is clearly soluble in the alcohol, it serves no purpose to stir the solution. 

If the oil is not clearly soluble, stirring is continued for some time, whereafter water is added 
to the mixture. The amount of water is calculated according to the character of the oil and to 
the ratio of the solvent to the oil. Separation takes place, but stirring is continued for an hour 
or two. The mixture is then left in a cool place to complete the separation. Terpenes, 
sesquiterpenes, waxes and other components which are poorly soluble in diluted alcohol will 
usually rise to the surface. The diluted alcohol contains most of the "aromatic" principles in 
solution. This solution is drained off and filtered. The filtrate constitute the Aroma. As an 
example is given below: Bitter Orange Aroma: 

1000 grams Guinea (or Spanish) bitter orange oil dissolve in 
1000 grams pure ethylalcohol, add under continuous stirring 
1000 grams distilled water. 

Stir, leave, and chill. Separate and filtrate the alcoholic layer. Yield approximately 2000 grams. 
The terpene-layer amounts to 900 to 920 grams and may appear on the market under the 
name of "washed citrus oil" or "citrus terpenes", see monograph on Lemon Aroma in Part Two 
of this book. The alcoholic filtrate is occasionally distilled at atmospheric pressure until the 
distillate shows an alcohol percentage of 65 or 60, according to the needs of the consumer. 

The product is called Aroma-Distillate from essential oil. See also Aroma-Distillate in Part One 
of this book. 

Glycol-Aromas: These are prepared in a similar way as described under Alcohol-Aromas. 
However, the glycol is usually not diluted quite as much as was the case with alcohol. 
Generally, the water addition amounts to 20% up to almost 50% in rare cases, calculated upon 
the amount of glycol. Propylene glycol is considered one of the best and most suitable solvents 
for flavors. It is far less toxic than ethylene glycol. It has similar solvent effects and is also 
miscible with water. It is a commercial solvent, available in almost unlimited quantities and at 
a price only slightly higher than taxfree, pure ethyl alcohol. Glycol-Aromas are not redistilled 
and the filtrate is used as is. 


11 


Diolane (brand name for hexylene glycol, presumably 2-methylpentane-2,4-diol) is a solvent 
with the rare ability of being miscible with water and at the same time to a certain degree 
being miscible with hydrocarbons, e.g. terpenes. Diolane is not suitable for the production of 
the above Aromas. This solvent is distinctly bitter of taste even at the dilution of 2 mg%, 
contrary to the frequently published statement, that Diolane is "virtually odorless and 
tasteless". 

Aromas are slowly being replaced in the flavorist's formulas by solutions of terpeneless oils, 
although these are not really comparable materials to the above aromas. It is still customary to 
prepare Aromas of such natural raw materials, where the botanical drug material is not locally 
at hand or not a commercial article, e.g. bitter orange, bergamot, lime, vetiver etc. while it is 
usually preferred to prepare Aroma-Distillates from the botanical plant material wherever 
possible, e. g. orange, lemon, angelica-root, spices etc. 

Aroma-Distillate. 

Aroma-Distillates or Distillates are prepared materials for use in flavor compounding. 

If there is little by way of standardization and specifications in the processing of perfumery 
intermediates, e.g. resinoids, tinctures, etc., there is practically none with respect to flavor 
ingredients. In the processing of Aroma-Distillates, however, the principles are as follows, in 
broad outline: 

The natural raw material is coarsely chopped, sliced, or cut. Peels from citrus fruits often come 
out of the peeling machine as long, thin strings, 100 to 200 cm. long; these can be used as is. 
Apples can be peeled in a machine to advantage, since the meat of the apples yields very little 
flavor. Berries are usually cold-pressed since the juice by itself is a valuable flavor material. The 
press-cake from berries offers an excellent starting material for the production of aroma- 
distillates. 

The natural raw material is percolated at room temperature or at less than 50°C. The heat may 
be supplied by a steam jacket. The menstruum (usually pure ethyl alcohol) is circulated 
through the botanical material by action of a pump which returns the solvent to the top of the 
extractor. By means of gravity, the solvent penetrates the botanical material which is spread 
out on wire- trays or perforated plates stacked inside the extractor. The alcohol strength is 
adjusted to the nature of the raw material. Citrus peels are usually extracted with 99% or 90% 
alcohol, berries with weaker alcohol. The temperature and the time of extraction varies 
according to the construction of the automatic percolator and the nature of the raw material. 

The alcoholic extract is now drained from the percolator. The adherent alcohol on the plant 
material is distilled off under gentle heat from the steam jacket. The distillate is collected in a 
reservoir beneath a cooling system. Steam is then blown directly through the botanical 
material in the percolator, partly to recover all alcohol with dissolved aromas, partly in order 
to recover steam distillable aromatic principles in the raw material. The aqueous distillate in 
the condenser is mixed with the alcoholic percolates, and left for 24 hours to cool and 
separate terpenes and other poorly soluble matter. 


12 


The hydro-alcoholic mixture is now distilled slowly—often in an all-glass still and over a short 
packed column. The distillation is continued until the entire distillate in the glass receptacle 
shows the desired alcohol percentage (60, 50, 45, or whatever percentage is wanted in the 
individual case). Citrus peel distillates are usually adjusted to 60% vol./vol., while berries, 
apples, hops, lupulin, and other distillates are adjusted to about 45 vol./vol. alcohol. 

It will be necessary, in certain cases, to redistill the aroma-distillate after a few days of 
maturing. Terpenes may continue to separate from citrus distillates; other materials may cause 
haziness. Freshly prepared distillates often display a so- called unpleasant "still-note". This 
note fades away after proper ageing at 12 to 15°C. in the course of one to several months. In 
many cases, the still-note can be eliminated by "aerating" the distillate in open containers, or 
by decanting the distillate repeatedly during a couple of days. "Still-notes" are well known 
among essential oils, and a perfumer or a flavorist must decide whether to accept or reject a 
material which displays a "still-note" on the basis of experience. Certain aromatic botanicals do 
not yield Aroma Distillates: Angostura bark, capsicum fruit, cayenne or paprika, fenugreek 
seed, tonka bean, vanilla fruit, etc. will yield either a distillate of poor and uncharacteristic 
odor compared to the parent natural material, or they will yield no aroma at all in an 
experimental distillate. 

It is preferable to prepare Water Extracts, Alcohol-Water Extracts, Oleoresins or Tinctures 

from such botanical materials in order to obtain concentrated liquid aromas. 

See also monograph on Aromas. 

B 

Balsam 

A Balsam is a natural raw material exuded from a tree or a plant; the balsam may be either a 
physiological or a pathological product of the plant. Balsams are resinous masses, semi-solid 
materials or viscous liquids, insoluble in water, completely or almost completely soluble in 
ethyl- alcohol, but only partly soluble in hydrocarbons. A Balsam is characterized by its high 
content of benzoic acid, benzoates, cinnamic acid or cinnamates. 

Peru Balsam is a typical Balsam. 

Benzoin is not entirely soluble in alcohol, and it could be characterized as a Balsamic Resin. It 
can be considered a Balsam which has been rendered less soluble through age and subsequent 
resinification. Accordingly, most true balsams are those which can be obtained immediately by 
incisions in trees. Older exudations are usually resinous and less aromatic. 


c 

Classification of materials. 

Certain types of odor occur in botanical materials from species of the same botanical family. It 
is very tempting to draw conclusions and make comparisons when such similarities appear. 


13 


The author has preferred to go strictly by alphabetical order, using the most common 
commercial names as entries for the individual monographs. In certain cases where there is 
great similarity in names or in cases of possible confusion, the internationally acknowledged 
Latin name is used as entry. In order to clarify further reasons for using alphabetical order, 
some examples are given below: 

In a classification according to botanical relationship, we would find the following materials 
grouped together: 

ginger, galanga, curcuma (rhizomes) 

broom, cassie, mimosa (flowers) 

anise and fennel (fruits) 

lavender, rosemary, sage, savory (herbs) 

angelica and lovage (roots) 

chamomile, erigeron, everlasting (flowers). 

Such a grouping would be perfectly justified and reasonable, but the system would also include 
a grouping such as this: 

boronia and neroli (flowers) 

elemi and opopanax (oleo-resin and oleo-gum-resin) 
pimenta leaf and leptospermum citratum (leaves) 
carrot and coriander (fruits) 
origanum, patchouli, and hyssop (herbs), 

which would be quite misleading or plainly erratic as an odor type of grouping. 

In the above examples, the subjects have been identical parts of various plants from the same 
family. If we disregard this point in our comparisons, the differences may become still wider: 

citronella and vetiver (herb and rootlets, but same bot. family) 

garlic and hyacinth (bulb and flowers) 

ginger and longoza (rhizome and flower) 

champaca and star anise (flower and fruit) 

cinnamon bark and sassafras (bark and wood) 

amyris and boronia (wood and flower), 

which makes no sense at all to a perfumer or a flavorist. 

Using the botanical system for grouping, the perfumer would also lose such interesting 
comparisons as these: 

anise and star anise (fruits, from different botanical families) 

boronia and henna (flowers) 

huon pine wood oil and meleleuca bracteata leaf oil 

clove leaf oil and cinnamon leaf oil 

schinus molle and black pepper oils (from fruits) 


14 



etc. This grouping is undoubtedly the one which is the most pertinent to the everyday work of 
the perfumer; he is concerned with odors, and not with technical, botanical or other scientific 
data. The author has aimed at this type of grouping in the broadest possible way by giving 
cross-references at the end of each individual monograph. 

Furthermore, a botanical grouping may tend to compare such essential oils which have the 
main constituent in common (by analysis). In many cases, this chemical similarity is not at all 
apparent in the odor of the essential oils from closely related plants, e. g.: 

clove bud oil and clove leaf oil, 
sage clary and mentha citrata, 
grapefruit and sweet orange oils. 

For all these reasons, the alphabetical system is maintained throughout this work. 

Concrete. 

A Concrete is a prepared perfumery material. The Concretes are extracted from non-resinous 
or low resinous natural raw materials in a method of preparation quite similar to that of the 
Resinoids (see this monograph in Part One of this book). The natural raw materials from which 
Concretes are prepared are almost exclusively of vegetable origin, e.g. bark, flower, herb, leaf, 
root, etc. Concretes are extracted from previously live tissue, while Resinoids are extracted 
from plant exudations (not tissue). 

Concretes are thus representative of the natural raw material in the sense that they contain all 
the hydrocarbon-soluble matter, while water and water-extractive matter have been left out. 
Plant tissue, fibres, cellulose, etc. have also been eliminated. The resulting concrete is soluble 
only to a certain degree in perfume oils and other liquid perfume materials. 

Concretes are usually solid, waxy, non-crystalline masses which, on standing, may deposit 
crystals of almost pure constituents from the extract. The concretes contain higher fatty acids, 
frequently lauric and myristic acid. Furthermore, they contain large amounts of alcohol-soluble 
matter known as Absolute (see this monograph). 

The amount of Absolute in a Concrete ranges from less than 20% (which is rare) up to 80% 
(which is also rare). In the latter case, the concrete is often liquid, e.g. concrete of Ylang-Ylang. 
A content of about 50% of Absolute is most common in flower Concretes. Jasmin Concrete is a 
typical and well-known Concrete. Atractylis and Orris Concretes are essential oils which just 
happen to be solid because their major constituents are solid. They are not true concretes 
(extracts). 


Concrete from Chassis. 

Concrete from chassis is the extraction product from the exhaust flowers on the "chassis", see 
monograph on Pommade. The "defleuraged" flowers are extracted with a hydrocarbon 
solvent to yield the Concrete from Chassis after recovery of the solvent. 

The so-called "Jasmin Chassis" is a well-known example. 


15 


Concrete from Pommade. 


This is a little known product, and hardly a commercial article any more. 

It is produced from the Pommade (see this monograph in Part One of the present book) by 
extraction with warm alcohol. When alcohol is recovered from this total extract, the yield is 
Concrete from Pommade. But the process has always been carried further by freezing of the 
alcoholic extract, cold filtration and subsequent recovery of alcohol. This process yields 

Absolute from Pommade, see that monograph. 


E 

Essential Oil. 

An Essential Oil is a volatile material, derived by a physical process from odorous plant 
material of a single botanical form and species with which it agrees in name and odor. 

Essential Oils generally constitute the odorous principles of the plants in which they exist. In 
exceptional cases, the essential oil may be formed during processing when the plant tissue is 
brought into contact with water. A few essential oils represent volatile products, formed 
during destructive distillation of the natural raw material. 

Certain botanical species are scarcely odorous at all, yet they produce essential oils when 
distilled subsequent to maceration. The maceration may start off a fermentation or an 
enzymatic process, neither of which are physical processes. As examples, see the monographs 

on Almond Oil, Bitter, and Wintergreen Oil in Part Two of this book. 

Essential Oils are either distilled or expressed. Distillation can be Water Distillation, 

Steam Distillation, 
Water-and-Steam 
Distillation, 

or 

Dry Distillation. 

In a water distillation, the plant material is in direct contact with the boiling water. If heat is 
supplied from a steam jacket, there is no great risk of burning the plant material. In the case of 
a "direct-fire" still, the plant material may come in contact with the heated metal plate. 
Essential oils from such types of stills usually present a distinct "still-note" or "burnt" note 
which fades away only after proper aerating of the oil. Most "direct- fire" stills are provided 
with a grid above the surface of the boiling water. It is a primitive form of steam distillation, 
and not much different from the water-and-steam distillation during which steam is blown into 
the mixture of water and comminuted plant material. The grid prevents the plant material 
from contacting the heated surface of the alembic. 


Steam Distillation is usually of the so-called Indirect Steam type. The steam is produced in a 
boiler separate from the still. Through a pipe in the bottom of the still, the steam is blown 
through the plant material which rests on a grid or on a stack of trays for quick removal after 


16 


exhaustion. The steam inlet usually ends in a circular perforated pipe to allow for better 
dispersion of the steam. 

The direct fire still obviously produces a distillation at 100° C. (atmospheric pressure). It is 
worth noticing that water boils at temperatures between 88°C. and 93°C. at many of the 
locations where essential oils are distilled (altitude 1500 to 2500 metres). The decrease in 
boiling point has a significant influence upon the hydrolytic effect of the steam on the essential 
oil. (See monographs on Lavender Oil and Linaloe Seed Oil in Part Two of this book). A more 
recent technique in the distillation of essential oils involves steam distillation under partial 
vacuum, e.g. 100 to 200 mm. Hg.-pressure. This method gives a very quick distillation with a 
minimum of hydrolytic decomposition of the oil. This type of still requires a very effective 
cooling system in order to condense the fast-travelling vapors quantitatively. 

High-pressure steam is applied whenever the plant material and its essential oil are sufficiently 
heat-resistant and non-hydrolyzable. The method is the fastest way by far of distilling essential 
oils, particularly those with important high-boiling constituents such as vetiver, sandalwood, 
clove stem, etc. In some of these cases, the still may be filled (under the grid) with salt water 
which boils above 1000. Sea water is used in certain installations in remote islands. The slightly 
increased temperature reduces the time of the lengthy distillation. Most of the European and 
American field stills are of the high-pressure steam type, e.g. lavandin, peppermint, spearmint, 
etc. Distillation time for these oils is usually less than one hour. In the case of many wood-oils, 
root oils and other oils with significant amounts of high- boiling constituents, the distillation 
time is much longer, often in excess of 24 hours, amyris oil for example. 

There is a significant difference between essential oils from the same botanical material when 
they are "locally distilled" and when they are produced in a modern American or European 
still, e. g. patchouli oil. Modern stills are in operation in the growing areas now, and these stills 
often present the major solution to the problem of economic production of the oil, e. g. clove 
stem oil, sandalwood oil. During the years since World War II, many of the plant-growing areas 
have endeavored to improve their stills, e.g. the Belgian Congo where a great number of 
stainless steel stills have been erected since 1958, particularly for the production of geranium 
oil. 

A few essential oils are produced by Direct and Dry Distillation from the natural material, e.g. 
Copaiba Oil. Still more crude is the Destructive Distillation during which odorous materials are 
formed which were not present in the botanical raw material, e. g. amber oil, cade oil, etc., all 
of which exist in a rectified form also. 

Rectification literally means a correcting or a cleaning process. A steam distillation, a vacuum 
distillation or any other type of "second" distillation of an essential oil may be considered a 
Rectification. The term Redistillation basically means a second distillation of the material 
without specifications with respect to fractionation or distillation conditions. The two terms 
are often used indiscriminately. However, a few examples may clarify the correct usage of 
these terms: Birch Tar is rectified to yield a clear, almost colorless oil which is known as Birch 
Tar (oil) Rectified. Peppermint Oil is produced in the growing area as a Natural Peppermint 
Oil. This oil is later redistilled and sold as Redistilled Peppermint Oil. For special purposes 
(candy, toothpaste, chewing gum, etc.), the natural peppermint oil may be Rectified. The latter 


17 



term refers to a fractionated distillation, either under vacuum or with steam at atmospheric 
pressure. Only certain fractions are bulked into a "rectified" oil according to the specific needs 
of the consumer. Thus, a Redistillation usually aims at the removal of color, water, resinous 
matter and perhaps certain unpleasant topnotes. Rectification often involves a significant loss 
of material if a high- grade "heart-fraction" ("coeur de distillation") is wanted. 

Expression is performed exclusively in the cases of peels of citrus fruits. This method leads to 
oils which are not entirely volatile, but are nevertheless acknowledged as Essential Oils. 
Expression can be made by hand or by machine. The production of essential oils from citrus 
fruits has been comprehensively described in recent works on the subject of essential oils. So- 
called cold-pressed citrus oils are among our most basic natural perfume materials. They can 
be used in perfumes and flavors exactly as they occur in Nature. Very few perfume materials 
come into this category (e.g. Copaiba Balsam). 

According to the present definition, Absolutes from Concretes are not essential oils. They are 
not entirely volatile, and they should be considered as fractionated extracts. Enfleurage 
absolutes (see Pommade and Absolute from Pommade, Part One of this book) are essential 
oils according to our definitions. Steam distilled oils from absolutes, the so-called Absolute 
Oils, could also be considered as essential oils. They have no importance in practical 
perfumery. 

The amount of essential oil which we can derive from a natural raw material is only a small 
fraction of all the essential oil originally produced in the plant. But up to now, no one has yet 
devised a method of continuously milking the living flower of its perfume. The nearest 
approach to this ideal is in the process known as Enfleurage, see monograph on Pommade. 

Essential oils are, with a few exceptions, liquid. 

Extract. 

Extracts are prepared materials. The term Extract is used for perfume materials, flavor 
materials, pharmaceutical products and many other commercial products. 

The word Extract should not be confused with a direct translation of the French word, 

"extrait". (See monograph on Extrait). Generally speaking, the term Extract refers to 
concentrated products, obtained by treating a natural raw material with a solvent. The 
solution of active ingredients from the natural raw material is subsequently concentrated by 
evaporation of the solvent, either partially or totally. True extracts do not contain significant 
amounts of solvent. 

The following types of extracts are individually described in Part One of this book: 

Absolutes, Concretes, Extraits (dissolved extracts), Oleoresins (prepared), Resinoids, Tinctures 
(dissolved extracts). According to our definitions Pommades are not extracts. They should be 
considered as solutions of volatile oils, obtained by adsorption on the non-volatile solvent. 

In flavor terms, the word Extract is used even more indiscriminately. It is often applied to 
dilutions or emulsions of flavor materials in vegetable oils, tasteless solvents or water. True 


18 


flavor extracts are concentrated materials, liquid, semi-liquid or solid. They are obtained from 
natural raw materials by treatment with solvents, and with particular attention to their 
application in food or beverages. They are generally prepared in the same way as perfumery 
extracts or pharmaceutical extracts. 

A solvent-free alcoholic extract of a resinous raw material is often called a Resin Absolute (see 
this). It is a further development of the :tincture or the infusion which is concentrated. 

Extrait. 

Extraits are prepared perfumery materials. The French name, "extrait", is used in perfumery all 
ever the world, but it should not be confused with extract" (see this monograph). 

An Extrait is an alcoholic solution of the odorous part of a Pommade (see this). Extraits can be 
considered as Tinctures from Pommades. 

Extraits are thus intermediate products in the preparation of Absolutes (from pommades). 
They present the advantage of being cold-processed and fairly concentrated materials, while 
the Absolute is obtained through a process that usually requires heat. As a rule (with 
exceptions), the flower oil concentrates enter perfume formulas in small percentages. 
Accordingly, it may not be any disadvantage at all that these concentrates (the Absolutes) are 
used in the original solution as Extraits. 

Furthermore, the Extraits present the advantage of being aged, mellowed, matured or well 
"rounded-off" solutions of the fragrant principles in the flowers. Extraits are usually prepared 
in fairly large amounts in order to ensure that a well-aged Extrait is always on hand. 

Briefly, the principles in the production of Extraits are as follows: 

The Pommade is "washed" with alcohol which dissolves the fat (the "corps gras") only to a 
minor degree. The filtered washings form the Extrait. The first washing will be the best, but, as 
a rule, one kilo of Extrait is prepared from one kilo of Pommade. Freezing removes most of the 
dissolved fat, and the cold filtrate is subsequently evaporated, i.e. the alcohol is recovered in 
vacuum. This leaves the Absolute from Pommade (see this) as the yield. Only few Extraits are 
now commercially available. Well-known examples are Extraits of Jasmin, Orange Flower, and 
Rose. 

F 

Fixatives. 

In perfumery, a Fixative literally means a material which slows down the rate of evaporation of 
the more volatile materials in a perfume composition. There are several types of fixative (also 
called "fixers"): 

1) The true fixatives: 


19 


These are materials which retard the evaporation of the other components of the 
perfume by distinct physical effect. Their effect is that of an adsorption due to the 
high-molecular structure of the fixative. A typical example of a natural fixative in this 
group is benzoin. 

2) The "arbitrary" fixatives: 

These are odorous substances which lend a particular note to the perfume throughout 
all stages of evaporation. But they do not significantly influence the evaporation of 
other perfume materials in the composition. A typical example of a natural "arbitrary" 
fixative is oakmoss. 

3) The exalting fixatives: 

These materials act as "odor carriers" and often act also as synergists by improving, 
fortifying or transporting the vapors of the other perfume materials in the 
composition. The exalting fixatives may also lend a highly appreciated "wearability" to 
a perfume, a combination of diffusive effect and retention of the full fragrance of the 
perfume, slowly exhaled from the human skin to which it has been applied. Although 
the effect of these fixatives may be considered a physical one, it is inconceivable that 
the effect is due to an increase in the boiling point of, the total perfume composition. 
The effect of these fixatives is often obtained through the addition of mere traces with 
respect to quantity. Typical exalting fixatives are musk and civet. 

4) The so-called fixatives: 

These are odorless or almost odorless crystalline materials or viscous liquids. They are 
high-boiling materials, and their effect is a physical one, caused by simple increase of 
the boiling point of the perfume composition. Their odor, if they have any, plays a 
minor role. Their action is merely a stabilizing one which paralyzes the odor of the low- 
boiling materials. In a way they "steal" effect from the perfume, but they also conceal 
minor errors, misbalance or "rough corners" in the perfume. A surprisingly large 
number of "fixatives" from perfumery literature belong to this group. From a 
perfumer's standpoint, such additions represent a direct loss of fragrance which, in 
turn, is an economical loss. A typical natural fixative in group #4 is amyris oil. 

One perfume material can belong to one or several of the above groups of fixatives. A true 
physical fixation in terms of a decreased vapor pressure can never be obtained through the 
addition of fractions of one percent of a certain material, even if the material conforms to the 
specifications of group #1 of the above list. 

Flavors. 

Minimum Perceptible and Threshold Concentration: In this book, the term Minimum 
Perceptible is used where flavor materials are discussed. Minimum Perceptible expresses the 
lowest concentration of flavor material in a diluent at which the characteristic notes of the 
flavor are sufficiently perceptible to permit distinct identification of the flavor. In many cases, a 


20 


further dilution is possible without totally eliminating all traces of flavor notes, but this 
ultimate limit has little or no interest to the flavorist. 

The term Threshold Concentration is generally applied to describe the absolute minimum of 
material which produces a flavor (or taste stimulus) as compared to a tasteless diluent. In 
certain cases, the flavor material may lose its characteristic notes step by step during the 
dilution, e.g. peppermint oil: 

At a concentration of about 2.0 to 4.0 mg%, the cooling effect disappears, but the flavor 
remains distinctly that of peppermint until a dilution of about 0.2 mg%. Below that 
concentration, there is only an uncharacteristic difference in flavor as compared to the pure 
diluent. 

The Minimum Perceptible is given in mg%, which is an abbreviation of milligram percent. It 
indicates how many milligrams of material there are in 100 grams of diluent. 1.0 mg%, then, 
corresponds to 10.0 ppm (parts-per-million) which is a common English-American unit for low 
concentrations. Since the Minimum Perceptible is very often around 1.0 mg%, the author has 
preferred to use this unit. 

In the experiments upon which the flavor concentrations in this book are based, the diluent is 
a 9% solution of cane sugar in tap water at 10°C. It is important that the temperature be kept 
at a constant level during all the experiments. It may take two or three times as much flavor 
material to produce the same flavor stimulus at 5°C. as it does at room temperature. 

Tests were carried out on a series of many different flavor materials in order to avoid or 
reduce the influence of flavor fatigue, and in order to establish a certain relation among the 
results. 

The indication of a Minimum Perceptible is obviously a strictly subjective matter, although the 
author has repeated the experiments under widely different conditions and circumstances. 
The figures given in this book for Minimum Perceptible can be accepted for their individual 
ratio, which will be pretty much the same if tests are performed by other "tasters" under 
similar conditions in various parts of the world. 

Acidity and fruit flavors: 

Fruit flavors do not approach any degree of naturalness unless accompanied by a certain 
amount of acid. But since fresh fruits are omitted in this work (see following monograph on 
Fruits), the author has maintained the above neutral sugar water as a standard medium in all 
tests. 

See also Spices in Part One of the present work. 

Fruits. 

The author feels that Fruits which are applicable in flavor work only in the shape of juices, 
dehydrated concentrates, pastes, preserves, etc. should not be included in the monographs of 
this book. 


21 


This applies to: 

Apple (The peel yields a useful flavor distillate, see Aroma-Distillate). 

Orange and all other citrus fruits (considered as juice-fruits). Aroma-Distillates are 
made from the peels, see Lemon Aroma. 

Pear and quince. 

Plum, apricot, peach, clementine, etc. 

Avocado, mango, guava, banana, pineapple, etc. 

Strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, etc. (Distillates are produced from the 
press-cake, see Aroma-Distillate). 

Grape (see also Cognac Oil, Part Two of this book). 

Elderberry, cherry, blueberry, cranberry, etc. (Distillates from the press-cake). 
Coconut, hazelnut, Brazil nut, cashew, walnut, almond, pistachio, etc. However, a 
perfume oil is extracted from the meat of coconuts, see Coconut Absolute, and an 
essential oil is produced from the press-cake of bitter almonds, see Almond Oil, Bitter 
(both Part Two of this book). 

Cocoa, coffee, etc. 

Vegetables which are used as a nourishing or dietetic part of human food, are not included in 
:e monographs of this book. 

Gum. 

A Gum is either a natural or a synthetic material. Strictly speaking, the term Gum should be 
used only for water-soluble materials. Natural gums are anionic materials, often of glycoside¬ 
like structure and with abnormally high molecular weights. 

In perfumery, the term Gum is often applied to Resins, particularly since various turpentines 
are referred to as Gums, and since many Australian eucalyptus trees are locally called Gum 
trees. 

In order to distinguish between Gums and Resins, it should therefore be emphasized that 
Gums form neutral or slightly acid solutions or sols with water. Gums are often good 
emulsifiers (surface-active ingredients) or stabilizers (they increase the viscosity of their 
solutions). While Resins are insoluble in water and are usually of pronounced acid character, 
they do not affect the surface tension of an aqueous solution. In the presence of alkali, the 
Resins become water- soluble and form soaps which affect the surface tension of aqueous 
solutions. 

Gums, as defined in the above paragraphs, are virtually odorless, and are not used in 
perfumery as active fragrance ingredients. A typical Gum is gum arabic (also known as acacia 
gum), not listed in this book. 

Myrrh (see Part Two of this book) contains from 50% to 70% of a water-soluble Gum which is 
left as a residue when the Myrrh is extracted with alcohol or a hydrocarbon solvent. 

See Gum-Resin and Oleo-Gum-Resin in Part One of this book. 


22 


Gum Resin. 


Gum Resins are natural exudations from plants or trees. They consist of gums and resins, often 
accompanied by smaller amounts of essential oil. In that case, the correct term to use is Oleo- 
Gum-Resin (see this monograph). Gum Resins with no content of essential oil are obviously of 
limited interest to the perfumer, but these materials occur frequently as adulterations in the 
fragrant Oleo-Gum-Resins. 

Gum Resins and Oleo-Gum-Resins are only partly soluble in alcohol, hydrocarbons, acetone, or 
chlorinated solvents. According to the content of Gum, the gum-resins and oleo-gum-resins 
are also partly soluble in water. They form emulsions when triturated with water. The essential 
oil and the resinous part are usually soluble in alcohol or in the above mentioned solvents. 

A typical Gum Resin is Gamboge (known as gummi-gutta). It is not used in perfumery or flavor 
work. It consists of gum and resin, and does not contain any appreciable amount of essential 
oil. 

Benzoin "Sumatra" is a balsamic type of gum- resin with extensive application in perfumery. 
Myrrh is a typical Oleo-Gum-Resin. 

See also monograph on Oleo-Gum-Resin. 

Infusion. 

Infusions are prepared perfumery materials. They can be defined as tinctures, in the 
preparation of which heat has been applied. However, the modus operandi for the preparation 
of infusions has quite wide limits. The application of heat may vary from five minutes' time up 
to many hours. Usually reflux is called for if heating is applied over a long time. 

Infusions are made from the following types of materials: 

1) Crude botanical drugs (botanicals), including exudations from plants and trees. 

2) Fat-extracts from flower material, e.g. Pommades. 

3) Animal raw materials. 

Infusions, now more or less abandoned in modern perfumery, are distinguished from tinctures 
of the same raw materials by the difference in mellowness. This is particularly noticeable in 
cases where the raw material is a natural Oleo-Gum-Resin. The hot treatment with alcohol in 
the presence of acids (from the resin) will lead to the formation of significant amounts of 
various ethyl esters, etc. Acetaldehyde is formed by oxidation of the ethyl alcohol under the 
influence of terpenes orterpene oxides in the botanical raw material. The presence of these 
ethyl alcohol derivatives will change the odor characteristics of the infusion significantly. 

This may be one of the reasons why infusions have lost importance in perfumery: it is too 
difficult to conduct or control the unwanted esterification, etc. of the solvent in use (ethyl 
alcohol). For the same reason, the production of Resinoids is rarely carried out by direct and 


23 


hot ethyl alcohol extraction even if a so-called Absolute is wanted. See however the 
monograph on Resin Absolute, Part One of this book. A two-step extraction, or even better: 1) 
hydrocarbon extraction, 2) neutralization by alkali washing and 3) alcohol extraction, will lead 
to an acid-free, alcohol soluble extract of the natural oleo-gum-resin without the presence of 
"unnatural" ethyl esters, acetaldehyde, etc. This type of Absolute is reproduceable, and 
depends only upon the quality of the crude botanical. 

A deliberate utilization of esterification during hot extraction with ethyl alcohol is displayed in 
the product known as Oakmoss Resin (see Part Two of this book). Anhydrol Ethyl Labdanate is 
a similar example (see Labdanum Resin Absolute in Part Two of this book). 

Isolate. 

Isolates are prepared materials for perfumes and flavors. They are beyond the borderline of 
materials which will be covered by the text of this book. Isolates are produced from natural 
raw materials by various processes: 

1) Physical isolation: 

Fractionated distillation or freezing. Chromatographic separation is a type of physical 
isolation not yet performed on a large, commercial scale. 

Well-known distilled isolates are: Phellandrene, safrole, santalol, vetiverol. Safrole is also 
isolated by freezing. None of these materials are produced synthetically on a commercial scale. 
Distilled isolates like citral, geraniol, and linalool are now produced by chemical synthesis on a 
large scale. However, a significant number of the so-called "synthetic" perfume and flavor 
materials are strongly dependent upon natural starting materials, e.g. menthol, geraniol, 
citronellol, carvone, anethole, etc. Camphor, menthol, thymol, and eucalyptol are illustrations 
of isolates obtained by freezing. The three former are now produced synthetically on a large 
scale, but they remain dependent on natural raw materials (see above). Eucalyptol (cineole) is 
produced exclusively by isolation from essential oils with a high content of this material. 

2) Chemical isolation: 

Extraction or separation through simple chemical reagents. 

Well-known chemical isolates are citronellal, eugenol and other aldehydes and phenols. 
Eugenol is produced exclusively as an isolate while citronellal is also produced synthetically. A 
large number of Terpenes are produced as isolates, mainly by fractionated distillation. They 
also appear as by-products in the preparation of Terpeneless Oils, see that monograph in Part 
One of this book. 

In the United States, terpineol is produced mainly as an isolate from pine oil, while terpineol in 
Europe must be considered as a synthetic material, derived from turpentine oil from which the 
isolate alpha-pinene is first produced. 

From the above, it can be seen that Isolates are strictly dependent on the availability of the 
parent essential oil or other natural raw material. Consequently, more and more of the 
previously isolated perfume and flavor materials are now produced by chemical synthesis. 


24 


Only a small number of the so-called new synthetic materials are completely independent of 
natural raw materials (essential oils, etc.). 


L 

Literature references—and Sources of information. 

There is a wealth of technical information on the physico-chemical properties of essential oils, 
etc. available in several languages. This kind of information has been completely omitted from 
the present book. In e cry case where the author has made use of earlier publications from 
other authors, the given information has been checked and often re-checked. Whenever 
necessary, this information has been substantially revised, corrected and brought up to date. 
Only in cases where the author has been unable to check the published information is a source 
of literature (information) given. 

This applies to appearance, odor and flavor of the material, origin of the botanical raw 
material, method of processing, estimate of annual production, price levels, etc. Adulterations, 
suggested application, replacements and special properties have also been treated in this way. 

Odor and flavor descriptions are highly subjective. As a matter of fact, the major part of the 
contents of this book is subjective by nature. In a few rare cases the author has based his odor 
or flavor descriptions upon the study of only one sample of the material in question. Thus, it is 
conceiveable that the reader may disagree with the given odor description if he is in 
possession of a different sample with the same labeling. It is a well-known fact that no two 
perfumers give identical odor descriptions of the same perfume material, particularly when we 
speak about the complex odors of natural materials. During decades of apprenticeship and 
experience, perfumers learn to appreciate different notes in the same perfume material 
depending on factors such as which company they work for, and according to their mood, 
habits, origin, collegues, etc., etc. 

See also the chapter on Odor Description in Part One of this book. 

It serves little or no purpose to list 10, 20 or more pages of literature references if these are 
merely unchecked quotations from even older literature sources. This is, unfortunately, very 
often the case in perfume literature. 

Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that a number of perfume materials have actually changed 
appearance, odor, and origin during the past few decades or even more recently, e.g. Lavandin 
Oil and Galbanum. The latter is one striking example of a raw material which has not yet been 
described as it is to-day. Up-to-date information is needed in the perfume and flavor trade and 
production. This industry is growing and moving rapidly. 


25 


0 


Odor Description. 

The description of the odor of a perfume material (or of the flavor of a flavor material) has 
been, and still is, the source of endless discussions among perfumers, pseudo-perfumers and 
laymen. The more exactly one attempts to describe a material, the fewer people are able to 
agree with the author on his description. Some brief and basic very general terms from 
everyday talk and work seem to offer the best midway solution to this problem. Obviously no 
odor can be described verbally—in any language—in such a way that every reader will 
immediately visualize the material and be enabled immediately to identify it if he is faced with 
an unlabelled sample of the material. 

Various systems of grouping perfume materials have been suggested. Probably one of the 
most logical, from a perfumer's point of view, is that of Poucher who has based his grouping 
(or classification) upon the "length of the life" of the material on a perfume blotter. See 
Poucher's publication in "Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists", Vol. VI, page 80 (1955). 

It is the author's practice, in the description of odors in this book, not to describe one odor in 
terms of another unknown odor. He has also deliberately avoided describing the odor of a 
non-complex material through the use of the name of a complex material. However, since this 
book deals exclusively with natural raw materials, practically all the odors are of a complex 
nature. Natural materials can in many cases be described to a certain degree through mention 
of their main constituents, whereas the opposite way of description would be a very unjust 
one (e.g. clove stem oil does smell of eugenol—and of other materials 
—while eugenol cannot be adequately described as having a "clove odor" or "clove stem oil 
odor".) 

The general principle may be illustrated by this example: to describe anethole as having a rich, 
sweet, mild-spicy, non-floral odor. Anise oil can well be described as having an anethole-like 
odor as a background of its fresh-spicy sweetness. Positively misleading is the term "licorice¬ 
like" in a description of anise or anethole. This type of odor description is typical of modern 
associations, in this case, an association with licorice candy which owes its flavor to anethol (or 
anise oil) more than to licorice extract. The latter only imparts a sweet taste and a faint 
rootlike odor- flavor. A much more common error of this type is found in the description of 
vanillin. The layman will often identify the odor of vanillin as "chocolate". Common chocolate 
or chocolate candy is strongly flavored with vanillin (or its homologues). The consumers, who 
are not familiar with these chemicals or their odors, will inevitably associate the odor of 
vanillin with that of chocolate. Very few chocolate eaters know the odor or flavor of natural 
cocoa beans or roasted cocoa beans before these are artificially flavored. 

To describe the odor of hydroxycitronellal as "the closest approach of all perfume materials to 
the odor of muguet" is, in the author's opinion, an insult to nature. The odor of this chemical is 
delicately sweet, intensely floral, tenacious, etc. —the latter term is even a physical fact. The 
odor is not only widely different from that of the "lily of the valley", but the odor of 
hydroxycitronellal is so much less complex that a comparison would be directly misleading. 
Besides, not many of the readers of perfume books know a muguet flower "in natura". 


26 


It is part of a perfumer's training and apprenticeship to form in his own mind the "unspoken" 
terms in which he thinks when he smells and recognizes a perfume material. But, when 
communicating with fellow perfumers, he must seek more general expressions in order to be 
well understood. The drawbacks of a "basic terms" system for odor descriptions are equally 
obvious: 

No descriptions are unambiguous or even very striking. But if we could describe every single of 
our perfume materials in such a way that no two descriptions were alike, and so that everyone 
fitted like a key to only one material, we could lean back on a wreath of laurels. We would 
have conceived the "impossible": we would have invented the perfect and foolproof odor 
classification system. 

Part of the "romance" or "thrill" in perfumery work lies in the fact that, not only are all the 
materials different in odor but hardly ever will two perfumers give identical descriptions of the 
same material or the same perfume. This coincidence will not occur even if the two perfumers 
have been working or have perhaps been educated in the same perfume laboratory for years. 
An odor is not "woody" just because someone else says so; it will always have a particular print 
in your mind. Unfortunately, you are more or less unable to translate this print verbally to 
fellow perfumers, let alone to laymen. 

This work does not pretend to be a "codex" for the perfume industry. The rules and 
statements in this book can hardly apply to the conventional terms used in price lists, etc. For 
technical reasons, for lack of space perhaps, the odor descriptions of perfume materials in 
price lists are often abrupt and yet exaggerated. But it certainly is the author's hope that the 
present work may serve as an appeal to the raw material suppliers in the perfume industry to 
standardize their labeling and descriptions of perfume and flavor materials. This would 
minimize the confusion which has grown tremendously among small and medium-size 
consumers, and has even affected the very largest consumers as well. 

The odor descriptions in this work are based upon studies of the materials during repeated 
Blotter-tests. A perfume Blotter, also called a "smelling-strip", is a piece of pure, odorless, 
white, highly absorbent filter paper, about 6 mm. wide and 12 to 14 cms. long. This strip is 
marked clearly with the name or number of the sample of the perfume material, and is then 
dipped in the perfume sample to about 5 mm. or up to 2 cms. on the opposite end. 

The odor from the blotter is studied immediately, then again after a few minutes, a half hour, 
several hours, next morning, etc. until there is no characteristic odor left. Notes are taken 
during all stages of evaporation. Certain materials are studied in dilution, e.g. oakmoss 
absolutes, flower absolutes, civet, etc. The blotter is thoroughly studied when the perfume oil 
has "dried" into the paper. Particularly in oils of high terpene content, there is a perceptible 
effect of chromatographic separation of the individual components of the oil. The "lighter" 
notes run quickly up the blotter, while the larger molecules remain at the end, where it was 
dipped. 

The Topnote ("la note de depart") is studied repeatedly since it may be of very short duration. 
It is the very first perceptible note, the first Impression of odor. The topnote can be very 
characteristic of an essential oil and it is also very often a difficult one to reproduce in the work 


27 



on "artificial" essential oils, adulterations, cuttings, etc. The true Topnote of an essential oil 
can be masked by so-called "still-odors" which are unwanted notes. Still-notes are usually 
removed by aeration or ageing of the oil (see also Aroma-Distillates). 

The main and characteristic overall odor of the oil in the perfume blotter is called the Body- 
Note. It has a much longer life on the blotter than has :he topnote, but it is less characteristic 
of the odor of the oil, and it is easier to reproduce in the work on artificial essential oils, etc. 

The Dry-Out note is equally as important as the topnote for evaluation of the oil. The dry-out 
will appear after one hour, several hours, or perhaps not until the next day. It often reveals 
adulteration of an essential oil, and it should be studied repeatedly and carefully. 

The Dry-Out notes show the fixative effect of the components in the oil; it may reveal 
weakness, diluents or other foreign additives. Certain oils do not show a typical dry-out note 
within the same day as they are "blottered", e.g. patchouli oil, vetiver, civet, everlasting, 
longoza, etc. These oils can not be justly evaluated within minutes or hours. It requires at least 
24 hours of study and careful notes. The dry-out note will show the bodynote, but not the 
topnote. In exceptional cases, the topnote is carried along far into the bodynote and may be 
perceptible in the dry-out, e.g. angelica root oil. 

The dry-out note tells us about the Tenacity of the perfume material. The Tenacity, also called 
the lasting effect, is a highly appreciated effect in perfume materials, particularly if the 
bodynote and the dry-out note are pleasant fragrances. Lemon oil has a fresh and pleasant 
Topnote of very short duration. It has only a faint and rather uncharacteristic Bodynote, which 
may last one or two hours on a perfume blotter. The Dry-Out is very faint, uninteresting, yet 
characteristic, but of little use to the perfumer. There is no Tenacity in the odor of lemon oil. 

Sage clary oil displays a fresh and delicate Topnote, which slides gently into a very rich, sweet- 
herbaceous Bodynote of long duration. Its Dry-Out is balsamic-ambra-like, reminiscent of 
tobacco and sweet hay, tea-leaves, and with an unusual Tenacity. 

In order to study the behavior of essential oils on perfume blotters correctly, it is of great 
importance that a constant room temperature and relative humidity be maintained. The 
author has personal preference for temperatures lower than 20°C. in a perfume laboratory, 
although in certain countries, a much higher temperature is quite common (22 to 27° C.). 
Several ultra-modern laboratories in Europe are provided with thermo-stats and humidity 
regulators to maintain about 17°C. and 45 to 50% relative humidity. The author has 
experienced an almost odor-free atmosphere in Mid-Sahara, where the temperature was 64° 
C. on the sand surface, and the relative humidity was about 0.3%. The author was unable to 
smell the peel of an orange which was squeezed between the fingers under these 
circumstances. 

Excessively high humidity is equally unfavorable to smelling if the temperature is well above 
20° C. It should be noted, however, that during the study of a dry-out note, the perfumer will 
often attempt to produce a "steam-distillation" by exhaling breath from his nostrils upon the 
dry blotter in order to enhance the evaporation of a weak-smelling material. 


28 



The technique of smelling and evaluating perfume materials has been thoroughly described in 
several works on perfumery practice during the past decade. 

Oleo-Gum-Resin. 

An Oleo-Gum-Resin is a natural exudation from plants or trees. It consists mainly of essential 
oil, gum, and resin. Various names are used commercially for this type of material, e.g. Gum, 
Gum-Resin, etc. Sometimes merely the botanical name is used, e.g. Myrrh, which is a typical 
Oleo-Gum-Resin according to the above definition. Oleo-gum-resins are only partly soluble in 
alcohol and hydrocarbon solvents, both of which leave the gum as an insoluble residue. See 
also Gum-Resin (Part One of this book) and the individual monographs on Myrrh, Olibanum, 
Opopanax, etc. in Part Two of this book. 

Oleo-Resin. 

An Oleo-Resin is either a natural or a prepared material. Natural oleo-resins are exudations 
from tree-trunks, barks, etc. Prepared oleo-resins are liquid preparations, extracted from 
botanical drugs with solvents which can extract oil and resinous matter from the botanical, 
yielding the Oleo-Resin as evaporation residue. Prepared oleo-resins may also contain non¬ 
volatile oils (so-called "fixed" oils). Prepared oleo-resins present the most concentrated liquid 
form of the botanical material in question. The type of solvent used in the extraction of 
prepared oleoresins should be chosen with due consideration of the fact that solvents are 
difficult to remove totally even under vacuum, and that prepared oleo-resins are often used in 
food preparations. As the name indicates, the two types of Oleo-Resins are characterized by 
the fact that they consist entirely—or mainly—of essential oil and resin. 

Copaiba Balsam is a typical natural Oleo-Resin. See also Balsam in Part One of this book for a 
definition of this term. Oleo-resin Ginger is a well-known prepared Oleo-Resin. 

Natural oleo-resins are usually characterized as clear, viscous and light-colored liquids, while 
the prepared oleo-resins in general are heterogeneous masses of dark color. 

Turpentines can be considered as a sub-group of the natural oleo-resins. Turpentines are 
exudations of either physiological or pathological nature from tree trunks, barks, etc. They 
consist almost entirely of essential oil and resin. The resin consists mainly of acids and acid 
anhydrides, formed by oxidation of terpenes. 

Turpentines are derived from conifers, particularly from species of Abies and Pinus. Various 
turpentines are described in Part Two of this work. 

Canada Balsam is a true Turpentine. 

Elemi is a natural oleo-resin, with a composition similar to a turpentine. 


29 


p 


Pommade. 

Pommades are prepared perfume materials. They are obtained by the so-called Enfleurage 
process which is carried out almost exclusively in the South of France. Certain tropical flowers, 
e.g. Pandanus ("kewda"), are treated in a similar way locally (in India) to yield Pommades. 

The Enfleurage process is mainly applied to flowers that do not yield any appreciable amount 
of essential oil by steam or water distillation, or it may be applied to flowers that are too 
delicate to withstand exposure to heat and steam. Furthermore, certain flower petals continue 
to develop and give off perfume oil even long after they have been harvested. During the 
Enfleurage process, a fatty or greasy base on a plate will adsorb all the perfume oil which is 
present in and exhaled from the flower. The trays or stacks of greased plates, with the flowers 
adhering to the fat, are left for 24 hours. The flowers are then picked off by hand, and a new 
batch of flowers is sprinkled on the same layer of fat. The spent flowers are extracted with a 
hydrocarbon solvent to produce "Concrete de Chassis", which in turn is processed into 
Absolute from Chassis, see this monograph. 

After many batches, each consisting of 24 hours of flower treatment on the trays (and up to 36 
batches on the same layer of fat), the fragrance- saturated fat (known as "corps gras") is 
removed from the plates or trays (the "chassis"). The saturated fat is known as Pommade. The 
fat used in this process must be neutral and odorless; it must not become rancid, and must 
have a high adsorbent ability and a certain viscosity; it should be almost insoluble in cold 
alcohol. 

As such the Pommade is hardly used any more. It is further processed into Extrait and to 
Absolute from Pommade, see these monographs in Part One of this book. 


R 

Resin. 

A Resin is either a natural or a prepared product. 

Natural Resins are exudations from trees or plants and they are formed in Nature by the 
oxidation of terpenes. Many Resins are acids or acid anhydrides. 

Prepared Resins are Oleo-Resins (see this) from which the essential oil has been removed. 

Resins are solid or semi-solid, usually non crystalline (amorphous) and, if they are waterfree 
they are translucent masses. 

Resins are almost odorless, insoluble in water, often soluble in alkali solutions. 

Dammar and Mastic are typical natural Resins. 

Rosin is a typical prepared Resin. 


30 


"Resin Labdanum" (a misnomer) is a fraction a labdanum extract. 

"Resin Oakmoss" (a misnomer) is a hot-processed alcoholic extract of oakmoss often touched 
up" with synthetic perfume materials. 

Copal: A copal is a natural resin of particularly high melting point and of hard texture. Copals 
:en derive from trees, long since extinct. The copals from such trees are found in the soil or on 
the ground. Living trees mainly in tropical Africa, South America, Australia and Asia also yield 
Copals. Some of these "recent-fossil" copals become sufficiently hard and brittle to be used as 
e real "prehistoric" fossil Copals. 

Copals are not used in perfumes or flavors but are highly appreciated in the finer varnish and 
lacquer industry. 

Amber is the hardest of the fossil resins from various species of pinus, long since extinct. 
Amber is odorless, but it yields an "essential" oil on destructive distillation, see Amber Oil, Part 
Two of this book. 

Resin Absolute. 

"Resin Absolute" is a term frequently applied to extracts from botanical raw materials, plant 
material or exudations (so-called gums) directly with hot alcohol. The resulting extract from 
which all alcohol has been recovered by distillation under vacuum is the so-called Resin 
Absolute. The product can be considered as a concentrated Infusion (see this monograph in 
Part One of the book). During the distillation, the evaporated alcohol may be partially 
substituted for by a high-boiling, odorless solvent in order to make the extract handy and 
pourable. The addition of such a "plasticizer" is, however, not without a depressing effect 
upon the odor of the extract. The "plasticized" extract is not truly a "Resin Absolute". 

Common plasticizers are diethylphthalate, diethylsebacate, benzyl benzoate, 
isopropylmyristate, isopropyl palmitate, various ethylene glycol ether-esters, diethylene glycol 
monolaurate, etc., etc. 

Some manufacturers will evaporate the extract to a content of 50% extractive matter 
(calculated in advance from the results of a test-run). The resulting extract then contains 50% 
alcohol in which small amounts of water from the raw material is now included. This extract 
should be labelled: "Resin Absolute of xxx, 50% solution in alcohol". 

Well-known exceptions are: Oakmoss: The direct extraction product with hot alcohol is called 
Oakmoss Resin (see Part Two of this book); Labdanum: The direct extraction product from 
"gum" labdanum is usually called "Labdanum Resin Absolute", but the plant material (the 
herb Cistus Ladaniferus) is not extracted this way; Orris: The direct extraction product of the 
powdered rhizome with hot alcohol is usually called Orris Resin (see Part Two of this book). 

Resinoid. 

A Resinoid is a perfumery material prepared from natural, resinous substances by extraction 
with a hydrocarbon type of solvent. True resinoids contain all the hydrocarbon-soluble matter 


31 


from the natural starting material, including the resins, but they contain no solvent (see 
below). 

The most frequently used solvents are: petroleum ether, benzene, gasoline, butane (see 
Butaflor under Absolutes), or, in certain cases, acetone, methylene dichloride, trichloro 
ethylene and other solvents which are not exactly hydrocarbons. Non-volatile solvents are 
occasionally used: diethylphthalate, benzyl benzoate, diethyl sebacate, isopropyl myristate, 
etc. (See Resin Absolute (Part One) and Galbanum (Part Two)). 

In contradistinction to Concretes, the Resinoids are generally produced from "dead" (i.e. non- 
cellular) organic material, while the Concretes are derived from previously "live" (= cellular) 
tissue, etc. Resinous materials are, e.g. balsams, gum-resins, natural resins, oleo-gum-resins, 
etc. 

Resinoids can be viscous liquids, semi-solid or solid, but usually homogeneous masses of non¬ 
crystalline (amorphous) character. Their main constituents are rosin acids, rosin acid 
anhydrides, sesquiterpenes, essential oils, plant colors, waxes, and other hydrocarbon-soluble 
matter. 

No essential oil or other odorous matter should be removed or added during the preparation 
of a resinoid. However, it may be necessary to add a plasticizing diluent during the solvent 
recovery in order to spare the resinoid from excessive heat exposure, and to make the finished 
product easier to pour and handle. Plasticizing diluents are mentioned above and also under 
Resin Absolute (previous monograph). 

Olibanum Resinoid is a typical resinoid. The natural oleo-gum-resin (olibanum) has been made 
applicable and soluble in perfume materials by the removal of the water-soluble gum. 

See also Concrete, Oleo-Resin, Resin, Resin Absolute (Part One of this book). 

Clairs, etc.: Clair is the registered French name of a series of purified, light-colored, soluble 
extracts of natural raw materials. Some of these products are distilled extracts; others are 
decolorized by means of activated carbon and other adsorbents. Clairs present the advantage 
of a much paler color than the corresponding resinoid or absolute, better solubility and, in 
most cases, higher odor concentration also. Certain Clairs are, however, entirely different in 
odor type from the equivalent resinoid or concrete (e.g. clove, nutmeg, etc.). 

Resinoines are similar highly concentrated extracts of pale color and good solubility. (See 
Anhydrol in Part One of this book). Other Resinoid-specialties are based upon neutralization of 
the resin acids in order to avoid esterification with ethyl alcohol used in the second extraction. 
Resin acids also react with alkali in soaps. The main difficulty in the use of such specialties is 
that they are very difficult to replace or substitute with resinoids from other suppliers. Once 
these specialties are included in an established formula, they present "current business" for 
the manufacturer of this specialty. 


32 



s 


Sesquiterpeneless Oils. 

These oils are also called: Terpene- and Sesquiterpeneless Oils. The abbreviation "TRSQF" is 
occasionally met in Europe (Germany) where the terpeneless oils are called TRF oils. 

For details of the processing, see Terpeneless Oils in Part One of this book. Method "A" for 
removal of the terpenes is not specific in the sense that only terpenes are removed. Since the 
sesquiterpenes have higher boiling point than most of our perfume and flavor materials (of 
natural origin), method "A" will never lead to a Sesquiterpeneless Oil. 

Methods "B" or "C", or a combination of methods "A" + "B" will be recommended for the 
production of sesquiterpeneless oils. Certain essential oils contain little or no monoterpenes, 
but significant amounts of sesquiterpenes, e. g. clove oils, vetiver oil etc. These oils are 
deterpenized by the above methods. The so-called terpeneless clove oil is actually 
Sesquiterpeneless clove oil. Chemically, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are part of a group 
known as "terpenoid compounds". In Nature, these materials are found almost entirely in the 
plant kingdom. They are usually defined as derivatives from the basic material isoprene with 
the empirical formula C 5 H 8 . Monoterpenes are built up from two such structures (formula 
C 10 H 16 ), and sesquiterpenes are Q 5 FI 54 . The syllabus "sesqui" refers to "six quarts" or "one-and- 
one-half times". 

Sesquiterpenes are removed from essential oils for several reasons, although not quite the 
same reasons as those given for the removal of monoterpenes: 

1) To improve the solubility of the oil in diluted alcohol or in flavor solvents; 

2) To improve the perfume and flavor of the essential oil; 

3) To lift the overall fragrance or flavor of the oil since the sesquiterpenes tend to 
depress the odor or flavor through the fixative effect of these high-boiling 
components. 

Point 1) is mutual for mono- and sesquiterpenes. 

Points 2) and 3) pertain particularly to sesquiterpenes. There is hardly any rancidity or 
instability problem connected with the sesquiterpenes. In this respect, they are less 
troublesome than the monoterpenes. Generally speaking, the sesquiterpenes are more of a 
nuisance in flavors than they are in perfumes. Sesquiterpenes have, as a rule, a rather poor 
flavor, and most of them are distinctly bitter. Only a very few sesquiterpenes available in a 
pure state, and none have yet produced synthetically on a commercial Well-known 
sesquiterpenes are: Caryophylene, bisabolene, cadinene, cedrene, etc. 

Spices. 

The definition of the term Spice is usually a very le one. Generally, spices are considered as 
singular materials of plant origin (botanical substance), characterized by pungency or biting 
mouthfell, strong odor and sweet or bitter taste, o happens that spices most often originate in 
cal areas, but this is not exactly a prerequisite spice. 


33 


A combination of several spices and/or strong is usually called a Condiment. 

The addition of basic flavor effects (stimuli) by use of sugar, salt, vinegar, etc. is considered 

Seasoning. 

However, vinegar as used in salad dressing is called a Condiment; this, in the author's n, is 
misleading. 

For those interested in legal definitions, it is ted that the paragraphs in the various 
pharmacopoeias, etc. should be consulted, as well definitions given by the Food and Drug 
Administration (of the U.S.A.) and other state authorities. 

Physiologically, a Seasoning is a Taste Stimulus. 

There are four basic taste stimuli: bitter, salt, sour, sweet. Under the monograph Soybean 
(Part Two of this book), a "fifth" stimulus is mentioned, popularly known under the name of 
the "third spice" (monosodiumglutamate). Truly, this chemical acts as a synergist for other 
stimuli. Other chemicals are known to act more or less as specific stimulus-paralyzers, e. g. 
gymnemic acid. This chemical is extracted from the leaves of a plant of the N.O. 
Asclepiadaceae, a family from which few, if any, essential oils of interest are derived. 

A Condiment is then a mouthfeel stimulus, while the Culinary Herbs are Odor-Flavor Stimuli. 
The Spices also belong to this physiological group. Some authorities discriminate between 
Spices and Aromatic Seeds. Coriander, anise, dillfruit, etc. are then considered Aromatic 
Seeds. They have a feature in common with spices in that their flavor is primarily derived from 
an essential oil (a volatile substance). Culinary Herbs, on the other hand, owe their flavor to 
essential oils plus a bitter principle (sage, basil, origanum, thyme, etc.). 

Another classification is formed by the Pungent materials. Capsicum has no essential oil, but 
the extract of capsicum is very pungent. Ginger and Black Pepper are pungent and aromatic. 

Finally, there is a small group of botanical materials that contain practically no essential oil and 
have no pungency, but they do produce useful flavor extracts, e.g. vanilla, tonka, fenugreek, St. 
John's bread, etc. 

Certain seeds are used partly to produce a mechanical mouthfeel, partly as a mild flavor 
additive. Poppy Seed is one of these materials. It is interesting to note that the U.S.A. imports 
thousands of tons of these tiny seeds every year, mainly from Denmark and Holland. 


T 

Terpeneless Oils. 

Terpeneless essential oils are processed perfume or flavor materials. Literally speaking, they 
are essential oils from which all monoterpenes (Ci 0 H 10 ) have been removed. The term 
"Terpeneless", however, is one of the most unscrupulously used terms in the flavor and 
perfume industry. 


34 


Most often, these oils are "partially deterpenized" and this again can be achieved in many 
ways. Terpenes are removed for several reasons: 

1) To improve the solubility of the oil in low- proof alcohol, in food solvents, etc., and 
to make the oil clearly soluble in water at normal usage level (e.g. in carbonated 
drinks); 

2) To concentrate the active perfume and flavor ingredients according to the theory 
that terpenes play a minor role in the overall flavor or perfume gamut. However, this is 
not always so. Terpenes are comparatively weak aromatics, but they do present 
certain effects which are indispensable in the reproduction of "true-to-nature" 
perfumes or flavors; 

3) To increase the stability of the essential oil, and to prevent the appearance of rancid 
notes, the formation of resins, etc. 

The terpenes are removed from essential oils by various methods: 

A) By fractionated distillation. One cannot expect to remove all the monoterpenes by 
this method, not even with highly effective distillation columns, fine vacuum, or slow 
distillation (regulated reflux ratio), etc. 

B) By selective solvent extraction. Various methods have been patented (e.g. 
"Naardenized oils"). The hydrocarbon pentane will dissolve terpenes, while diluted 
methanol will dissolve the so-called oxygenated compounds (perfume and flavor 
materials). Pentane is almost insoluble in diluted methanol. Through countercurrent 
liquid-liquid extraction, two solutions are obtained: one is the pentane with terpenes; 
the other is the diluted methanol with the aromatic principles of the oil. The methanol 
solution is separated (lower layer) and evaporated in vacuum until all methanol and 
water is removed. A special technique is required during this operation in order to 
avoid water-distillation and consequent loss of the aromatic components. The non- 
distilled residue from this distillation is the terpeneless oil. This method differs from 
method A) in the sense that it also removes the sesquiterpenes (C i5 H 24 ). In method A), 
the sesquiterpenes are left in the distillation pot, together with the monoterpeneless 
oil. 

C) A third method is actually a combination of A) and B): the bulk of the monoterpenes 
are removed by careful distillation under vacuum. Distillation temperature must not 
exceed 30°, and the temperature of the oil should not exceed 50°C. A very simple, but 
extremely suitable apparatus is available in Quickfit glass in sizes up to 200 litres. 
Heating is provided by an outside heat-exchanger which is connected to the bottom of 
the distillation flask (feed of cold oil) and with an outlet into the flask above the oil 
surface (exit of oil vapors after heating). This apparatus presents an excellent solution 
to the problem of overheating sensitive oils (citrus oils, etc.). When the distillation is 
running smoothly, only the oil in the heat exchanger is somewhat warmer than the 
vapors of oil at the still head. The temperature of the main portion of the oil (in the 
distillation flask) is significantly lower than the temperature in the heat exchanger, and 


35 



it is only a little above the still head temperature, dependent upon the size and 
construction of the column. A glass column of 15 cms. diameter and 150 to 200 cms. 
height, packed with raschig rings, is suitable for citrus oils. 

When about two-thirds of the monoterpenes have been removed by this method, the 
distillation is stopped. The residue in the flask is extracted with diluted alcohol. The 
strength of the alcohol is adjusted to the type of oil in question, usually about 50% to 
60% of alcohol by weight. This diluted alcohol will hardly dissolve any monoterpenes, 
sesquiterpenes, or waxes. Several extractions are necessary in order to exhaust 
completely all the oxygenated materials from the still residue. The alcoholic extracts 
are combined and evaporated under vacuum. Care must be taken that the water from 
the diluted alcohol does not carry over significant amounts of aromatic substances. 

The residue from this second distillation consists of waxes (in case of orange oil), 
sesquiterpenes (in case of lemon oil), etc. The residue from orange oil is solid at room 
temperature. Most of the other residues are viscous liquids. 

The evaporated alcoholic extract (now free from solvent) is sometimes rectified at very 
low pressure (less than 0.1 mm. Hg.). This leads to an almost water-white terpeneless 
oil. The finished oil is now bulked from the absolutely terpeneless distillate with 
addition of certain selected terpene fractions, head fractions and perhaps parts of the 
freezing trap fraction from the first distillation. These small additions (cut-backs) are 
most important for the reproduction of true-to-nature notes in the terpeneless oils. 

In flavor work, it is of paramount importance to keep the flavor of the "terpeneless" oil 
within the limits of reasonable similarity to the natural starting material. A partially 
monoterpeneless oil, from which all sesquiterpenes and waxes have been eliminated, 
will present a good solubility and improved stability, yet it will still display the 
freshness and topnotes of the parent oil. These "dewaxed" and partially deterpenized 
citrus oils are particularly useful in flavor work. A calculated concentration of 6 to 6 % 
times (by weight) from the natural oil seems to offer the best solution. This oil still 
contains a significant amount of monoterpenes. In case of lemon oil, for example, 
there will be over 50% monoterpenes in a 6 times concentrated oil, but the terpenes 
will have been selected for flavor performance. It should be remembered at this point 
that the flavor "body" obtained from one kilo of a 6 times concentrated oil is much 
weaker or "thinner" than the flavor body obtained from 6 % kilos of natural oil. The 
true concentration in flavor effect is considerably less than the calculated figure. 

Lemon oil, long since evaluated by many customers by its citral content only, 
cannot be judged from the content of this chemical alone. Citral is a 
comparatively low-boiling flavor chemical, and a certain quantity of citral is lost 
during the vacuum distillation of lemon oil. By counter-current extraction (see 
method B), there is no loss due to low boiling points of oxygenated 
components. 

Method A) will often remove low-boiling constituents other than the terpenes. The 
method may thus substantially change the character of the oil. Many essential oils 
contain useful materials which boil and distil below or near the boiling point of most 


36 



monoterpenes. The A) and the B) methods, therefore, will yield quite different 
"terpeneless " oils. 

There are still other methods of removing the terpenes from essential oils; 

D) By chromatographic separation of the constituents. In this process, the 
terpeneless oil is dissolved in petroleum ether or other anionic solvent. The 
solution is forced through a column of silicic acid or other adsorbent matter. 
Separation takes place due to difference in molecular size, and the section of 
the column containing the oxygenated components of the oil can be isolated 
and subsequently flushed with a polar solvent. 

Various patents cover various methods, some of which claim to be so highly perfected 
that the terpenefraction contains 0.0% oxygenated components, and the terpeneless 
oil comes out in a theoretical yield. 

E) A further development of the B) method. Water-diluted acids, alcohols, ketones, 
etc. have been used to extract the oxygenated components of the oils and leave the 
terpenes undissolved. 

Terpeneless Oils form a separate series of perfume and flavor materials. The terpeneless oils 
are an addition to the selection of raw materials at the disposal of the perfumer and the 
flavorist. These oils cannot be considered as replacements for natural oils. They can not be 
used directly as a substitute for a natural oil when solubility, etc. prevents the use of the 
terpenic oil. The difference is particularly obvious in the case of citrus oils which contain over 
90% terpenes. In other cases, the terpenes constitute only a minor part of the natural oil, but 
they may impart an unpleasant odor or flavor, e. g. peppermint oil, lavender oil, bay leaf oil, 
petitgrain oil, etc. A number of terpeneless oils are described in Part Two of this book. They are 
listed next to their respective natural oils. 

Tincture. 

A Tincture is a prepared perfumery material, flavor material or pharmaceutical product. 
Tinctures can be considered alcoholic extracts of natural raw materials; the solvent is left in 
the extract as a diluent. Consequently, tinctures are not exposed to heat during preparation. 
(See Infusion, Part One of this book). There is no general rule governing the strength of 
perfumery or flavor tinctures. Pharmaceutical tinctures are generally prepared from one part 
of natural raw material plus five parts of an 86% weight/weight ethyl alcohol or, in some cases, 
a 61% w/w ethyl alcohol. Certain tinctures are made in the ratio 1:10, and in most of such 
cases the alcohol is 86% w/w. 

As a result of the method of preparation, tinctures do not always represent the total amount 
of natural raw material from which they are prepared. The natural raw material may not be 
completely exhausted, and the alcohol is not quantitatively flushed out of the tissues of 
botanical matter, etc. before the spent raw material is discarded. 

Most perfumery tinctures are made by Maceration (e.g. from gum-resins, natural oleo-resins, 
etc.). A Maceration is a soaking of the comminuted material in the menstruum (alcohol or 


37 


diluted alcohol) until the cellular structure of the raw material is thoroughly penetrated, and 
the soluble portions softened and dissolved. The maceration is usually extended over a period 
of many days, sometimes up to two weeks, during which time the raw material is frequently 
agitated in the alcohol. If the raw material is suspended in a gauze bag in the upper part of the 
alcohol, the method is called Circulatory Maceration. It offers certain advantages such as more 
rapid extraction of the drug. 

Other tinctures are prepared by Percolation, e.g. from ambrette seed, vanilla fruits, etc. 
Percolation is a process during which the comminuted raw material is put in a suitable 
container and is then deprived of its soluble constituents by the descent of a solvent through 
it. It is one of the most basic, yet important methods of preparing pharmaceutical extracts. In a 
few cases, Tinctures are made by simple solution. These tinctures are dilutions rather than real 
tinctures, but the term "tinctures" is still applied to this type of preparation. Alcoholic 
solutions of Resinoids, Resin- Absolutes, etc. are among the more recent additions to the 
perfumer's shelf. These tinctures are easier to standardize and simple to prepare. Resinoids 
(see this monograph in Part One of this book) are not necessarily alcohol-soluble. 

Furthermore, it is necessary to know the exact strength of the parent resinoid when tinctures 
are prepared from these materials. 

A number of "classical" perfume tinctures are prepared in special manners, although many 
perfume houses now prefer to make 5%, 10% or 20% tinctures as a standard on all raw 
materials: 

Tincture of Ambra (ambergris): 3% ambra in a 90% ethyl alcohol. Alkali is usually added to 
neutralize acids and to facilitate solution (a "solubilizer"). Age for not less than 6 months. 

Tincture of Ambrette Seed: 12 /a % in pure ethyl alcohol. The tincture can be prepared by 
maceration or by percolation. The former method requires tip to two months extraction time. 

Tincture of Castoreum: 6 % in pure ethyl alcohol. To be macerated and subsequently aged for 6 
to 8 weeks before filtration. 

Tincture of Civet: 3 % % in pure ethyl alcohol. Gentle heat is applied since the fatty raw 
material is almost insoluble in cold alcohol and tends to "protect" the active ingredients from 
being extracted. A 10% tincture is also produced. 

Tincture of Musk: 3% musk in a 90% ethyl alcohol. Alkali and other additives are often used 
during the maceration. To be aged for not less than 6 months before filtration. 

Tincture of Orris: 25% orris root in 95% ethyl alcohol. To be macerated for one month. This 
product is growing quite rare. It is substituted for by solutions of Orris "Resin" (see Part Two of 
this book). 

Tincture of Vanilla: For perfumes: 15% vanilla fruits in a 95% denatured ethyl alcohol. 

Macerate for two weeks, age for 2 to 6 months. For flavors: 10% vanilla fruits in a 38% alcohol. 
Prepared by percolation with alcohol of decreasing strength. The term, "vanilla tincture", is 
among the most abused labellings, and the product is one of the most frequently adulterated 
of all flavor products. 


38 



Tinctures of Benzoin, Labdanum, Olibanum, Opopanax, Peru, Tolu balsam, etc. are generally 
prepared from 20% of the natural raw material with pure ethyl alcohol. After proper 
maceration, the tincture is filtered and aged. 

Various Tinctures are described in the monographs of the parent raw material in Part Two of 
this book. 

u 

Ultrasonic Extracts. 

Ultrasonic Extracts are prepared flavor materials, or, in a few cases, perfume materials. 

Several methods of extracting natural raw materials with the aid of supersonic sound 
vibrations have been described in scientific literature, and many extractors have been 
patented. A few European flavor and perfume material suppliers specialize in Such extracts, 
e.g. Camilli, Albert et Laloue in Grasse, France. 

It is claimed that this method: 

1 ) gives higher yields, 

2 ) reduces the amount of solvent needed, 

3) greatly improves the flavor or odor in the sense that they become more true-to- 
nature, 

4) reduces the extraction time considerably, 

5) makes possible an extraction with water or low-proof alcohol where this is 
otherwise not too effective. 

Capacity of the extractors has hitherto been the major problem which has kept this method 
from becoming popular. But extractors of sufficient size can now be constructed so as to give a 
reasonable capacity. The finely ground raw material is suspended in the menstruum (solvent) 
in the extractor. High-frequency vibration is applied, and, in an amazingly short time, the drug 
is exhausted. Due to the better yield given by this method in comparison to ordinary 
extraction, the ultrasonic extracts are often cheaper in use than the old types of extracts. 

The method is particularly useful for extraction of flavors from sensitive (heat-sensitive) raw 
materials, e.g. coffee, spices, etc., but flowers and herbs are also treated by this method now, 
e.g. mimosa, thyme, etc. A number of Ultrasonic Extracts are described under the monographs 
of their parent raw material in Part Two of this book. 


39 


Part Two 


Monographs on Crude and Processed Raw Materials of Natural 
Origin 

A 

Abies Alba. 

Synonyms: Abies Excelsa, Abies Pectinata, Abies Picea, "silver spruce", "white spruce". Under 
the present monograph only the essential oil from the needles will be described. From the 
cones of Abies Alba is distilled another essential oil, see Templin Oil. Abies Alba is a relatively 
small tree which grows in Austria (Tirol), Eastern France, Germany, Poland, and Yougoslavia. 
The tree is planted in many European countries for lumber, wood-pulp production and also for 
Christmas trees. 

The essential oil is distilled from the needles alone or from the twigs with needles. 

Experiments have shown, that there is but little difference in the essential oils from the two 
parts of the tree. The steam distillation produces a colorless or pale yellow mobile liquid of rich 
balsamic-sweet and pleasant oily-pinaceous fragrance. Oils from Austria are known for their 
outstanding quality and fine fragrance. 

Abies Alba oil finds application in perfumes for bath preparations, air-fresheners, 
disinfectants, fougere-colognes, soap perfumes, detergents, etc. The oil is most popular in 
Europe, where the demand is rarely in excess of the availability of this oil. Although the oil 
belongs to the group of 'low-ester" and "high-terpene" containing "fir" and spruce needle oils, 
it has great power, good stability and performance in compositions for the above purposes. It 
blends excellently with coumarin, galbanum, ionones, labdanum, lavandin, linalool, 
methylionones, nitromusks, oakmoss, rosemary oil, etc. 

Under the name of "Fir Needle Oil" comes also an oil, distilled from needles and branchlets of 
Picca Excelsa in Yougoslavia and Roumania. The odor of this oil is somewhat similar to that of 
Abies Alba needles oil. Picea Excelsa is described under its Latin name in this book. 

Because of frequent and extensive "cutting" and adulteration of this oil with pinene, 
isobornylacetate, camphene, limonene, dodecanal, decanal, palatone, etc., it is difficult to 
obtain reliable figures of the annual production. It is estimated, that between 5 and 20 tons of 
true oil are produced annually in Europe. 

Abies sp. 

Spruces ("firs") grow all over the world and are planted for various purposes in numerous 
countries. Essential oils are often produced from such local species for domestic use and 
hardly ever exported. 


40 



In Japan—particularly on Hokkaido Island— between 100 and 200 tons of "fir" needle oils 
were produced annually in postwar years. These oils found use in the perfuming of soaps, low- 
cost household cleaners, detergents, etc. The production of these oils has decreased in the 
past few years. 

Abies Mayriana and Abies Sachalinensis are two of the most important Japanese firs, from 
which essential oils are distilled. The production in 1958 of the two oils was about 10 tons. 
These oils are of comparatively high ester content: 22—26% bornylacetate. In this respect the 
oils are only slightly inferior to the oil of Balsam Fir, see this monograph. 

Acaroid. 

The so-called Acaroid Resin is a natural oleo-gumresin, exuded from various species of 
Xanthorrhoea trees in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. There are two Acaroids of 
interest for perfumery: 

1) Yellow Acaroid from Xanthorrhoea Hastilis 
and 

2) Red Acaroid from Xanthorrhoea Australis. 

The crude material is dark orange to dark brown in lumps of 2 to 5 cms. of diameter, mostly 
round but on one side fiat with visible marks from the bark of the tree, showing bark surface 
and leaf base scars etc. The odor of the "resin" is faintly balsamic-cinnamic and sweet. 

Other species are important to the lacquer industry. 

From the above two natural materials are prepared tinctures or resinoids. Acaroid contains 
more than 70% alcohol-soluble matter. The prepared resinoid suffers from the disadvantage of 
being very dark of color. 

Acaroid resinoid and Acaroid tincture are excellent fixatives for low-cost soap perfumes or 
industrial perfumes, particularly those of sweet balsamic type. The odor type of Acaroid is 
quite similar to that of peru, styrax, and tolu balsams, however, much weaker in odor strength. 
Apart from the color drawback, Acaroid could well replace the Sumatra benzoin, and it blends 
well with cinnamic aldehyde, e.g. in an artificial cassia oil. In this case, the dark color of the 
Acaroid is no disadvantage at all. 

Acaroid is readily available in ton-lots, and it is one of the most inexpensive of the natural 
oleo-gum-resins. 

Agar Oil. 

This oil is water-distilled from fungus-infected wood of the tree Aquilaria Agallocha, growing 
in northeastern India. The tree is also found in certain parts of China. Healthy trees have an 
odorless wood which produces no essential oil. Only older trees are attacked by the fungi; 
thereafter an oleoresin is produced inside the wood. After proper maceration of the wood, this 
oleo. resin will yield an essential oil upon distillation. Wood from infected trees is cut and 


41 


coarsely chopped, then soaked in water prior to distillation. It is common practice to add salt 
(sodium chloride) to the water (compare vetiver distillation in Reunion Island). 

Being a distillation at atmospheric pressure (100°C.), the process of total exhaustion of the 
wood is a lengthy one. The oil is high-boiling, and the distillation waters must be cohobated 
(i.e. returned to the still and redistilled) in order to produce a reasonable yield and a complete 
oil. 

A related tree, Aquilaria Crassna which grows in various parts of Indochina, is also attacked by 
fungi, resulting in the formation of an odorous secretion which can be extracted. This wood is 
locally known as Eagle Wood. Neither wood nor oils or resinous matter from this tree seem to 
be available outside of the country of origin. 

The name "Aloe-Wood" is used quite indiscriminately in India for a number of fragrant woods. 
The true Agar Wood has been known for several thousand years, and its use is possibly as old 
as that of sandalwood. 

Agar Oil is pale yellow to brownish yellow or dark amber in color; it is a very viscous liquid of 
rich and sweet-woody, almost balsamic odor not unlike that of vetiverol or purified 
styrenefree styrax, and with a sweetness similar to that of sandalwood oil. Agar Oil is not 
produced on a commercial scale unless demanded on firm orders. Locally, the so-called 
"attars" are used extensively in perfumery. These products are dilutions of the perfume oil in 
sandalwood oil or even in vegetable oils, e.g. sesame oil. For more details on "attars", see 
monograph on Pandanus. 

Agar Oil could find use in perfumery for oriental bases, woody-aldehydic bases, chypres, 
fougeres, etc. when blended with vetiver oil, sandalwood, geranium, methylionones, linalool, 
etc. The oil produces interesting notes with isoeugenol in carnation bases. 

The taste of Agar Oil is extremely bitter, and it is not likely that the oil can find use in flavors 
beyond the local use for betel, tobacco, etc. 

Agleia Odorata. 

Synonym: Agleia Odoratissima. 

An essential oil is distilled from the seeds of this tree which grows in India, Indonesia and 
China. Other parts of the tree are regularly used locally as a medicine. 

In Java, the fragrant flowers of this tree are added to tea sold mainly on the local market. This 
addition can not be considered as an adulteration of the tea. It is more like an improvement 
which, however, is not generally appreciated by tea-drinkers in other areas of the world. 

The essential oil of Agleia Odorata is not regularly produced on a commercial scale, but the 
botanical material is abundantly available for production in case of increased interest. 


42 


Ajowan. 


Ajowan Oil is steam distilled from the fruits (= seeds) or, occasionally, from the whole 
overground plant of Ptychotis Ajowan, also known as Carum Ajowan or Carum Copticum. This 
herb is cultivated in India, in the Seychelle Islands and in the West Indies (Montserrat). 

It is customary in India to extract the fruits or the entire herb with diluted alcohol in order to 
prepare a tincture. This tincture is a powerful germicide and it has attained rather wide-spread 
use in local medicine in areas where the plant grows. 

Ajowan Oil is a yellow-orange to pale brownish or red-brown liquid of a pungent, 
herbaceousspicy and medicinal odor, reminiscent of red Thyme. However, unlike the rich odor 
of red thyme, Ajowan Oil presents a sharper, more cymene-like topnote and very little 
herbaceousmellow body. The fresh, almost green-cuminic topnote is characteristic of Ajowan 
Oil. Its flavor is somewhat sweeter than that of thyme, sharp and biting at high concentration, 
sweet and pleasant near the Minimum Perceptible which is about 0.10 to 0.20 mg%. Suggested 
use level is 2.0 to 3.0 mg%, but may go higher in products such as meat sauces, pickles, etc. 

Ajowan Oil is hardly used outside its countries of production. It does not present any distinct 
advantage over Thyme Oil. Years ago, ajowan oil was used for the isolation of Thymol, but this 
chemical is now produced synthetically. The thymol content in ajowan oil is about equal to 
that of an average grade Spanish red thyme oil, but, as mentioned above, the latter yields a 
richer body-note in perfumes than does the ajowan oil. The oil could find use in soap 
perfumes, detergents, air-fresheners, etc. and in flavors for canned foods, but it is not likely 
that Ajowan oil will ever attain a permanent place among the materials on the perfumer's or 
flavorist's shelf. 

Almond Oil, bitter. 

An essential oil which is commercially known as Bitter Almond Oil can be distilled from one of 
the following materials: 

1) The partially de-oleated press-cake of Bitter Almond kernels from the tree Prunus 
Amygdalus, var. amara., or 

2) The partially-de-oleated press-cakes from the kernels of: 

Apricots (from Prunus Armeniaca, the peach tree), 

Cherries (from Cerasus species, various cherry trees), 

Plums (from Prunus Domestica, tree of blue preserve-plums), 

Peach (Amygdalus Persica, the peach tree), 

the latter being of little importance in respect to production of Bitter Almond Oil. 

The Bitter Almond Tree is cultivated particularly in the U.S.A., Israel, Syria, Turkey Morocco, 
Spain and France. Apricot kernels are plentiful in California, U.S.A. and in Israel. Distillation of 
essential oil from one or more of the above raw materials is carried out in the U. S. A., France, 
Israel, England, Holland, etc. Prior to distillation, the press-cake is macerated in luke-warm 


43 


water for 12 to 24 hours. This allows the formation of the essential oil which is not present as 
such either in the kernels or in the dry, partially deoleated press-cake. The above botanical 
materials contain a glycoside, Amygdalin, in the kernels. Enzymatic processes initiate the 
decomposition of this glycoside, whereby Benzaldehyde and Hydrocyanic Acid are formed. 

The crude essential oil thus contains 'significant amounts of the highly toxic hydrocyanic acid 
which must be removed before the oil can be used in flavors or perfumes. As little as 0.02 
grams of this poison is lethal to the average human being. This amount of hydrocyanic acid can 
be present in about 8 to 10 drops of crude, unrectified Bitter Almond Oil. It is interesting to 
note that hydrocyanic acid has an odor which is somewhat similar to that of Benzaldehyde, 
the main constituent of bitter almond oil. The two chemicals have nothing in common with 
respect to chemical structure. Hydrocyanic acid is eliminated from the crude bitter almond oil 
by alkali washing and rectification. 

Bitter Almond Oil is a colorless liquid of strong, but sweet and clean odor, reminiscent of 
crushed, wet bitter almonds or of a very high grade of benzaldehyde (which it might well be!). 
The odor is also familiar to those who prepare or enjoy the European candy known as 
"Marcipan" (panis marci is Latin for "marcus' loaf of bread") or "Almond Paste". This is 
probably an old Italian specialty, now a popular candy- and pastry-filling in many European 
countries. It is (or should be) made from mashed sweet almond kernels to which a few bitter 
almond kernels are added for flavor (less than 1% is sufficient). Old recipes also include rose 
water or orange flower water. The paste is worked up with icing sugar to a solid, slow-drying 
mass. 

Bitter Almond Oil, which is almost pure Benzaldehyde, is not a very stable oil. An addition of 
10 % (but not less) of ethyl alcohol is recommended as a stabilizer, and the oil should be stored 
in well filled glass containers, protected from daylight, moisture and air; the containers should 
be adjusted in size according to the rate of consumption of the contents. Crystals of benzoic 
acid will quickly appear around the cork as well as at the surface and the bottom of the 
container as soon as it has been opened just once. 

Bitter Almond Oil finds very little use in perfumery where it is replaced by a high grade of 
benzaldehyde (see below). Both materials are highly volatile and have no fixative effect at all. 
They blend well with anisic-balsamic types of odor, e.g. in lilac and other sweet florals. 

In flavors, it may be possible to tell the difference between a natural Bitter Almond Oil and a 
synthetic, high-grade Benzaldehyde. Bitter almond oil is a sweetener in apple, apricot, cherry, 
peach, pistachio, plum, raspberry, almond and countless other flavors. It is also used 
extensively in baked goods, candy, sugar fondants, etc., often without any other flavor 
material. However, a great deal of flavor is lost when the oil is used as such in baked goods. 
Fixatives, e. g. vanillin, anisic alcohol, benzaldehyde-phenylglycidates, etc. may greatly improve 
the tenacity and stability of the oil. The average use level in flavors is about 5 to 8 mg%, while 
the Minimum Perceptible is about 1.0 to 1.5 mg%. It is worth noticing that the flavor is sweet, 
not bitter. The bitter taste produced from chewing bitter almond kernels is due to a non¬ 
volatile bitter principle which decomposes in aqueous media. 

Bitter Almond Oil is very rarely produced from bitter almonds. If the oil is a natural distillate at 
all, it is most often produced from other kernels (see above). A large part of all the so-called 


44 



bitter almond oil in the market is actually a refined synthetic benzaldehyde, supposedly free 
from chlorine. The labelling FFPA stands for "free from prussic acid" (old name for hydrocyanic 
acid). The abbreviation FFC means "free from chlorine", and is obviously applied to synthetic 
products. 

If the analyst finds chlorine in a sample of bitter almond oil, this may very well be solid proof 
that the oil is synthetic benzaldehyde, either wholly or partially. If he finds hydrocyanic acid, 
this finding could be an indication of natural origin of the oil. But, unfortunately, this may not 
always be so. The perfumers in the supply houses are clever too. The hydrocyanic acid traces 
may have been added deliberately to a chlorine-free synthetic benzaldehyde in order to make 
the imitation well-nigh perfect. In such cases, it is hardly possible to tell the difference, and it 
really makes no difference either. Benzaldehyde is, of course, considerably cheaper than true 
bitter almond oil. Other well-known "mono- component" oils are: Birch Bark Oil, Winter- 
green Oil, Ho Leaf Oil, Ocotea Pretiosa Oil, etc. 

In view of the fact that there are thousands of tons of kernels from apricots and other 
"canning" fruits available as a low-cost raw material after the hydraulic expression of the fixed 
oil, it is conceivable that the production of "true" bitter almond oil (from such de-oleated 
kernels) may continue in the future. 

Amber Oil. 

Amber Oil, crude: This essential oil is produced by destructive (dry) distillation of Amber at 
atmospheric pressure. Amber is one of the oldest and hardest fossil resins, exuded millions of 
years ago, presumably from Pinus Succinifera, a fir. 

The fossil resin, which is odorless, is found on the shores of the Baltic Sea, particularly in 
Poland, eastern Germany, and also along the North Sea coasts in Denmark, Holland, and 
England. A further quantity of Amber is obtained by mining. 

Amber pieces which are unfit for jewelry as well as dust and residues from the gem industry, 
etc. are submitted to dry distillation in order to yield the so-called Succinol or Crude Amber 
Oil. Crude (or pyroligneous) Amber Oil is a dark amber-colored or brownish, but clear oily 
liquid. Its odor is smoky, tarlike, resinous, with a distinct resemblance to the odor of tanned 
leather. The crude oil finds some application in perfumery where it blends excellently with 
labdanum, castoreum, ionones, amylsalicylate, etc. and it is sweetened with cananga oil, 
benzylsalicylate, zingerone, etc. for typical "leather" bases, e.g. in men's colognes and after¬ 
shaves. 

Amber Oil, rectified: This oil is produced by steam distillation of the crude, pyroligneous 
amber oil. The steam distilled oil is a pale yellow and clear liquid with a peculiar burnt-woody, 
somewhat camphoraceous odor, reminiscent of the "still-note" in certain fresh-distilled fir and 
spruce needle oils. The odor also resembles that of crude pine oil with a kerosene-styrene 
topnote. Rectified Amber Oil finds very little use in perfumery. 

Under the name of Retinol, an oil is distilled from various resins, particularly from Pine Rosin 
(= colophony). These oils are used as solvents, e.g. for phosphorus. They find some use in 
pharmaceutical preparations. 


45 


Ambra. 


Ambra, also called Ambregris or Ambergris, is a substance of animal tissue, formed in the 
stomach or intestine of Physeter Catodon, the cachalot whale. It is conceivable that Ambra is 
the result of a pathological condition caused by irritation of the whale's stomach walls due to 
certain indigestible particles in the whale's food. Consequently, Ambra is one of the few 
natural perfumery raw materials which cannot be "cultivated", not even in the same way that 
pearls, for example, are cultivated. 

Pieces of Ambra are either washed ashore on various temperate ocean coasts and islands, or 
they are found inside the whales when these great mammals are captured for their oil 
(spermaceti oil). There is no particular area where Ambra can be found or searched for with 
regular success. The "big" finds in the history of Ambra are those of New Zealand, East India, 
West Africa (near Dakar), Southwest Africa, Madagascar, Indonesia, Brazil, Norway, etc. 
Actually, all the seashores of the seven seas can boast Ambra finds, and all the seas have 
brought Ambra to the whaling ships at one time or another. There is ample literature in 
scientific and popular periodicals and even in newspapers about individual finds from time to 
time. One of the truest things ever said about Ambra, to quote from Ed Sagarin's "The Science 
and Art of Perfumery", is: “... of all the animal perfume products, none is better known to the 
public, none less used by the perfumer" (about Ambra). 

Ambra is a pale grayish or creamy-yellow to brown or dark brown waxy solid mass which melts 
in boiling water. Its odor is rather subtle, reminiscent of seaweed, wood, moss, with a peculiar 
sweet, yet very dry undertone of unequaled tenacity. There is rarely any animal note at all ii a 
good grade of Ambra. On ageing, the material lightens in color, particularly when exposed to 
daylight and salt water. Consequently, it can be expected that floating pieces of Ambra from 
the sea (surface) are of superior quality in many cases. This is not a rule, but ageing is generally 
considered a necessity in order to obtain full maturity of odor. 

Ambra is never used as such in perfumes. From the powdered Ambra (e.g. powdered with an 
inert grinding material), Tinctures and Extracts are produced. A conventional Tincture of 
Ambergris is described under Tinctures in Part One of this book. The greater part of a good 
grade of Ambra is soluble in alcohol. By concentration of the tincture, the so-called Resinoid of 
Ambergris is obtained. In terms of the definitions in this book, the so-called resinoid is an 
alcoholic extract, resembling the so-called Resin Absolutes (see this monograph in Part One of 
this book). When concentrated 20 times, the ambergris tincture turns into a light brown, semi¬ 
solid mass, which could be called "20-fold tincture of ambergris". 

True absolutes are not commercially available or regularly produced by the supply houses. It is 
generally believed that ambra tinctures must mature 6 months or longer prior to their use in 
perfumes. Thus, it serves no purpose to concentrate much further than the above mentioned 
20-fold. This concentrate will usually contain about 50% solvent. If the tincture has been 
prepared with heat applied, the result is actually an Infusion. This extract will contain 
significant amounts of fats (waxes), soluble in hot alcohol, but not in cold alcohol. This waxy 
matter is responsible for the semi-solid consistency of dilutions of the 20-fold tincture. 


46 


Hydrocarbon solvent extracts of Ambra have been prepared, but they do not seem to offer 
advantages over the alcoholic extracts beyond the fact that the hydrocarbon extracts make it 
possible to eliminate some of the insoluble and odorless substance in Ambra. 

Ambra and tinctures and extracts thereof are used mainly in perfumery although the use is 
rare as above mentioned. It should not be thought, however, that Ambra has a limited 
application. On the contrary: it is possible to introduce this material in countless perfume 
types, and with good results. But the irregular availability, the lack of experience in selecting 
good from poor raw material—or tincture (if so purchased),—and the comparatively high cost 
of good Ambra has made it a rare item on the perfumer's shelf. Until the very recent 
identification of some of the most important constituents in the odor principle of Ambra (by 
Firmenich & Cie.), the perfumer had to use various "ambre" bases when true Ambra products 
were unavailable or too expensive. These "ambre" bases are made up from certain fractions of 
labdanum extracts, from sage clary oil, terpeneless cypress oil, delta-methylionone (beta- 
isomethylionone), cedarwood derivatives, chamomile oil moroccan, nerol, isobutyl cinnamate, 
undecenal, oakmoss fractions, seaweed extracts, beta-caryophyllenes, agar wood oil, etc., etc. 
Countless "ambre" specialties are available; some of them are excellent. 

Ambra Tincture ("ambergris" tincture) is often used in combination with at least one other 
"animal" material. Ambra has comparatively little diffusive power, but it has a tremendous 
tenacity. Musk or Civet are required to improve the "wearability" of a perfume. Consequently, 
Ambra Tincture is particularly recommended in the more delicate florals, e.g. muguet, sweet 
pea, lilac, freesia, cyclamen, white rose, etc. In the modern aldehydic "fantasy" perfume bases, 
the use of Ambra or a similar "bouquetting" agent is a necessity in order to "round off" the 
stubborn chemical notes of aliphatic aldehydes. 

Tincture of Ambra is also used in flavors, mainly as a bouquetting additive to round off and 
mellow the blend of synthetic flavor materials. Fruit flavors, tobacco flavors and liqueur flavors 
are frequently improved with this exquisite material. 

Ambra is obviously subject to adulteration. It is characteristic of many of these rare perfume 
materials that one finds their best evaluators among the suppliers, not among the perfumers. 
In London and in New York, certain houses that have specialized in dealing with comparatively 
few natural raw materials for perfumes and flavors can be proud of having on their staffs some 
of the world's finest experts on Ambra. However, samples or deliveries of Ambra or 
preparations thereof should, in all cases be subjected to thorough olfactory examination prior 
to purchase or use of these delicate materials. 

Mainly in order to avoid confusion with the fossil resin Amber, the author has preferred to use 
the more international word Ambra for the material which is better known in English-speaking 
countries under the name of Ambergris. 

Ambrette Seed. 

Ambrette Seeds are produced in the fruits of a cultivated plant. Hibiscus Abelmoschus, in 
Angola (West Africa), Ecuador, Hai-nan (China), Indonesia, Madagascar (Nossi-Be), Martinique 
(West Indies), Seychelles (Indian Ocean), etc. 


47 


The essential oil has been produced locally in Nossi-Be, but distillation is now carried out 
mostly in Europe and in the United States of America. Four different perfume and flavor 
materials can be produced from the seeds: 

1) Ambrette Seed Oil, liquid or solid. 

2) Ambrette Seed Concrete, and from the concrete: 

3) Ambrette Seed Absolute. Finally, an 

4) Ambrette Seed Tincture is produced. 

Product No. 2) is of little or no importance. It is an intermediate, and is rarely produced at all. 
Product No. 3) is prepared by "purification" of product No. 1). For details, see below. A true 
Concrete of Ambrette Seed and a Tincture are occasionally used in certain flavor compositions 
where they lend excellent "body" to synthetic mixtures of flavor materials. 

Ambrette Seed Absolute. 

A "true-to-the-name" Ambrette Seed Absolute can be produced from the true Concrete (see 
below) by alcohol washing of the lukewarm concrete, followed by chilling and filtering of the 
alcoholic extracts. After evaporation of the alcohol, a colorless to pale yellow liquid oil is left: 
this is Ambrette Seed Absolute. 

Commercial Ambrette Seed Absolute is not produced by this method. It is produced from the 
essential (distilled) oil either by neutralization and subsequent elimination of the fatty acids, or 
it is steam distilled from the extracted (true) concrete. In other words, the absolute is the 
essential oil minus the fatty acids which are solid and insoluble in cold alcohol. They also tend 
to produce a rancid odor in ambrette seed oil upon ageing. Ambrette Seed Absolute is thus 
not a true absolute according to the definitions in this book. It is somewhat similar to an 
Absolute Oil. Various suppliers will supply quite different products. Application and odor 
description fall generally within the notes given in the monograph on Ambrette Seed Oil, see 
below. 

Ambrette Seed Oil. 

When Ambrette Seeds are distilled whole (uncrushed), a liquid essential oil is produced. This 
oil contains only small amounts of the odorless palmitic acid. Crushed seeds yield a solid 
essential oil (so-called "concrete"; compare this to "Orris Concrete"). The solid oil contains a 
very high amount of palmitic acid, and the oil is quite similar to the concrete extraction 
product (true Ambrette Seed Concrete). 

A true Concrete is produced by hydrocarbon extraction of the crushed seeds. It consists mainly 
of palmitic and myristic acids, unstable and odorless materials. This type of concrete has very 
little importance in perfumery or flavor work. From the above summary, it can be seen that 
some confusion exists with respect to the nomenclature of ambrette seed products. 

Liquid Ambrette Seed Oil should be allowed to age for several months before being used in 
perfumes or flavors. By then, the initial fatty notes are subdued, and a rich, sweet, floral- 
musky, distinctly wine-like or brandy-like odor is developed with a bouquet and roundness 
rarely found in any other perfume material. The odor has some notes in common with cypress 


48 


oil, Bulgarian rose oil, sage clary and cognac oil. There are certain tobacco-like and "overripe 
fruit"-like notes with great similarity to higher esters of decyl alcohol. The water-white or pale 
yellow oil displays a tenacity of odor which is almost incredible. As a flavor material, it also 
displays features which are quite unique. A suggested use level would be 0.10 to 0.30 mg%, 
while the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.01 to 0.04 mg%. One part of Ambrette Seed Oil in 
ten million parts of neutral sweetened fluid is distinctly recognizable to the taste. The odor of 
these dilutions remains very characteristic of ambrette seed oil. 

The oil should be stored in a 50% or 10% alcoholic solution at reduced temperature in order to 
prevent the appearance of rancid notes due to a possible decomposition of traces of fatty oils 
and acids in the essential oil (or in the absolute). 

Ambrette Seed Oil and Ambrette Seed Absolute find application in perfumes of the more 
sophisticated type. These materials blend excellently with rose, neroli, methylionones, 
sandalwood oil, cyclamal, hydroxycitronellal and aliphatic aldehydes, etc. 

Ambrette Seed (oil or absolute) are known for the "exalting" effect which they impart to 
perfumes, and for the unique bouquet they lend to perfumes and flavors. They are very 
expensive materials, and the annual production can be measured in two-figured kilo-amounts. 
Adulteration with synthetic Ambrettolide (a natural constituent of ambrette seed) or with 
similar macro- cyclic lactones, and with farnesol, etc. is not infrequent. 

Ambrette Seed Tincture. 

This tincture is produced by maceration of the crushed ambrette seeds in ethyl alcohol of 80% 
to 90% strength. The conventional proportion is 25 parts of seeds to 100 parts of diluted 
alcohol. The tincture finds occasional use in lotion perfumes and in tobacco flavoring, liqueurs 
and some fruit flavors. 

Ammoniac Gum. 

Ammoniac Gum (also called Ammoniacum) is a natural oleo-gum-resin which is exuded after 
incisions in the stem of the tall plant, Dorema Ammoniacum (in Iran), or from various Ferula 
species (in Libya and Morocco). The substance is a physiological formation inside of the stems 
of the plant (compare Asafoetida). When incisions are made, the milky juice oozes out and 
quickly resinifies into tear-shaped bodies. The ammoniac gum is known commercially in this 
form. 

The natural material contains about 75% alcohol-soluble substances, including about 3% 
essential oil. 

Tinctures and resinoids are produced from this material, and are used in perfume and flavor 
work to a limited extent. Tincture of ammoniac gum has some fixative value and imparts a 
certain "animal" note to perfumes. It blends well with rose, jasmin, sweet wood oils, heavy 
oriental perfumes, etc. and all materials of the "balsamic sweet" type. 

The essential oil of Ammoniac Gum is produced by steam distillation of the crude botanical. 
The oil is not produced on a commercial scale and it is not regularly available. It is a pale yellow 


49 


to pale orange colored, mobile Liquid of penetrating sulphuraceous-mercaptanelike odor, 
reminiscent of onions. The alcohol soluble portion of the essential-oil-free ammoniac gum is a 
pleasant smelling, balsamic type of fixative material. The essential oil could find some use in 
flavor work for meat sauces, seasonings, etc. 

Amyris Oil. 

Amyris Oil is steam distilled from the wood of Amyris Balsamifera, the so-called West Indian 
Rosewood. The tree grows in northern parts of South America, in Central America and in the 
West Indies. It has been introduced in many tropical zones all over the world. Distillation takes 
place mainly in Haiti, and to a lesser extent, in the neighboring Dominican Republic, in Jamaica 
and Venezuela. Occasionally the wood is exported in billets and distilled elsewhere (Europe, U. 
S. A.). The wood is an excellent furniture wood. Amyris Oil was earlier known as West Indian 
Sandalwood Oil. To avoid further confusion, this misnomer will be omitted from the 
monographs in the present work. 

Amyris Oil is a viscous liquid of pale yellow, yellow or brownish-yellow color. Its odor is faintly 
woody, not dry. It has a slightly oily-sweet, balsamic note, and occasionally displays a faintly 
peppery topnote, reminiscent of guaiacwood or cubeb. The body-odor is very tenacious, but it 
rapidly loses the rich, complex odor, fading out in a very weak, woody-balsamic note. The odor 
varies considerably, depending on the age of the oil and the age of the wood prior to 
distillation. 

Amyris Oil has recently become subject to extensive adulteration, particularly in the sense that 
certain fractions are sold separately, while other fractions are cut with cedarwood oil (type 
"Virginia") or with copaiba balsam. The natural unfractionated amyris oil has some perfumery 
value beyond its well-known fixative power. But its woody effect is far inferior to that of 
sandalwood oil, for example. 

Amyris Oil and its fractions are also acetylated to yield so-called "Amyris Acetate", a product 
of very ill-defined character. If the acetylated oil is isolated from the accompanying 
monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, a fairly interesting "amyris acetate" can be produced. The 
odor of this material is lighter, fresher, greener than that of amyris oil, and it is also less fatty- 
sweet. 

Amyris oil finds extensive application as a mild blender in numerous types of perfume, 
particularly in soap perfumes. It blends well with ionones, methylionones, lavandin oil, 
coumarin, oakmoss products, terpineol, citronella oils, sassafras or ocotea oils, amylsalicylate, 
etc. 

The oil is readily available in large quantities. During the past 10 years, the annual production 
has fluctuated between 15 and 75 tons. It's very low cost has made it a popular fixative for 
soap perfumes and other low-cost fragrances. In recent years, Amyris Oil has been used for 
the "official and conventional" cutting of Haiti Vetiver Oil. The "rule" is that 5% amyris oil is 
added to all locally produced vetiver oils before these are exported from Haiti. 


50 


Anethum Sowa. 


Little known, and hardly used outside of India and Japan, the oil of Anethum Sowa is steam 
distilled in India from the fruits (so-called seeds) of the locally grown dill, Anethum Sowa. A 
similar species is grown and distilled in Japan. 

The essential oil of Anethum Sowa is a pale yellow mobile liquid of sweet-herbaceous, 
somewhat woody-spicy odor. When freshly distilled, the oil displays a rather unpleasant 
topnote. The dryout is very faint, woody and not very pleasant. The overall odor type is 
distinctly different from that of the European or American Dill Fruit Oil (particularly the English 
dill fruit oil), the latter being closely related to the caraway oil, while the Anethum Sowa is 
more like the parsley fruit oil in type. The author has very little experience with the application 
of Anethum Sowa oil in perfumes or flavors, and it is not conceivable that this oil will ever 
attain any importance in European or American perfumery or flavor work. 

See also Dill "Seed" Oil and Dill Weed Oil. 

Angelica Root Absolute. 

Angelica Root Absolute is produced by a two-step extraction of angelica roots. For details of 
botanical origin etc., see Angelica Root Oil. The comminuted roots are first extracted with 
petroleum ether or benzene, and the solvent is completely recovered in vacuum. The residue 
(= the concrete extract) is subsequently extracted with ethyl alcohol. The alcoholic extract is 
chilled, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. After recovery of the alcohol, the Angelica 
Root Absolute is left as a viscous, yellow-brownish liquid. According to the method of 
extraction and depending particularly upon the strength of alcohol used, the absolute contains 
little or no Phellandrene. This fact is distinctly reflected in the odor-flavor characteristics of 
Angelica Root Absolute. 

Its odor is intensely musky-woody, heavy, sweet, somewhat spicy, with a resemblance to 
Pimpinella root. The richness in odor body has some similarity to that of ambrette seed 
absolute, but the earthy, root-like notes of the angelica root absolute recall the odor of a 
drugstore. There is hardly any distinct topnote or pepperiness at all. (Note the difference from 
the odor of angelica root oil). 

Angelica Root Absolute is particularly well qualified for flavors where the poorly soluble and 
unstable monoterpene Phellandrene, would be a drawback. The Minimum Perceptible of the 
absolute is about 0.005 to 0.010 mg%, placing this material among the most powerful flavor 
materials of natural origin. Angelica root absolute can be used in perfumery for its unusual 
tenacity and peculiar animal note, combined with a rich body. The absolute does not impart 
the typical topnote effects which can be obtained with the essential oil from the root. 

Angelica Root Absolute is produced almost exclusively in France, and only on a very limited 
scale; locally grown or imported root material is extracted in the Grasse region. The absolute is 
considerably more expensive than the essential oil, although the comparatively good yield by 
extraction should make possible a lower cost of the absolute in case of increased demand. 


51 


Angelica Root Oil. 


This oil is steam distilled from the dried roots of Angelica Archangelica, a tall plant which is 
cultivated in Belgium (near Lessines), Holland, France, Germany, Hungary, and northern India. 
Distillation takes place in most of the countries where the plant is grown. The dried roots are 
subject to insect attacks and do not keep well. This is an interesting fact since the essential oil 
from this plant is now in the limelight as an insect attractant, with special regard to the so- 
called "Mediterranean fruit fly", a dreaded hazard to the citrus fruit growers in many 
countries, including Florida, U.S.A. Belgian roots are highly esteemed, and are exported for 
distillation abroad. The angelica plant is an overwintering, mansize umbellifer plant. The fruits 
(seeds) from this plant are also distilled (see Angelica Seed Oil). The stalks are used in 
confectionery, either preserved in heavy syrup or in a candied form. 

Angelica Root Oil is one of the more expensive essential oils, for several reasons: 

1) The yield by steam distillation is very low. 

2) The distillation demands a significant amount of steam, and it takes 12 to 24 hours 
to exhaust the root material. 

3) It is preferable that the roots should be not more than 2 years old. It takes three 
years for the plant to produce seed (fruits), which are also used for distillation of an 
essential oil (see Angelica Seed Oil). When seeds are harvested from three year old 
plants for distillation, the roots from these plants yield much less oil. The oil from old 
roots is different from that of young roots, but not inferior in respect to fixative value. 
The monoterpenes have resinified, and the old oil has little or no peppery topnote. 

4) It is troublesome and hard work to harvest and clean the roots. 

Angelica Root Oil is a water-white or pale yellow to orange-brown colored liquid. Its color and 
viscosity varies according to the root material used for distillation and according to the age of 
the oil. The main constituent is Phellandrene, a monoterpene of comparatively minor value in 
perfumes and flavors. It is responsible for the light, somewhat peppery topnote of oils from 
young roots. Beneath the peppery topnote grows a rich, somewhat herbaceous-earthy, woody 
body- note of unique tenacity and great diffusive power. The note is also slightly musky- 
animal-like with a spicy undertone. Various lactones, occurring in trace amounts in the oil, are 
held responsible for these special effects of the oil and for the synergistic effect it imparts to 
other perfume materials in compositions. One of these lactones is Cyclopentadecanolide 
which is available as a synthetic material under a wealth of brand names. The discoveries of 
this lactone in angelica root oil and of Ambrettolide in ambrette seed oil belong to the 
milestones of the twentieth century in the development of synthetic perfumery materials. The 
scientists Ruzicka, Stoll and Kerschbaum made history with these and related materials in the 
late 1920's. 

Angelica Root Oil is very highly esteemed in perfumery and flavor work. Its power is easily 
underestimated, and it is an art in itself to use this oil correctly, and to adjust the application 
and concentration according to the inevitable type-variations in the various shipments of oil 
even from the same producer. The oil blends well with patchouli, opopanax, costus, sage clary, 


52 


vetiver, oakmoss, coumarin, etc., in heavy chypres, oriental bases, etc. or in special citrus 
colognes and fougeres. 

In flavors, the oil finds wide application in liqueurs, particularly those of the "Cointreau" type. 
The taste is similar to the odor and extremely powerful. Suggested use level is 0.30 to 0.60 
mg%, but the Minimum Perceptible is as low as 0.01 to 0.02 mg%. Wide variations in these 
figures can be expected in various qualities of this oil. 

Angelica Root Oil is produced on a very limited scale only. A Belgian and a Dutch producer turn 
out the bulk of the annual world production which is less than one ton. 

Angelica Seed Oil. 

This oil is distilled by steam from the seeds (fruits) of the same plant which yields angelica 
roots (see Angelica Root Oil). The seeds are produced in the third year of growth. Cultivation 
and production areas are the same as those mentioned under the root oil. 

Angelica Seed Oil is a water-white or very pale yellow, mobile oil of strong, fresh, light and 
peppery odor. The topnote is distinctly terpenelike, at times almost harsh in its roughness, but 
also quite fresh. A sweet, almost anisic undertone is quite characteristic, and there is less 
woodiness, less earthiness in the seed oil than in the root oil. The seed oil has less tenacity, 
and presents a very weak dryout note of the same type as found in the root oil. Here again, 
there are wide variations according to the age and quality of the oil. The flavor is somewhat 
pungent, terpene-like, but quite powerful. Suggested use level is 0.50 to 1.0 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible is about 0.02 to 0.04 mg%. 

Angelica Seed Oil was initially used in chypres, fougeres and similar complex fragrances. It has 
also been used in Continental types of toothpaste flavors. The root oil is preferred in 
perfumery for its superior tenacity, while the seed oil presents a unique fresh-peppery 
topnote, although a very expensive one. A less ethical use of the seed oil is that of cutting the 
root oil. This adulteration can be very hard to detect. 

The main constituent is a monoterpene Phellandrene which is prone to polymerise or resinify 
when the oil is improperly stored. Cool, dark and dry storage in well-filled small containers of 
glass is recommended. 

The annual world production of Angelica Seed Oil (mainly from a Dutch and a Belgian 
producer) is estimated at less than one ton. The seed oil, too, is subject to intensive research in 
connection with studies on insect attractants (see monograph on Root oil). 

Angostura. 

Angostura Bark is obtained from a wild growing tree, Galipea Cusparia, in the mountains 
along the Orinoco river in Venezuela. The bark is used locally as a febrifuge, and some 
therapeutic effect is attributed to glycosides in the bark. It is claimed that an essential oil can 
be produced by steam distillation of the bark, and the yield is given at somewhere between 
0.16% and 1.90% with little or no reference to actual or recent experiments. The author has 
never conducted such experiments, nor is he aware of having ever seen a true essential oil of 


53 


Angustura Bark. However, the bark is often extracted with alcohol to yield a tincture which 
contains the bitter elements, glycosides, aromatic substances, coloring matter, etc. Tinctures 
or extracts are more truly representative of the total flavor of the bark than an essential oil 
would be, even if such an oil were available. Angostura Tinctures are used in the flavoring of 
alcoholic beverages where a bitter or "astringent" effect is called for. Many famous bitters owe 
their flavor partly to this ingredient, but the most famous of all "Angostura Bitters" is actually 
made without any angostura bark at all. This bitter-tincture is prepared from gentian root, 
bitter orange peel, cinnamon bark and probably other spicy botanicals, culinary herbs, etc. A 
few drops of this so-called "Angostura Bitter" in a glass of plain carbonated water ("Club 
Soda") produces a delicious thirst-quencher for hot and humid summer-days, and this simple 
drink has more flavor than a "Quinine Tonic". But it does not contain any Angostura bark at all. 
The author has used a 20% tincture of Angostura Bark (2 weeks maceration) for experiments, 
and these experiments confirm the fact that the true tincture has less flavor than the above 
so-called "Angostura Bitters". The author finds it inconceivable that Angostura products will 
ever find much application in perfumes or flavors. 

Anise. 

See also Star Anise Oil. 

True Anise Oil is steam distilled from the dried and crushed fruits ("seeds") of the annual herb, 
Pimpinella Anisum. The herb originated in the Near East, and is now cultivated in many 
countries: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chili, China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, 
Mexico, Morocco, Poland, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, USSR, Yugoslavia, etc. Most of the 
Turkish production goes into "raki", a popular alcoholic beverage. 

Only a few of the above countries produce Anise Oil. The fruit is also distilled outside of the 
growing areas. Poland and the USSR are among the largest producers of Anise Oil from locally 
grown fruits. 

Anise Oil, also called Anise Seed Oil or Aniseed Oil, is a water-white or very pale yellow liquid 
of intensely sweet and clean odor, truly reminiscent of the crushed fruit. A very common 
description is that of "licorice odor". Obviously, this is another example of circle-minded 
association (like the "chocolate odor of vanilla or vanillin). Anise Oil and its derivatives are used 
as flavoring ingredients in licorice candy, but the licorice extract itself (i.e. the extract of the 
rhizome) does not have any odor resemblance to anise. 

The flavor of Anise Oil is also sweet, soft and mild, although, at the same time, it is quite rich 
and powerful in effect. Characteristic of a good Anise Oil (and also of pure anethole) is the 
wide limits of concentration in the application of these oils. In other words, it is not easy to 
overdose when anise flavor is called for. Suggested use level is about 5.0 to 10.0 mg% (lower 
when anise oil is used as a sweetener only). The Minimum Perceptible is 0.30 to 0.60 mg%. It 
is not a very powerful flavor material. 

Anise Oil is used mainly in flavors. It is an important ingredient in the flavoring of licorice 
candy, cough-drops, baked goods, pharmaceutical preparations, etc. It is also used in certain 
types of tobacco flavor, e.g. pipe tobaccos. In perfumes, the oil finds some use as a masking 


54 


agent for obnoxious odors such as hydrogen sulfide, e.g. in cold-wave preparations and 
depilatories. It is also useful for masking the odor of cod liver oil and other rancid odors, 
particularly in combination with sweet orange oil and coumarin. However, for industrial 
perfuming and technical preparations, it is not economically feasible to use the essential oil. 
Synthetic Anethole is cheaper, and does not have to meet the same strict specifications for 
toxicity as those demanded of anise oil for flavors. The toxic cis-Anethole (isomer of anethole) 
does not occur in anise fruit oil (see monograph on Star Anise Oil and toxicity of cis-anethole). 

Anise (fruit) Oil was once used quite extensively in flavors for candy, liqueurs, brandies ("raki" 
in Turkey, "anisette" in France and overseas French territories), tobacco, baked goods, spice 
blends, canned foods, pickles, etc. However, the oil has been largely replaced by synthetic 
anethole (e.g. from estragole, isolated in the fractionated distillation of American pine oil). 

(See monograph on Star Anise Oil and cis-anethole). 

For a period of several decades, the Chinese and Indochinese Star Anise Oil entered the 
market, replacing the anise fruit oil so effectively that even the Pharmacopoeias acknowledged 
the use of the two oils indiscriminately. When star anise oil became unavailable during and 
after World War II, a synthetic anethole was produced whose purity of flavor was perfected to 
such a degree that the synthetic anethole now completely dominates as an anise flavor 
ingredient. Substantial quantities of true anise fruit oil are still produced in Poland and the 
USSR, and good lots of these oils are shipped all over the world. In respect to cost, it cannot 
compete with the synthetic anethole, but its flavor is still preferred by many connaisseurs for 
its fine and delicate sweetness, its rich body and bouquet. 

True Anise (fruit) Oil may not disappear completely from the flavor market, but the oil has 
become scarce, and it is unlikely that its production will be increased in the future. 

An oil, distilled from the plant Osmorrhiza Longistylis is occasionally sold as Anise Oil or Sweet 
Cicely Oil (in the U.S.A.). See also Clausena Anisata and Star Anise Oil. 

Anona Squamosa. 

The essential oil of Anona Squamosa is steam distilled from the leaves of a small tree 
belonging to the N.O. Anonaceae. The tree is extensively cultivated in India where it is known 
as "sitaphal". 

Anona Squamosa oil is yellow, olive-green or greenish. It has a pleasant, somewhat spicy- 
woody odor reminiscent of cedar, cubeb, cardamom, etc. The taste is distinctly bitter, and it is 
not conceivable that this oil could find use in flavors. The oil is occasionally used in local 
perfumery when woody-spicy, fresh and somewhat dry-tenacious notes are wanted. 

Anona Squamosa oil is fairly inexpensive, but it is not available in sizeable quantities outside of 
its country of origin. 

The oil consists mainly of terpenes and sesquiterpenes of which beta-caryophyllene forms the 
major part. 


55 


The tree Anona Squamosa is widely cultivated in tropical zones for its highly aromatic fruits, 
known as Sugar Apples, Custard Apples, Pommes-Cannelle, Sweet Sop, etc. Thus, there is 
ample supply of leaf material for distillation in the event that the essential oil should prove of 
greater interest in the future. These fruits are of the size of a small orange and resemble giant 
raspberries or pine cones in appearance (compare "pine"- apple). When fully ripe, the fruits 
are so tender— almost creamy—that they cannot be shipped over long distances. Their aroma 
is so rich, strong and peculiar that many people have never become accustomed to enjoying 
this tropical delicacy fully. 

Anthocephalus Cadamba. 

From the flowers of the Kadamba (or cadamba) tree in northern India is produced an essential 
oil by water distillation and a concrete by benzene extraction. The tree grows wild in most 
parts of India, and it is cultivated in the western and northwestern parts of that country (U. P.). 
The cadamba tree is related to gardenia and karokarounde and, although it is not a very large 
tree, it carries flowers of quite impressive size (average 10 grams per flower). At night, the 
flowers exhale a strong, heavy-sweet fragrance reminiscent of orange flowers, jasmin, and 
gardenia. These creamy-colored or orange-yellow flowers form globe-like clusters at the 
terminal branches, the globes being about 1—2 inches in diameter (2 Zi to 5 cms.). 

The yield of essential oil is extremely small, and it is necessary to collect the distillate in 
benzene in order to avoid a total loss of oil in the distillation waters. The yield of concrete from 
benzene extraction of the flowers is about 0.2%, and the content of absolute in this concrete is 
very small. 

Anthocephalus Cadamba oil is a pale yellow or yellow oily liquid of a woody-floral and sweet 
odor with a short-lived, but strong minty-borneolic topnote. The dryout is delightfully sweet- 
floral, reminiscent of champaca and neroli. The tenacity of this fragrance is almost incredible. 

In perfumery, the oil could undoubtedly find quite extensive use. It blends excellently with 
ylang-ylang, neroli, jasmin, cassie, mimosa, alpha-isomethylionone, heliotropine, cassione, 
aliphatic aldehydes, etc. The full yield of this interesting perfume oil is obtained only when the 
oil is skillfully and cautiously supported by mild, sweet florals, fixers and modifiers. Neroli oil 
would supply a suitable topnote. 

Partly because of the very poor yield by water distillation, partly because of the highly 
developed local technique of co-distilling botanical material with a certain amount of a more 
readily available essential oil (in the still pot or the receiver), Cadamba oil is frequently offered 
as an "attar", distilled into a receiver with sandalwood oil. 

Concrete and "attar" of Cadamba are available on a limited scale, and the items are produced 
regularly in the provinces where the tree is cultivated. In the author's personal opinion, this is 
one of the many rare perfume materials which really deserves a permanent and prominent 
place on the perfumer's shelf. 


56 


Apopin Oil. 


Apopin Oil is the name given to the essential oil which is water-and-steam distilled from the 
wood of a species of Cinnamomum Camphora, native to China and Formosa. The tree is one of 
the so- called camphor trees, and it is furthermore the most common of all the camphor trees. 
However, the essential oil of this particular species, locally known as Yu-Sho or Shu-Yu, is not 
the oil from which camphor is isolated. (See monograph on Camphor Oils). 

Apopin Oil contains camphor, eucalyptol (= cineole) and terpineol in almost equal amounts. 
The oil is liquid and does not separate camphor (as distinguished from the "Hon-Sho" or so- 
called "true" camphor oil). 

Apopin Oil serves as a low-cost perfume oil in its country of origin. It is also used as a starting 
material for the isolation of the above mentioned three components. 

Apopin Oil is not a commercial article in the European or the American perfumery business, 
but since the botanical material for the production of this oil is available in such tremendous 
quantities, it is very likely that the oil will retain its importance as a local source of the above 
mentioned perfume materials. 

Another interesting feature is that certain fractions of Apopin Oil serve as a basis for the 
production of the so-called "Eucalyptus oil". This oil has recently (1958/59) appeared in 
significant quantities on the European market and elsewhere. This fact presents a serious 
threat to the production of genuine Australian, Spanish, Portuguese, African and other 
eucalyptus oils. Economic effects are already perceptible in several of these producing areas. 

See also monographs on Camphor Oils and Eucalyptus Oil, Chinese. 

Araucaria Oil. 

Araucaria Oil is steam distilled from the wood of a comparatively small tree, Callitropsis 
Araucarioldes, which grows wild and abundantly in New Caledonia (South Pacific). The tree is 
related to thuja, cypress and sandarac trees, but it seems to be known only in the above small 
area. The wood is distilled in western Australia, far away from its origin. 

Araucaria Oil is solid at room temperature, but if melted, it may remain supercooled as a very 
viscous liquid for a considerable length of time. The solid oil is not quite homogeneous, often 
grainy in texture. It is very pale yellow to olive-green or of a brown color. The oil may contain 
some iron. 

Its odor is delicately woody, but also rich and sweet (a rare combination), almost floral like 
nerolidol or cabreuva oil. It has notes in common with amyris oil, bois de rose, copaiba, good 
guaiacwood oil, and the sesquiterpene fractions from Java type of citronella oil. 

Araucaria Oil is an excellent fixative among the groups of "so-called" fixatives (see monograph 
on Fixatives, Part One of this book). The oil is also used as a starting material for the isolation 
of Eudesmol, a sesquiterpene alcohol. The acetate of this alcohol, Eudesmyl Acetate, is 
available and it has been used as a replacement for linalyl acetate. 


57 


Araucaria Oil is a very low-cost perfume material, but it has not yet found extensive use 
beyond that of a modifier-fixer in soap perfumes, e.g. mimosa, chypre, fougere, lily-of-the- 
valley, lilac, etc. It blends excellently with sage clary, methylionones, hydroxycitronellal, 
linalool, etc. The oil is not produced on a large scale, but it is freely available in smaller lots, 
directly or indirectly from the producer in western Australia. 

Arnica Oil. 

Arnica Oil is steam distilled from the flowers of Arnica Montana, a perennial plant which 
grows wild in many parts of Northern and Central Europe, Scandinavia, USSR, etc. It grows wild 
and is also cultivated in Northern India where it has been used for the skin-healing effects of its 
infusions and tinctures. A related plant, Arnica Cordifolia, and other species of arnica are used 
in the U.S.A. and are known as "mountain tobacco". 

The yield of essential oil is very small, and the cultivation of the plant is highly problematic. 
Consequently, the oil is scarce and expensive. 

It is conceivable that only a minor part of the aromatic principles of the flowers are isolated by 
the steam distillation. Hence, it is preferable to use a tincture or an extract (e.g. an absolute) of 
the flower material. A few French supply houses offer an Arnica Absolute, and a Resinoine- 
type is also produced. These products are more representative of the flower than are any 
other products from arnica. 

Arnica Oil is a yellow-orange or greenish-blue colored liquid. 

Arnica Absolute or Arnica Resinoine are dark amber colored, viscous liquids of intensely 
herbaceous-sweet, tealike, somewhat spicy, powerful and very tenacious odor. The dryout is 
bitter, tealike and very pleasant. The odor of the oil resembles that of chamomile with a 
certain woody-earthy undertone. One of the aromatic principles of the absolute is 
Thymohydroquinone Dimethyl-ether which is present in greater amounts in the essential oil 
from the roots, Arnica Root Oil. The latter is not a commercial article. The literature disagrees 
as to the similarity or dissimilarity in odor of the two oils. Arnica Root Oil is yellow or dark 
yellow in color, and is more viscous than the flower oil. 

Arnica Oil (from flowers) finds occasional use in perfumes of the herbaceous (i.e. non-floral) 
type, e.g. chypre, fougere, "tabac", leather, colognes, etc. It is also used in certain flavors for 
liqueurs. The oil is produced on a very limited scale, mainly in France or Germany from locally 
grown material or from Belgian flowers. 

The flavor is slightly bitter, but rich and herbaceous, tea-like and pleasant. Suggested use level 
is 0.50 to 1.00 mg%, while the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.10 to 0.20 mg% with 
substantial variations according to type of oil (distilled, extracted, etc.). 

Artabotrys Odoratissimus. 

This medium-sized tree originates in the Philippines and the Indonesian archipelago. The tree 
is cultivated for its very fragrant flowers which may possibly be confused with cananga flowers. 
The tree is related to the Ylang-Ylang tree. 


58 


Artabotrys Suaveolens. 


The flowers of Artabotrys Suaveolens, also of the same genus as the Ylang-Ylang, have 
occasionally been admixed to the flowers of Cananga Odorata prior to the distillation of 
Cananga oil from the latter. The artabotrys tree is cultivated in Indonesia for the production of 
an essential oil by steam-water distillation. The two artabotrys oils are not commercially 
available, and are rarely offered outside of their countries of origin. They are mentioned in this 
volume for the sake of completion of the monographs on Cananga Oil and Ylang-Ylang Oil. 

Artemisia Alba. 

This oil is steam distilled from the whole over- ground part of Artemisia Alba, a wild-growing 
perennial from the Mediterranean countries. The plant is particularly common in Tunisia 
where the oil is distilled on a limited scale. The oil is shipped to France where it has been used 
in perfumes and flavors for over 40 years. Other species, closely related to the above plant, are 
found in the Mediterranean area. One is distilled in Morocco under the name of Artemisia 
Herba-Alba. 

Artemisia Capillaris is known and used in many places all over the world, while Artemisia 
Mendozana grows in Argentina and serves as a source of a locally distilled and locally used 
essential oil. 

Artemisia Alba is easily recognized by its silver- gray, silky haired leaves. The plant is a close 
relative to the common Wormwood plant which yields Wormwood Oil, sometimes called 
absinth oil. (See monograph on Wormwood Oil). 

The essential oil of Artemisia Alba is a dark green, rather viscous liquid of very powerful, bitter- 
herbaceous odor and bitter-burning flavor. The "greenness" in odor type and the peculiar 
bitter aroma of this oil makes it an interesting item for chypre, fougere, "forest" notes, 
aftershave colognes, etc. and for the flavoring of alcoholic beverages. 

See also Artemisia Vulgaris and Wormwood Oil. 

The essential oil of Artemisia Alba is a dark green, rather viscous liquid of very powerful, 
bitter-herbaceous odor and bitter-burning flavor. The "greenness" in odor type and the 
peculiar bitter aroma of this oil makes it an interesting item for chypre, fougere, "forest" 
notes, aftershave colognes, etc. and for the flavoring of alcoholic beverages. 

See also Artemisia Vulgaris and Wormood Oil. 

Artemisia Annua. 

An essential oil is distilled from the whole over- ground parts of wild growing and cultivated 
Artemisia Annua plants in Yugoslavia. The plant is harvested just before the flower-buds open 
when the essential oil content is at its maximum. 

The oil is pale yellow to greenish yellow, and has a pleasant, almost balsamic-sweet, somewhat 
spicy odor. There is some similarity to the odor of basil oil with a fresh-green foliage note. Oil 
of Artemisia Annua is used locally in the soap industry and for cosmetic preparations in the 
perfuming of these products. The yield by steam distillation of this plant is much higher than 


59 


the yield of oil from other artemisia species. Accordingly, this is one of the most inexpensive 
artemisia oils. Apparently, the oil of Artemisia Annua is not regularly available outside of its 
country of origin. 

Artemisia Vulgaris. 

The artemisia plants seem to have originated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Most of 
these species are found growing wild and abundantly all over the temperate and cold- 
temperate zones of the world. A very common weed in Central Europe, Southeastern Europe, 
India, China and Japan is the Artemisia Vulgaris. An essential oil is steam distilled from the 
dried herb in the South of France, in Morocco, Germany, Hungary, India, China and Japan. The 
French oil is known as "essence d'Armoise" 

The essential oil of Artemisia Vulgaris is a pale yellow or almost colorless liquid (as 
distinguished from the blue-green color of Wormwood Oil and of Artemisia Alba). The odor is 
powerful, fresh- camphoraceous, somewhat green and bitter-sweet, with a cedarleaf-like 
topnote and a sage-rosemary- like bodynote. The dryout is very pleasant, sweet herbaceous 
and tealike. The flavor of Artemisia Vulgaris Oil is warm, almost pungent, but also bitter¬ 
sweet, showing a slightly cooling effect in higher dilution. It should be kept in mind that there 
are numerous types of this oil on the market, and that wide variations in odor and flavor can 
be expected according to the origin of the oil. Infusions of the dried herb are used in Europe 
for gargles in the same way as, e.g., infusions of Dalmatian sage herb. 

The essential oil is used in perfumery to add freshness and warmth to lavender-colognes, 
chypres, fougeres, pine fragrances, etc. Artemisia Vulgaris Oil blends excellently with 
oakmoss, patchouli, rosemary, lavandin, isobornylacetate, pine needle oils, sage clary, Spanish 
sage, coumarin, decylalcohol, etc. The oil shows great power and diffusiveness, and it is stable 
in soaps. The odor type is much more refined and balsamic than that of cedarleaf with which 
the above oil is sometimes compared. 

Artemisia Vulgaris Oil finds some use in flavors, although it is conceivable that its thujone 
content may one day prohibit its use in food. A suggested use level in flavors is about 1.00 to 
2.00 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.20 to 0.40 mg%. It is not a very powerful 
flavor material. 

The herb is present in abundance, and the essential oil is available upon request in quite large 
quantities. The oil is not at all common, however, and it rarely appears in the commercial 
offers and price lists. The author believes that this oil deserves more attention from perfumers 
for its delightfully natural, herbal and refreshing notes. 

Asarum Europaeum. 

The essential oil of Asarum Europaeum is steam distilled from the entire fresh plant of the 
European Hazelwort. This plant grows wild in Poland, and is distilled locally on a limited scale. 
The oil is dark amber colored or almost brown, and very viscous. Old oils often show a deposit 
of crystals. The odor of Hazelwort Oil is somewhat reminiscent of that of Canadian Snakeroot 


60 


Oil: a sharp, peppery, spicy-woody and warm, but not very pleasant odor. The flavor is 
burning, almost pungent and sharp, far from pleasant. 

The oil could, however, still serve as an interesting item for fine perfumery and in the 
reproduction of other essential oils. Its penetrating and peculiar note can produce quite 
interesting effects in oriental perfumes and chypres when the oil is used with skill and 
experience. It blends well with vetiver, isoeugenol, opopanax, oakmoss, patchouli, etc. 

The main constituent of Asarum Europaeum Oil is a phenolic ether, Asarone, a stereoisomer 
of which is found in Calamus Oil. 

Asarone is odorless and solid, and has probably no value in perfumes or flavors. Consequently, 
the actual value of Asarum Europaeum Oil is possibly due to the minor constituents, e.g. 
certain terpenes. According to private communication to the author from Polish distillers, 
Asarone is not present in oils from old or thoroughly dried plant material. 

Asafoetida. 

Asafoetida or Asafetida is a natural oleo-gumresin, exuded from roots of a big plant, Ferula 
Asafoetida, and other species of Ferula, a plant native to Iran and Afghanistan. The substance 
is a physiological product of the plant. When overground parts of the plant are cut off, a milky 
juice flows out and solidifies upon exposure to air. Material is also collected from the outside 
of the root-stem under the surface of the soil. The foliage of the plant is a local vegetable and 
the oleo-gum-resin is, in a way, a by-product, but it has retained a substantial interest for its 
peculiar odor and flavor. The annual consumption in the U.S.A. alone is about 50 metric tons. 

The crude botanical is contaminated with sand, earth, gravel, vegetable fragments, etc. and it 
is used in the production of the following preparations: 

1) Asafoetida Resinoid by hydrocarbon extraction. 

2) Asafoetida Absolute or Asafoetida Tincture by alcohol extraction. 

3) Asafoetida Oil by steam distillation. 

The resinoid is a semi-solid, dark brown mass. Its odor is somewhat coarse, and the product is 
not recommended for flavor use. By acetone- extraction, a superior resinoid is obtained. 

Asafoetida Absolute or "resin-absolute" is a semi-solid reddish-brown mass of distinctly 
alliaceous odor. However, beneath the garlic-onion- like topnote there is an immensely rich 
and sweet-balsamic body of highly interesting type. The dryout reveals some vanillin or related 
component. Ferulic Acid is present as an ester in large quantities in Asafoetida. The acid is 
closely related to the flavor principle of Maple Syrup (Ferulaldehyde or 4-hydroxy-3- 
methoxycinnamic aldehyde). It is also related to isoeugenol and vanillin. 

Asafoetida Oil is a pale yellow or orange-yellow colored liquid, having a sharp alliaceous, 
almost obnoxious and acrid odor. The flavor is slightly bitter, acrid and somewhat pungent. Its 
power and radiation is often underestimated, and the oil lacks the valuable fixation and 
balsamic background typical of the extracted products. The yield of essential oil by steam 
distillation of the crude botanical material is about 7 to 9%, occasionally much higher. 


61 


Generally, the Resinoid or the Absolute, at times the Tincture, are used in flavor work in spice 
blends, meat sauces, pickles, etc. The use of Asafoetida in "Worcestershire Sauce" is well 
known. Suggested use level, based upon the alcohol-soluble matter (60 to 68% of the crude 
botanical), is 3 to 5 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.50 to 1.00 mg%. The effect 
of the fixative, balsamic materials in the extract is obvious. 

At low concentrations, Asafoetida Absolute can introduce very intriguing notes in rose bases 
and heavy oriental fragrances. The alliaceous odor of asafoetida is due to large amounts of 
sulphur compounds in the essential oil only; there are no sulphur compounds in the non¬ 
volatile part of the extract. By steam distillation of the extract, it is possible to eliminate the 
alliaceous odor and produce a very interesting perfume material of great fixative value. This 
material is not commercially produced, but it is quite easy for most consumers to perform this 
partial "de-odorization" of Asafoetida. 

Asafoetida is readily available and it is fairly inexpensive. The age of the crude botanical has a 
significant influence upon the odor and flavor of its processed derivatives. 


Atractylis (Concrete) Oil. 

Atractylis Oil is steam distilled from the roots of Atractylis Ovata and possibly from other 
species of Atractylis, native to China and India, occasionally cultivated in Japan. The small 
plants have been known in China for thousands of years. The oil is produced in China, but 
some shipments of root material arrive quite regularly in Europe, e.g. in France, where a few 
Grasse houses also distil the oil. Atractylis Oil is thus available all over the world on a limited 
scale. 

Atractylis Oil is a solid, waxy-crystalline mass of dark yellow to orange-red color. It is not unlike 
Bruyre Absolute, Guaiacwood Oil or Araucaria Oil in consistency, all of which are also 
"concrete" oils. The odor of atractylis oil is strong peppery, woody-spicy, warm and dry, 
somewhat reminiscent of elemi, ginger, and galanga. The flavor is pungent, somewhat bitter 
and warm, not very pleasant. 

Atractylis Oil is very useful in perfumery where its excellent fixative effect and surprising 
power can be utilized in heavy oriental bases, woody fragrances, spicy and dry ambra types, 
etc. The oil blends excellently with vetiver, ionones, phenylethylalcohol, isoeugenol, opopanax, 
nitromusks, etc. Isoeugenol and phenylethylalcohol produce a distinct leather note with small 
amounts of Atractylis Oil. The main constituent of this oil is a solid sesquiterpene alcohol, 
probably identical with Eudesmol, (see also Araucaria Oil). 

Atractylis Oil appeared on the European market in 1953, and is now available on a limited 
scale. The yield by steam distillation of the root is very good (about 8%) and the oil can be 
produced at a cost which is very reasonable, considering the power of this perfume material. 


62 


B 


Backhousia Citriodora. 

An essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of a wild growing tree, Backhousia Citriodora, 
in eastern and southeastern Australia. Although the oil has been known since late in the 19th 
century, it has never obtained great importance. 

The oil is a pale yellow or yellow mobile liquid of intensely fresh lemon-like odor with a 
pleasant sweet-green undertone. The main constituent is Citral which is present in amounts of 
more than 90%, occasionally up to 98%. This fact is clearly perceptible in the odor and flavor of 
the oil. In this respect, it bears some resemblance to the Chinese oil of Litsea Cubeba. 

As a source of citral, the essential oil of Backhousia Citriodora would be excellent if the oil 
were freely available in 100-ton lots. Its odor is much cleaner and fresher than Lemongrass Oil, 
and there are no grassy-fatty or harsh notes at all in the Australian oil. Even the amylacetate¬ 
like fruitiness of lemongrass oil is absent in Backhousia Citriodora. 

The Australian tree is not cultivated on more than an experimental scale, however, and it is 
inconceivable that the oil will ever become an important raw material. Litsea Cubeba oil may 
take over the job of providing a low-cost source for citral isolation if Lemongrass Oil is unable 
to keep up the competition. 

Oil of Backhousia Citriodora could be used in flavors for its unusually clean, lemon-like aroma. 
But here again synthetic citral is slowly replacing the isolated natural citral. For perfumes, the 
Backhousia Citriodora Oil will hardly be able to compete with a redistilled Litsea Cubeba Oil or 
with synthetic blends. 

Backhousia Myrtifolia. 

Essential oils are distilled from leaves and twigs of trees of the above name in southeastern 
Australia. It has been disclosed recently that at least 4 different "physiological" forms of this 
tree grow in the area. Consequently, it is scarcely economically feasible to produce the 
individual oils. Only experienced botanical experts can distinguish among the various forms 
just by looking at the trees. Other Australian trees, e.g. eucalyptus species, melaleuca species, 
occur in various physiological forms. So far, the most common types of essential oil distilled 
from the individual physiological forms are: 

1) The Elimicin form of Backhousia Myrtifolia. The main constituent is trimethoxy- 
allylbenzene, a sweet-woody smelling material; 

2) Isoelemicin form of Backhousia Myrtifolia. This oil consists mainly of Isoelemicin. 

3) and 4): Methyleugenol form and Methyl Isoeugenol form. 

All four types of essential oil could be of considerable interest if they were produced on a large 
scale. They would be interesting starting materials for the isolation of the above mentioned 
main constituents which are either well-known and regularly used perfume materials (the 
latter two), or useful modifiers-fixatives for perfumes (the two former). 


63 


None of the above four types of Backhousia Myrtifolia Oil are produced on a commercial 
scale. 

"Balsam Fir" Needle Oil. 

Also known as "Canadian Fir Needle Oil", this essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves 
(needles) and twigs of Abies Balsamea, the "Balm of Gilead Fir". The tree is a fir, but the 
commercial name is confusing. The tree grows abundantly in Canada and the northeastern 
United States. It should not be confused with the tree which yields "Balm of Gilead Buds" (see 
monograph on Poplar Bud Oil). 

Abies Balsamea also yields a so-called Canada Balsam which is a turpentine type of natural 
oleoresin. (See Canada Balsam). 

Balsam Fir Needle Oil consists mainly of monoterpenes, e. g. l-limonene, l-beta-pinene and I- 
camphene, while l-bornylacetate is the main oxygenated component (15 to 18% of the oil). 

The oil is a pale yellow or almost water-white mobile oil of a peculiar oily-balsamic, somewhat 
resinous, hut also fresh and sweet odor, resembling the odor of spruce oil or pinus pumilio oil. 
The abies balsamea needles oil is equal in sweetness to the oil of pinus pumilio, but poorer in 
balsamic notes than this oil. On an overall basis, the abies balsamea oil is poorer in sweetness 
and tenacity than the better grades of spruce oils. 

Oil of Abies Balsamea serves as a "pine-and- spruce" fragrance in fresh-balsamic "fir-needle" 
blends, Christmas-tree odors, fougeres, air fresheners, disinfectants, detergents, household 
cleaners, etc. The production of Abies Balsamea Oil is irregular, and it is rarely available in very 
large quantities. It is often confused or deliberately adulterated with other fir or spruce needle 
oils; it may be an entirely artificial composition, based upon isobornylacetate, limonene, 
camphene, pinene, etc. 

Balsam Fir Needle Oil does not offer any unique notes, and it may eventually disappear from 
the market, particularly if the richer bornylacetate-types of conifer needle oils become freely 
available. (See also Fir Needle Absolute and Fir Needle Oils, Summary). 

Balsamite. 

An essential oil under the name of "essence balsamite" is steam distilled from a wild growing 
or cultivated herb of the family compositae. The plant is related to tansy (tanacetum) and is 
quite commonly grown in France as a culinary herb. The oil is distilled in the south of France on 
a very limited scale. 

Balsamite Oil is a clear yellow or pale yellow liquid of very powerful, fresh-herbaceous and 
somewhat medicinal odor. The very first topnote bears some resemblance to the odor of 
Evoulimba Oil or to wild marjoram, pennyroyal terpenes, light fractions of pine oil, etc. The 
bodynotes have certain phases in common with basil, hyssop and savin. An almost nauseating, 
savin-like note is very persistent in the odor of this oil. The dryout is sweeter but resembles at 
times sulfate turpentine and terpinolene. All told, it is an unusual odor gamut and it is not 
surprising that the oil has attracted the interest of certain perfume houses. 


64 


Balsamite Oil could undoubtedly introduce piquant topnotes in fougeres, pine fragrances, 
spicy after-shave lotions, etc. and it blends well with rosemary, bay leaf oil, sage oil, cedarleaf 
oil, isobornylacetate, etc. 

The author has only little experience with the application of this oil in perfumes. It is hardly 
conceivable that the oil can find use in flavors. 

Basil Oil. 

Included among a large number of different types of Basil Oils are two which have become 
particularly common in perfumery and flavor work: 

1) The true Sweet Basil Oil which is steam distilled from the flowering tops of the small 
plant Ocimum Basilicum in France and in the United States of America. Smaller 
quantities are produced in Italy, Hungary and Spain. 

2) The "Exotic" or so-called "Reunion" type of Basil Oil is produced in the Comoro 
islands, the Seychelles, and occasionally in Madagascar. The two oils can be 
distinguished by their odor characteristics in a brief description such as: 

1) The Linalool-type, 

2) The Camphor-Estragole type. 

The former type also contains estragole, but this material is not typical of the odor of the 
Sweet Basil Oil. It does not contain camphor. 

The latter oil contains more estragole than No. 1), and the odor of the "Exotic" type is not 
covered up by the content of camphor in that oil. This type contains little or no linalool. 

In other words, the absence of camphoraceous notes and the presence of a perfect odor 
balance between linalool and estragole is characteristic of true Sweet Basil Oil. The two oils 
are described in the individual monographs which follow: 

1) Sweet Basil Oil: The oil is usually pale yellow or almost colorless. Its odor is sweet- 
spicy, slightly green, fresh, with a faint balsamic woody undertone and a lasting 
sweetness. It is produced in very limited quantities (annual world production is less 
than one metric ton), and the oil ranks among the more expensive essential oils. 
However, its great strength makes it very useful and generally applicable in fine 
perfumery and in flavor work. 

In perfumes. Sweet Basil Oil has been a "classic" material in the "Origan" type of 
perfumes and bases for several decades. In chypres, crepe de chines and certain 
modern aldehydic and "green" perfume types, the oil can introduce very interesting 
notes. It blends well with the most varied types of perfume material, e.g. opopanax or 
bergamot oil, isoeugenol or sage clary, methylionone or cyclamal, lime oil or oakmoss, 
hydroxycitronellal, etc. Sweet Basil Oil finds some application in flavors, e.g. in the 
"chartreuse" type of liqueur, and in high-priced culinary seasonings, meat sauces, etc. 


65 


The suggested use level is 0.30 to 1.00 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.04 to 
0.10 mg%. 

2) “Reunion" type Basil Oil. This oil is usually yellow or greenish-yellow to pale green in 
color. Its odor is somewhat coarse-herbaceous, slightly camphoraceous in the initial 
notes, and displaying the intense sweetness of the estragole, a so-called "anisic" type 
of odor. The estragole, also known as methyl chavicol, is distinctly perceptible in the 
odor of "Exotic" Basil Oil. Although it has been claimed by authorities in the field that 
this "exotic" type of basil oil can be used "wherever the price of sweet basil oil 
prevents the use of this expensive oil", the author of the present work can hardly 
consider the "exotic" type of basil oil as a replacement for the "French" type. 

The trade offers basil oils under a wealth of "exotic" and "French" names, and it is not 
uncommon that an "exotic" oil may be "doctored" with e.g. 60% added linalool. This 
blend is then offered as "French" basil oil, occasionally with the addition of "pays" or 
some "provincial" name added on the label. This substitute is useful in soap perfumes 
or other low-cost perfumes as a fair replacement for the much more expensive sweet 
basil oil. It hardly pays, however, to substitute a sophisticated exotic basil for sweet 
basil oil in flavor work. There are trace components in the true sweet basil oil that 
make this oil much more powerful than the above "theoretical" substitute oil. The 
author has found the approximate use level for "exotic" basil oil to be 0.60 to 2.00 
mg%. The Minimum Perceptible is about 0.08 to 0.20 mg%. The sweet basil has at 
least twice the flavor strength compared to the exotic type. An addition of 60% of 
linalool to the exotic oil only lowers the flavor strength. 

"Exotic" Basil Oil is produced in a number of countries with a tropical or subtropical 
climate. The plant occurs in many varieties, one of which deserves more attention: 

3) The "Methylcinnamate" type of Basil Oil. This oil is produced in West Africa, East 
Africa, India, Indonesia, the West Indies, the Balkan States, etc. The oil is of yellow or 
pale yellow color, and it is much sweeter in odor than the "exotic" basil oil. It is much 
more fruity and not at all as fresh-green as the "French" basil oil. Its main constituent 
is Methylcinnamate which is available as a synthetic material at a very low cost. The 
above oil could find some use in soap perfumery, e.g. for local production of soap 
perfumes, provided the oil becomes available in larger quantities. 

4) A fourth type is the "Phenolic" type of basil oil. One of these is listed in the present 
work under the botanical name of the plant from which it is distilled: Ocimum 
Gratissimum. 

Bay Leaf Oil. 

Bay Leaf Oil or Bay Oil is distilled from the leaves of a middle-sized tree, Pimenta Racemosa, 
earlier known as Myrcia Acris. The tree grows wild, but is also cultivated in various islands of 
the West Indies, particularly on the island of Dominica. Other important producers are Puerto 
Rico, Venezuela, Montserrat, St. Lucia and the tiny island of St. John, U.S. Virgin islands, 
formerly known as the Danish West Indies. 


66 


The leaves are distilled either with water or with steam. It is customary to add salt to the 
distillation water in order to increase the temperature and thus complete the distillation of oil 
more rapidly (compare Vetiver oil in Reunion, etc.). 

Bay Leaf Oil is a yellowish to dark brown liquid. (Variations in color occur according to the type 
of still used and the kind of shipping container). The odor is fresh-spicy, somewhat medicinal, 
but it has a lasting, sweet-balsamic undertone. The odor of this oil is quite obnoxious to some 
people, sickly sweet, nauseating. To others, it is quite fresh and pleasant. The chief constituent 
is eugenol which is also present as a methylether. Myrcene, limonene dipentene and small 
amounts of citral bring a certain freshness to the harshleafy, phenolic odor. The flavor of this 
oil is warm, almost pungent, spicy and somewhat bitter. To the author's knowledge, this oil 
finds little or no use in flavor work. 

Bay Leaf Oil is used very extensively in hair lotions, after-shave lotions, and other "men's line" 
fragrances. The old-fashioned type of "Bay Rum" was produced in the former Danish West 
Indies by distillation of Rum over Bay Leaves. Bay Rum is still available, but often produced 
merely by dissolving a Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil (see following monograph) in diluted alcohol 
and rum. 

Bay Leaf Oil is readily available in large quantities, but unfortunately, also in quite variable 
qualities. The annual production is between 25 and 75 metric tons, of which a considerable 
quantity is consumed in the producing areas. Adulteration of Bay Leaf Oil occurs quite 
frequently, e.g. with clove leaf oil, bois de rose terpenes, lime oil terpenes, synthetic myrcene 
and other terpenes, all of which are cheaper than bay leaf oil and readily available in Europe 
and the U.S.A. Terpenes from the bay leaf oil itself are also available where the Terpeneless 
Bay Leaf Oil is produced (see next monograph). 

Bay Leaf Oil, terpeneless. 

Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil is produced from "crude" (or "natural") Bay Leaf Oil by removal of 
the terpenes, usually only the low-boiling monoterpenes: myrcene, dipentene, pinene and 
limonene. Low-boiling oxygenated components, e.g. cineole and citral, may be lost in a 
careless vacuum distillation. The deterpenation is often carried out by this simple "topping-off" 
of the monoterpenes. Deterpenation is rarely, if ever, carried out on a commercial scale in the 
countries of origin of the Bay Leaf Oil. 

Bay Leaf Oil contains approximately 60% of the so-called oxygenated (i.e. non-terpenic or non¬ 
hydrocarbon-) components. The loss by total deterpenation would then be around 40% of the 
oil. By the "topping-off" process, the sesquiterpenes are left in the oil. 

Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil is a pale straw- colored to brownish-orange colored oil, depending on 
the method of deterpenation. "Topped-off" oils are obviously darker than the natural oil from 
which they were produced. Very pale colored oils may have been steam distilled after 
deterpenation, or they may be alcohol-washings of the natural oil (so-called "absolutes"). The 
latter type of oil will be terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless. 

Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil has an intensely sweet, deep and mellow odor of a spicy-balsamic 
type. The lemon-like topnote is still perceptible, but the freshness is less pronounced 


67 


compared to the natural oil. Furthermore, the terpeneless oil is more easily soluble in diluted 
alcohol. This is an obvious advantage since the oil is used in preparations with low alcohol 
percentage (hair- lotions, after-shave lotions, etc.). 

The Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil blends excellently with lavandin or lavender oil (e.g. in the classic 
"Rondeletia" type) and with petitgrain, citrus oils, rosemary, geraniol, citronellol, cinnamic 
alcohol, amylsalicylate, ylang-ylang, etc. in a wide variety of perfumes and perfume bases. 
Although the components of this oil are well known and readily available from other sources, 
there is really no suitable substitute for a good Terpeneless Bay Leaf Oil. 

Beeswax Absolute. 

Perhaps better known under its French name, Absolute Cire d'Abeille, this comparatively rare 
perfume material is an alcohol-soluble extract from crude yellow beeswax. The beeswax is 
cleaned of mechanical impurities by melting and subsequent straining. Extraction is usually 
performed as a direct alcohol-washing of the beeswax. 

Beeswax is produced all over the world: in cold-temperate zones and in the hottest tropics. In 
a way, it is a by-product of honey production since the wax is secreted on the underside of the 
bee, Apis Mellifera. The honey is recovered from the honeycombs by slicing off the end 
sections of the cells, draining them, and centrifuging out the honey. The waxcombs are rinsed 
with water, then melted and run into pans or molds to harden while cooling. The Toilet Goods 
Association defines Beeswax as "the purified honeycomb of the bee, Apis Mellifera, free from 
all other waxes". 

The main producers of beeswax are: Angola (Portuguese West Africa), the West Indies, 
California, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Chile, Spain, North Africa, the Union of South Africa, 
etc. From a chemical point of view, all these beeswaxes are practically identical. A perfumer 
would be able to distinguish one beeswax from another because a characteristic odor is left in 
the wax (similar to the "brand" of special flavor imparted to various sorts of honey), according 
to where it has been harvested, and from what kind of flowers the bees have collected their 
nectar. Benguela wax from Angola is one of the best known waxes used in Europe for cosmetic 
purposes. However, in order to produce a uniform and interesting grade of Beeswax Absolute, 
the few Grasse producers often prefer a locally produced beeswax, probably derived from 
bees that visit the clover fields in the Grasse area or elsewhere in France. 

Yellow Beeswax contains three different types of material: 

1) Cerolein, which is carried over in the absolute since it is soluble in cold alcohol. 
Cerolein is a mixture of higher fatty acids. It is probably responsible for the fatty-waxy 
body-notes of the Beeswax Absolute. 

2) Cerotinic Acid, a saturated aliphatic acid (fatty acid), soluble in hot alcohol, almost 
insoluble in cold alcohol. 

3) a mixture of Myricyl Alcohol and the Myricyl Ester of Palmitic Acid, both insoluble 
in alcohol. Accordingly, this third part should not be present in Beeswax Absolute, 
although the Cerotinic Acid is present very often. 


68 


Beeswax Absolute is a solid, waxy mass of pale yellow color and a very mild, sweet, 
oily odor, with a haylike or coumarinic bodynote and a soft, waxy undertone. The odor 
is remotely reminiscent of good (not harsh) linseed oil with a trace of honey notes. 
Obviously, the odor of Beeswax Absolute is strongly dependent upon the origin of the 
beeswax (i.e. the hunting grounds of the bees). Various suppliers will offer quite 
different types of Beeswax Absolute. The material is usually not soluble in cold 
ethylalcohol. 

Beeswax Absolute is useful in perfumes where similar notes occur (as a modifier), or where 
"rough or chemical" corners of synthetic materials must be rounded off. It blends well into 
jasmin, mimosa, cassie, violet, new mown hay, "tabac", etc. as well as in the so-called "cire 
d'abeille" perfume base, in which a meadow-like sweetness and heavy, honey-like floral notes 
are predominant (coumarin, cassione, phenylethyl phenylacetate, helichrysum oil, flouve oil, 
liatris extract, chamomile, etc.). 

Beeswax Absolute could be available in size- able quantities on fairly short notice, but it is 
presently produced on a very limited scale. Partly for this reason, the cost is comparatively 
high. Many consumers prefer to make their own beeswax absolute according to their own 
specifications. The quality and the uniformity of this perfume material is strongly dependent 
upon the producer. Actual adulteration is rare. Some producers just don't know how to make a 
Beeswax Absolute which is worth its price (often higher than mimosa absolute!). 

Benzoin. 

Benzoin Tincture and the various Benzoin Resinoids, "Resin Absolute", etc. are described 
under this heading. The two most important types of raw material, Benzoin Siam and Benzoin 
Sumatra, are described in the following monographs. 

Benzoin Tincture is usually prepared only from selected "tears" of Benzoin Siam. Conventional 
strength is 20 parts by weight of Siam Benzoin, macerated with enough alcohol (of 90 or 96% 
strength by volume) to produce 100 parts by weight of finished tincture. The above quality of 
Benzoin is almost entirely soluble in alcohol, and the tincture will thus represent an 
approximate 20% solution of the alcohol-soluble resinoid of this benzoin. The tincture is amber 
colored, and has a sweet, balsamic-vanillin-like odor. The taste is somewhat bitter. Benzoin 
Tincture is used as a fixative in fine perfumery, in colognes, in alcohol for "prefixation" prior to 
the preparation of colognes and lotions, etc. Benzoin tincture is furthermore used in skin 
preparations for its skin-healing effect and, occasionally, in certain cosmetic preparations for 
its antioxidant effect. 

Benzoin Resinoid is produced from all grades of the crude botanical, Siam or Sumatra, often 
from a mixture of both. (See following monographs on the two types of Benzoin). Evaluation of 
Benzoin Resinoid is thus a difficult task since the customers are confused with respect to the 
actual standard of true resinoids. Various solvents are used for the extraction of the crude 
benzoin. 

Benzene is the most common, but "cold alcohol" extraction is becoming more popular. It 
offers several advantages. 


69 


If ethyl alcohol is used directly, the resulting extract is called a Resin Absolute of Benzoin. If, in 
addition, heat is applied, and if the crude benzoin has not been neutralized, the free acids 
(benzoic acid and cinnamic acid) will esterify part of the ethyl alcohol under formation of ethyl 
benzoate and ethyl cinnamate. These esters are very useful perfume materials of substantial 
power and good fixative effect, but they do not represent the natural contents of benzoin, nor 
is it conceivable that a uniform odor quality of benzoin resinoid can be produced by this 
method. It is therefore suggested that benzoin should first be extracted with benzene, the 
extract be filtered and evaporated partially. The concentrated solution is then washed neutral 
with weak alkali, separated clear, filtered and finally evaporated under gentle vacuum. This 
yields a neutral resinoid which can be extracted with alcohol to yield an entirely alcohol- 
soluble Benzoin Absolute. This product is very pale in color, and has a most delicate balsamic 
odor, free from harsh resinous and acid notes. This true absolute is definitely superior to the 
direct one-step alcohol extract from the crude benzoin. 

Extraction with ethyl alcohol at a maximum temperature of 40°C., subsequent filtration of the 
extract and evaporation under vacuum with a "skin temperature" of maximum 50°C. (the 
temperature of the inner side of the vacuum still,, also called "pot temperature"), and 
prolonged "airing" under vacuum without heating will produce a very attractive, light-colored 
and true-tonature "Resin Absolute of Benzoin". This product is not acid-free. 

The yield of resinoid in the case of Siam Benzoin is nearly 95% for the best grades, about 85% 
for poorer grades. Sumatra Benzoin also yields up to 95% in the case of very good grades, 
while average commercial lots may yield as little as 65% resinoid. Among well-known Sumatra 
types are the "Penang" and the "Palembang" benzoins which usually give around 65% yield of 
resinoid. 

The Sumatra Benzoins give darker resinoids, sometimes almost brown, and they can have a 
styrax-like odor. 

As stated previously, Benzoin Siam is characterized by its content of Benzoic Acid (10 to 12%), 
while the major constituent is Coniferyl Benzoate (65 to 75%). Other resin acids are present. 

Benzoin Sumatra contains mainly Benzoresinyl Cinnamate and Benzoresinyl Benzoate, 
Cinnamic Acid, Styrene (characteristic odor, also found in styrax). Both types contain Vanillin, 
but since the consumers apparently expect more of this material in Siam Benzoin than in the 
Sumatra type, it is not uncommon to add up to 5% vanillin to commercial lots of Benzoin 
Resinoid. This resinoid may be prepared from a mixture of Sumatra and Siam, mostly the 
former, and, by the addition of substantial amounts of vanillin, it becomes a "commercial 
grade" of Siam Benzoin Resinoid, which may even be labelled "absolute". This high amount of 
vanillin is not natural to any benzoin, nor is it without significant discoloring effect, e.g. in soap 
perfumes or in perfumes which contain anthranilates, indol, etc. 

Benzoin Resinoid is used very extensively in perfumery, particularly in soap perfumes (see 
above on discoloration) where its fixative effect is much appreciated. It is generally applicable, 
but it has a pronounced odor-depressing effect upon the perfumes in which it is incorporated. 
This effect is closely connected with the fixative effect, and it is enhanced by the rich 
sweetness and deep balsamic notes from the resinoid. 


70 



Benzoin Resinoid is occasionally adulterated with Sumatra benzoin extracts, doctored up with 
vanillin (see above), or it is "stretched" with Acaroid Resinoid, abietic alcohols, methyl 
abietate, benzyl benzoate, copaiba balsam, amyris oil, etc. The addition of smaller amounts of 
diethyl phthalate as a plasticizer is considered normal "for convenient handling", and when 
clearly labelled so. 

Benzoin Siam. 

Siam Benzoin is a natural gum-resin or, more correctly, a "balsamic resin" (see Gum Resin and 
definitions, Part One of this book). The resin is obtained from the small tree, Styrax 
Tonkinensis, a native of Indochina (Laos and Tonkin). Other species are known to yield similar 
gum-resins called Siam benzoin. The balsamic latex flows from wounds in the bark and outer 
wood where incisions are made deliberately. Benzoin is thus a pathologic product (it does not 
occur in healthy, unwounded trees). It is furthermore characteristic that not all of the benzoin 
trees will yield a latex after incisions. 

The milky latex solidifies by oxidation and exposure to air and sunlight. When the benzoin is 
collected, it is already semi-solid, and it soon becomes hard and brittle, yellow-reddish or 
orange colored to pale brown, often translucent (thus differing from Sumatra types of 
benzoin). The name Siam is attached to this type of benzoin merely because of the fact, that 
the merchandise is often exported via Siam (Thailand) in transit. 

Benzoin Siam comes in variable sizes of pebble- like, often tear-shaped pieces, hard and 
brittle, rarely agglutinated. The individual pieces are yellow-orange or yellowish-brown, and a 
characteristic feature is the almost white or cream-colored fracture. The odor is pleasant, 
sweet-balsamic with a distinct note of vanillin. When chewed, Siam Benzoin becomes plastic. 
Its taste is aromatic but somewhat acrid-bitter and biting. 

There are several grades commercially available of Benzoin Siam. "Selected tears" or "tears 
No. 1" are considered superior for perfumery purposes. Lower grades of "tears" are somewhat 
darker, and they may have more insoluble matter. "Almonds" or "Amygdaloid" forms of Siam 
Benzoin give a very pale tincture or extract, but these grades are less aromatic than "selected 
tears". The best grades of Siam Benzoin contain 95% or even more alcohol-soluble matter. 

(See monograph on Benzoin Resinoid and Tincture). 

Benzoin Sumatra. 

Sumatra Benzoin is a natural balsamic resin, exuded from a small tree, Styrax Benzoin, grown 
extensively in Sumatra and Malaya. Incisions are made in the trunks either through the bark or 
after peeling off spots of bark, and a viscous balsamic substance is produced as a pathologic 
material in the trunk. The substance flows out and solidifies on making contact with the air. 

The gum-resin is collected from the incisions and from the bottom of the trunk at the foot of 
the tree where significant quantities of benzoin accumulates. There are several grades of 
Sumatra Benzoin. The "Almond" grade is considered the most suitable for perfumery 
purposes. It consists mainly of white or cream-colored brittle pieces, somewhat resembling 
almonds. This quality obviously yields a very pale-colored resinoid or tincture. It contains about 
90% alcohol-soluble matter, occasionally more. Other grades of Sumatra Benzoin are solid 


71 


masses, dark blocks of gray or brown-gray, uneven lumps containing more or less quantities of 
dirt, sand, wood splinters, etc. 

Sumatra Benzoin consists mainly of cinnamates (esters) of coniferylalcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, 
benzoresinol, phenylpropylalcohol, etc., as distinguished from Siam Benzoin which consists 
mainly of benzoates. 

Lower grades of Sumatra Benzoin, (e. g. "Palembang" and "Penang"), have odor 
characteristics in common with Styrax (i.e. more harsh odor than "Almond" benzoin). They are 
darker, reddish-brown in color. The amount of essential oil or volatile constituents in benzoin 
is negligible, and an essential oil is not commercially available. 

Benzoin Sumatra is a low-cost and readily available raw material, extensively used as a 
replacement for Siam Benzoin which is far more expensive. From a perfumer's point of view, 
however, the two benzoins should be considered as two different products. One can not 
substitute for the other. Siam Benzoin will find application in the more delicate fragrances. It is 
not possible to add the above mentioned known materials to a Sumatra Benzoin and convert 
it to anything like a fair grade of Siam Benzoin. The Sumatra type will remain a coarser product 
which can be used in perfumes of the more harsh-balsamic, sharp- floral type, e.g. hyacinth, 
new mown hay, etc. 

Siam Benzoin is also superior with respect to antioxidative effect, e.g. in lard and other fats. 

Bergamot Oil. 

The economy of citrus oils in general is clearly depicted by the study of Bergamot Oil 
production. Only the expressed oil from the peels of the fruits from the small bergamot tree, 
Citrus Bergamia, are of any substantial interest. The pulp or juice is of little value beyond what 
can be converted into citric acid. The leaves and twigs may be distilled to yield a Bergamot- 
Petitgrain Oil (see that monograph), but the fruits are not edible. 

Bergamot Oil is produced by cold expression from the peel of the nearly ripe fruit. The tree 
grows almost exclusively in a narrow coastal strip in the southern part of Calabria, Italy. 
Cultivation of bergamot trees in other areas have failed to produce bergamot oils of 
comparable value to that of the Calabrian oil. There is one exception, however: experimental 
plantations in Guinea (former French West Africa) since 1937, and more recently in Morocco 
have now attained some importance on the world Bergamot Oil market. Bergamot trees are 
grafted on stubs of bitter orange trees. The fruits are of the size of big oranges and almost 
lemon-shaped. The annual world production (over 90% of which is Calabrian) fluctuates 
between 150 and 250 tons. 

Bergamot Oil is a green or olive green, mobile liquid of extremely rich, sweet-fruity initial odor. 
Although the characteristics of this topnote remain perceptible in good oils, it is followed by a 
still more characteristic oily-herbaceous and somewhat balsamic body and dryout. The 
sweetness yields to a more tobacco like and rich note, somewhat reminiscent of sage clary and 
nerylacetate. The freshness in the topnote is mainly due to terpenes and small amounts of 
citral and aliphatic aldehydes. Absence of the "oily" note is one of the most revealing features 
in poor or adulterated bergamot oils. The color of bergamot oil fades on ageing, particularly 


72 


when the oil is exposed to daylight. The oil turns yellow or pale olive-brown. The color is also 
dependent upon the maturity of the fruit at the moment of expressing. Like all other citrus 
oils, Bergamot Oil is produced in the immediate vicinity of the plantations. 

The oil is used extensively in perfumery for its sweet freshness, particularly in citrus colognes, 
chypres, fougeres, modern fantasy bases, etc. Part of the sweetness and rich bodynote is due 
to the presence of large amounts of linalylacetate combined with linalool and traces of 
methylanthranilate. It is interesting to find the presence of methylanthranilate together with 
aliphatic aldehydes, citral etc. in several citrus oils. In perfume creation, it is generally 
considered somewhat hazardous to include substantial amounts of aldehydes when 
anthranilates are present. The formation of "Schiff's bases" produce a very intense color which 
may be visible in the perfumed cosmetic product or in a soap. Other perfumers will 
deliberately utilize this simple chemical phenomenon to produce an increased sweetness in 
orange-flower or neroli types of fragrance, etc. 

Unlike most other citrus oils, Bergamot Oil has a certain fixative effect when used in fairly high 
concentrations. The odor of the oil is well balanced from nature through the presence of 
certain coumarin derivatives, some of which are odorless and non-volatile. The quantity and 
composition of the evaporation residue is another important criterion in the analysis of 
bergamot oil. 

Bergamot Oil is also used in flavors for its sweet-fruity and yet refreshing notes. It is quite 
popular in "hard candy" and as a modifier, along with other citrus oils. Bergamot oil forms the 
original flavor principle in the Continental hard candy known as "Althaea drops". Bergamot is 
also used in the flavoring of tobacco, particularly in the Continental types of pipe tobacco. The 
oil is frequently adulterated. Less than 10 years ago, when the cost of Linalylacetate (the main 
constituent of bergamot oil) was more than half the cost of the oil itself, adulteration was 
often done with the addition of terpinylacetate and other low-cost esters. Today, with 
synthetic linalylacetate available at one-fifth the old price, it is possible to cut bergamot oil 
directly with linalool and linalylacetate. A simple example will show how easy a 4 % % profit is 
made without any laboratory or factory facilities. An ordinary bergamot oil contains about 38% 
linalylacetate. To the oil is added 5% linalylacetate synthetic. The mixture has now a total of 
40.85% linalylacetate which is not extraordinary. The net profit made by selling the latter 
mixture at the price of the former original oil is an additional 4 % %. This adulteration is 
extremely hard to identify by olfactory examination alone. Other common adulterants are 
bitter orange oil, lime oil, citral, d-limonene, etc. Adulterations with diethylphthalate, diacetin, 
terpinylacetate, etc. are considered so crude that the author finds it superfluous to discuss 
these in detail. 

The increasing and unscrupulous adulteration of Bergamot Oil has resulted in the 
establishment of the "Consorzio di Bergamotto" in Calabria. All oils which leave the Consorzio 
warehouses will carry the seal of the Consorzio with the guarantee for purity and genuineness. 
However, it is still possible to find excellent if not superior qualities of Bergamot Oil on the 
"free" market, i.e. outside the reach of the Consorzio. 

(See also monographs on Bergamot Oil, Terpeneless, Bergamot Petitgrain Oil and Bergamots 
"fallen", oil of -.). 


73 



Bergamot Oil, terpeneless. 


From among the number of various methods of deterpenation (see Part One under 
Terpeneless Oils), vacuum distillation seems to have become the most popular in the case of 
bergamot oil. Certain users of high-grade terpeneless bergamot oil will perform their own 
deterpenation, e.g. by selective solvent extraction or by the chromatographic methods. These 
methods result in practically colorless oils with a negligible loss of low- boiling and important 
oxygenated components. Occasionally, only the coarse-smelling light monoterpenes and the 
waxy residues are removed by simple vacuum-distillation. This yields an oil which is well suited 
for perfumery purposes: it will have improved solubility and intensified, rich body notes. The 
freshness is greatly impaired by this deterpenation. As far as concentration is concerned, the 
terpeneless oil is only a little "stronger" in odor effect compared to the natural oil. The 
terpenes hardly amount to one-third of the original oil. The conventional term "bergamot oil, 
terpeneless, three-fold" is not only exaggerated, but it is a fact that a true terpeneless 
bergamot oil barely yields twice the strength of a natural oil. The advantage of the terpeneless 
oil lies in an odor improvement and a better solubility, partly also in better keeping qualities. 
Furthermore, it is in the high-boiling constituents of the bergamot oil that we find the most 
interesting and important odor principles, e.g. the oily, slightly grassy dihydrocuminylalcohol 
(see Perilla Oil), etc. 

Terpeneless Bergamot Oil finds use in perfumery among the high-class perfumes, better 
florals, etc. It blends well in "muguet", chypre, gardenia, lavender, violet and numerous other 
sweet florals or fantasy bases. It finds occasionally use in pear flavors and various candy 
flavors. 

Bergamot-Petitgrain Oil. 

This is also known as "petitgrain bergamier or "essence de brouts de taille du bergamottier. 
This oil is steam distilled from the leaves and twigs of the bergamot tree which is grafted upon 
the stubs of bitter orange trees. Distillation takes place in Calabria, Italy during the "fruitless" 
season when the trees are pruned. The demand for this oil is not great, and the annual 
production can be estimated at about one metric ton. 

Bergamot-Petitgrain Oil is a green-yellow to olive-yellow colored mobile liquid, possessing a 
typical "petitgrain" odor: bitter-fresh, yet with a pronounced sweet-woody background. There 
is a strong resemblance to the better grades of South American petitgrain oil, although with an 
emphasis on the linalool-linalylacetate notes, and there are fewer bitter-dry notes. 

All told, the Bergamot Petitgrain Oil does not introduce any really new or highly interesting 
notes in perfumery. Accordingly, this oil may never attain any importance. It is conceivable 
that Bergamot Petitgrain Oil will continue to be used in the all too well known "cutting" of 
true bergamot peel oil, together with the oil of "fallen" bergamots (see following monograph). 

Bergamots "Fallen". 

Due to weather conditions, mechanical damage, etc., a certain amount of Bergamot fruits fall 
to the ground before and during maturity. An essential oil is produced either by cold 


74 


expression by steam distillation from the peels of these 'fallen" bergamots. These oils are 
rarely, if ever, ported as such, but they present a certain danger to the quality and reputation 
of the true bergamot oil because the oil of the fallen fruits is an excellent "cutting" material for 
the cold- pressed oil from the healthy hand-picked fruits. 

Oil of "Fallen" Bergamots is distinguished by its very high evaporation residue (cold pressed 
oils from the peel) or a high linalool-linalylester content (steam distilled oil from the peel), and 
the latter type is easily soluble in alcohol (low content of monoterpenes). 

Occasionally, the expressed bergamot peels from the production of true bergamot oil are 
steam distilled. They yield an essential oil which is rich in monoterpenes and low in linalool- 
linalylacetate. This oil, too, presents a threat to the quality of the true bergamot oil. 
Considering the fact that many tons of oil from "fallen" bergamots and "used" bergamot peels 
are produced every year, a certain risk is encountered in the maintenance of a high reputation 
for the true bergamot oil. Only strict control over the production of these "odd" bergamot oils 
can, to a certain degree, offer a safeguard against the always present possibility of "on-the- 
spot adulteration". 

Betel Oil. 

Betel Oil is also known as "Pan Oil". The essential oil is produced by steam distillation from the 
leaves of Piper Betle, a vine of the pepper family. The plant grows widely over the entire area 
between South Arabia and Southeast China. Production of oil takes place in India, China, 
Malaya and Pakistan. 

Betel Oil is yellow to brown, occasionally dark brown. It may discolor significantly during 
shipping if the container is an iron drum. The odor of the oil is distinctly phenolic, almost tar¬ 
like or "smoky". There is a great deal of resemblance to the odor of mate-leaves (or mate 
absolute) and to certain types of Chinese tea. The flavor of Betel Oil is bitter -acrid, warm and 
unpleasantly sharp, biting. 

The peculiar odor and flavor of this oil is due to its very high content of phenols which total 
about 75% of the oil. The most important of these phenols are: Chavibetol (also called betel 
phenol), Chavicol (which is para allyl phenol), Allyl Pyrocatechol (hydroxy chavicol), etc. 

Since Betel Oil is produced in Tongkin, it is not surprising that adulteration occasionally occurs 
with materials such as camphor oil. This addition is, however, clearly perceptible on an odor 
and flavor test or through a chemical analysis. 

Betel Oil is primarily used in the Far East in preparations similar to the betel chew, (i.e. areca 
nuts, wrapped in betel leaves and spiced with various pungent botanicals. The betel leaves in 
this preparation represent the antiseptic part of the chew. The areca nuts are erroneously 
called betel nuts because of their use in this popular Eastern tonic masticatory. 

Betel Oil has little or no application in European or American perfumery or flavor work. 


75 


Birch. 


A number of essential oils and other perfume raw materials are produced from various species 
of the birch tree: 

1) Birch Bark Oil from the bark of Betula Lenta, the so-called "Southern Birch" in 

Canada, Eastern and Midwestern United States. Occasionally the twigs are also 
distilled. 

2) Birch Bud Oil from the leaf-buds of Betula Alba in Germany, Finland and Denmark. 

3) Birch Tar by destructive distillation of the bark of Betula Pubescens, Betula Pendula 
and Betula Alba in Finland. The tar is rectified to yield Birch Tar Oil, Rectified. During 
the past few decades, increasing quantities of birch tar have been produced from birch 
wood, with or without adherent bark. The wood tar is entirely different from the bark 
tar, and cannot replace the latter in perfumery. Birch wood tar is used in 
pharmaceutical preparations for its dermatological value. 

The various products from the Birch tree are described in the following monographs: 

Birch Bark Oil. 

This essential oil is also known as Oil of Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, Southern Birch or Black 
Birch. The tree grows wild all over the Southeastern United States up to Southern Canada. "Oil 
of Sweet Birch" is produced by steam distillation of the comminuted bark after it has been 
macerated (or, more correctly, digested) in lukewarm water for 12 hours. The essential oil is 
not present as such in the plant material. It is formed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycoside 
gaultherin. This process is similar to that of the formation of bitter almond oil. 

It is customary to distil wintergreen leaves (see Wintergreen Oil) or even Teaberry Leaves (so- 
called "Indian tea", possibly identical to wintergreen) with the birch bark. This is another 
example of botanical material from non-related species yielding almost identical essential oils. 
Strangely enough, the cost of harvesting wintergreen leaves is 5 to 8 times higher than the cost 
of collecting the birch bark. The oil yield from the wintergreen is somewhat higher than the 
yield from the bark, but insufficient to make it reasonable to add wintergreen leaves in the 
distillation. 

Birch Bark Oil is colorless or pale yellow, occasionally reddish tinted (from contact with iron). 
The oil smells so strikingly similar to methyl salicylate that it is hard to justify the existence of 
the essential oil. The flavor of wintergreen, "tea- berry" and birch bark oil was popular with the 
American Indians, and the early European settlers used wintergreen as a tea. Accordingly, it is 
not surprising that this flavor has become one of the most popular and typical American 
flavors. Its use in old-fashioned "Root Beer" beverages, later in all sorts of candies, chewing 
gum, toothpaste, etc., shows the well-established and lasting popularity of the methyl 
salicylate type of flavor in the U.S.A. Birch Bark Oil used to be one of the "big items" in 
American essential oil production (annual production was about 200 tons prior to World War 
I). The oil has almost completely lost its importance by now and it is merely a curiosity. What 


76 


the trade offers today under the label of "Oil of Sweet Birch" may very well be a "touchedup" 
methyl salicylate from a chemical factory. 

Birch Bark Oil can boast one of the highest specific gravities of all essential oils known: 1.19 at 
15°C. 

Birch Leaf-Bud Oil. 

This essential oil is steam distilled from the leaf- buds of Betula Alba in Germany, Denmark and 
Finland. In Finland, the leaf-buds from Betula Pubescens are also used. The yield of oil is 
considerably higher than that from bark or leaves. 

Birch Bud Oil (also called) is a pale yellow or yellow very viscous oil with a pleasant 
woodygreen, balsamic odor. The main constituents are sesquiterpenes, particularly the 
sesquiterpene alcohol Betulenol, accompanied by smaller amounts of the acetates and 
formates of these alcohols. One disadvantageous characteristic is the content of solid paraffins 
and naphthalins which causes crystallization and solidification of the oil at low temperature. 
These solids also decrease the solubility of the oil in alcohol. 

Since Birch Bud Oil is mainly used in hair tonics, shampoos, etc. with a very low alcohol 
content, a "rectified" oil or an "absolute" of birch leaf buds is often used. A suitable absolute 
can be obtained by extraction of the natural oil with 80% alcohol, chilling of the alcoholic 
solution, filtration and subsequent evaporation of the extract under gentle vacuum. 

Birch Bud Oil is, to the author's knowledge, not used as a perfumery raw material. It is used 
primarily for its potential skin-healing effects. Quite recently, a large German manufacturer of 
a well-known hair-tonic has used a hydro-alcoholic distilled tincture of birch buds in place of 
the steam distilled essential oil. This enables the manufacturer to use a very low alcohol 
percentage in his preparation and thus avoid excessive alcohol taxes. 

The annual production of Birch Bud Oil is probably less than one metric ton. Adulteration has 
occurred with cedarwood oil and similar low-cost diluents. 

Birch Tar. 

For perfumery purposes, only the rectified oil of Birch Bark Tar should be considered. The tar is 
produced from the bark of various birch species by slow destructive distillation. This tar is oily, 
almost black in color, and not quite homogeneous. Flakes of carbon, oil drops, etc. separate 
from the liquid. The crude tar is subsequently steam distilled, and yields a rectified birch tar 
which is sometimes called Birch Tar Oil, Crude. For many years, production was concentrated 
in the countries along the Baltic Sea, but only little birch tar is produced in these countries 
now. The U. S. S. R., Germany, Finland, and occasionally Sweden produce limited quantities. 
Unfortunately, the present-day product is often a mixture of wood-tar and bark-tar (see 
below). 

Rectified Birch Tar is a pale yellow to brownish yellow, clear and oily liquid. The odor 
description, "like Russian leather", is conventional, but somewhat incorrect. Russian leather 
smells of birch tar because the leather is tanned with the tar products which also preserve this 


77 


special type of leather. This circle of odor association is similar to the well-known: vanillin 
smells of chocolate! 

The odor of Birch Tar Oil is distinctly phenolic, very penetrating and diffusive, obviously 
reminiscent of tar, charred wood and smoke (all of which have their odor from components of 
the birch tar oil!) However, the most characteristic feature in the odor pattern of birch tar oil is 
the sweet-oily undertone which appears distinctly on the smelling blotter when the first 
empyreumatic notes have faded away. These notes caught the immediate interest of 
perfumers long ago, and the chemists tried to isolate these particular fractions of the oil. 

A number of special "fractions" of rectified Birch Tar are available from the raw material 
suppliers; others are made by the users for their individual purposes. It seems almost certain 
that the typical sweet, oily and leatherlike notes are due to components in the non- 
saponifiable part of the rectified birch tar oil. In other words, the most interesting components 
are the non-phenolic ones. The tar from birch bark contains up to 80% of non-phenolic 
materials, while the wood tar has very little of these interesting components. Consequently, a 
sample of birch tar for processing into rectified birch tar oil should be chemically tested for 
content of non-phenolic components. The olfactory test is equally important, but it is 
extremely difficult to estimate the value of a birch tar exclusively by the odor of the crude tar. 
Rectified Birch Tar Oil has the additional advantage of being very pale and not discoloring with 
certain essential oils which would cause discoloration when mixed with phenols (patchouli, 
vetiver, copaiba balsam, etc.). The oil is easily soluble in alcohol, and does not impart an acid 
reaction to the perfume in which it is used. To the perfumer, this "heart" fraction of the birch 
tar oil is the true and highly appreciated sweet and powerful "leather" odor for fougeres, 
chypres, "men's fragrances", after-shave lotions, modern fantasy bases, etc. 

The steam distilled birch tar can be alkali- washed free of phenols, and subsequently vacuum 
distilled to produce a pale straw-colored oil of delightful "cuir" note and tremendous diffusive 
power. The crude tar is used in pharmaceutical preparations, e.g. ointments, lotions, etc. for 
eczema and other dermatological diseases. Birch Tar is frequently adulterated with birch wood 
tar, beech tar (black and highly phenolic), pine tar (clear dark chocolate brown), juniper tar 
(Cade Oil) or even coal tar (naphthalenic odor). See also Leather. 

Blackcurrant. 

Various flavor materials are produced from the buds of the shrub, Ribes Nigrum, the black 
currant bush. 

A Black Currant Tincture is prepared by maceration. The tincture is not a commercial article, 
and the flavor house will usually have to collect the flower-buds from its own plantations for 
this purpose. The tincture is used in the flavoring of certain types of liqueurs. 

Black Currant Absolute is produced by extraction of the buds with benzene or petroleum 
ether. The extract is a concrete which is subsequently re-extracted with alcohol to yield an 
absolute. The absolute is a viscous liquid of dark green color and powerful spicy-woody odor. 
There is a slightly phenolic undertone and the tenacity is not outstanding. Quantitatively, the 
main constituents are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. These are not responsible for the 


78 


characteristic odor of the absolute. Black Currant Absolute is prepared in France, occasionally 
in Holland. 

Black Currant Oil, also known as Niribine Oil (by rearranging the latin name of the plant), is 
steam distilled from the flower-buds of the above shrub. Ribes Nigrum is cultivated in 
Northern Europe, particularly in France, Holland, Belgium, England, Denmark, Germany, and 
the Baltic States. The latter countries were once big producers of berries. Black Currant Oil is 
produced in Holland and France. The oil is almost colorless, mobile and of a distinctly terpenic 
odor, reminiscent of the terpenes in nutmeg, neroli, basil, or marjoram oils. Its high price and 
poor tenacity make its application rather limited, and it is doubtful whether this oil will ever 
attain any importance in perfumery or flavor work. 

Bois de Rose Oil. 

Ranking only a few years ago among the 15 "biggest" essential oils in the world, Bois de Rose 
Oil to-day is fighting for survival in strong competition with other essential oils, and particularly 
with synthetic Linalool. 

Bois de Rose Oil is steam distilled, occasionally water-distilled, from the chipped wood of 
Aniba Rosaeodora and possibly other species of the genus Burseraceae belonging to the laurel 
family. The tree is a tropical, medium-sized, wild-growing evergreen from the Amazon basin. 
The wood is collected in Brazil, Peru and in the French Guiana ("Cayenne Rosewood"). In 
perfumery, the term Rosewood means only Bois de Rose of the above kind. The trade uses the 
term Rosewood for a multitude of lumberwoods, etc., e. g.: 

Acacia Excelsa = Australian Rosewood 

Amyris Balsamifera = West Indian Rosewood 

Cordia Gerascanthus = Dominican Rosewood (fragrant) 

Dalbergia Latifolia = East Indian Rosewood 

Dicypellium Caryophyllatum = Brazilian Rosewood (fragrant) 

Myrospermum Erythroxylon = Japanese Rosewood (see Oleo Vermelho) 
Physocalumma Scaberrimum = Brazilian Rosewood (odorless) 

Pterocarpus Erinaceus = African Rosewood 

Thespesia Populnea = Polynesian Rosewood (fragrant; grows in Central Africa and 
South Pacific islands). 

(See also the monograph on Louro Brasileiro and Louro Nhamuy, the latter being responsible 
for a high content of monoterpenes in Bois de Rose Oil which has been distilled from wood of 
"true" rosewood trees, more or less contaminated with the wood of the Louro Nhamuy tree). 
Distillation of bois de rose oil is carried out in more or less modern stills in the above three 
countries. During the past few decades, production has been rationalized considerably, 
resulting in better yields, higher quality of oil and lower prices. In post-war years, the Brazilian 
production has reached 500 to 600 metric tons of oil annually. Peru has produced increasing 
amounts of bois de rose oil since 1957. These facts have affected the market price significantly. 
Finally, the large-scale production of synthetic Linalool in the United States has resulted in a 
further drop in the price of Bois de Rose Oil. 


79 


The oil is used mainly as a starting material for the isolation of natural Linalool, of which the oil 
contains over 70%. The linalool in turn is converted into linalyl esters for many uses in 
perfumery and flavor work. Linalyl acetate is sometimes produced by direct acetylation of bois 
de rose oil, and subsequent fractionated distillation of the neutralized reaction mixture. In the 
years of scarcity of bois de rose oil (1940 to 1950), other essential oils were utilized as starting 
materials for the isolation of linalool or linalylacetate: Japanese Ho Wood Oil, Ho Leaf Oil, 
Lavandin Oil, Spike Lavender Oil, and even Petitgrain Oil from Paraguay was used for isolation 
of linalyl acetate. 

Beyond any doubt, Ho Leaf Oil (see this monograph) is the major competitor of Bois de Rose 
Oil. The ho leaf oil is produced on a comparatively large scale in Japan. The oil contains more 
linalool (when the oil is rectified from the source), and its terpenes have a less harsh or 
penetrating odor. All these facts have contributed to the situation of unstable economy which 
presently rules in the producing areas in Brazil and Peru. 

Bois de Rose Oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid of a refreshing, sweet-woody, somewhat 
floral-spicy odor. The topnote varies considerably with the origin and quality of the oil. It is 
usually somewhat camphoraceous-peppery, reminiscent of cineole and nutmeg terpenes. It is 
worthwhile remembering that Bois de Rose Oil can dissolve considerable amounts of water 
(up to several percent). Some water will "fall out" of the oil during shipment, particularly if the 
drums are exposed to cold temperatures. The water will usually remain undissolved 
thereafter. Bois de Rose Oil is also used as such (cleaned and free from water) in soap 
perfumes where the strong topnotes can be utilized to advantage. The isolated Linalool finds 
very extensive use in perfumery, e.g. of the floral types: lilac, muguet, neroli, sweet pea, etc. 

In respect to odor, the Cayenne Rosewood Oil is superior to the Brazilian and the Peruvian. 
Production in Cayenne has fallen below 10 metric tons per year, and the oil has little influence 
upon the Bois de Rose market. The Cayenne oil is produced mainly upon demand from a few 
French houses. The odor of the oil is mild, floral-woody, almost like a rectified Brazilian oil. 

(See also Linaloe Wood Oil and Linaloe Seed Oil (Mexico and India). 

Bois de Rose Oil is occasionally adulterated, although the tremendous drop in its price has 
made it difficult to find a suitable "cutting" material. Terpineol, myrcene and various fractions 
of pine oil have been used. More frequently, the Bois de Rose Oil has been contaminated with 
oil from admixed wood of Louro Nhamuy, a related and nearby growing tree (see the 
monograph on Louro Nhamuy). 

Considering the development in the production of Bois de Rose Oils and synthetic Linalool, 
described above, it is conceivable that the essential oil will slowly lose much of its importance 
in perfumery, and perhaps will find its place among the fairly low-cost soap perfumery raw 
materials. In this respect, the essential oil remains superior to the synthetic linalool. 

Boldo Leaf Oil. 

The small tree, Peumus Boldus, grows wild in Chile, South America. Its leaves are collected for 
pharmaceutical purposes, and an essential oil is steam distilled from them. The oil does not 
seem to have found a place in perfumery. The leaves are commercially available from the 


80 


larger international suppliers of botanical drugs, and the essential oil is thus also distilled in 
Europe and the United States. However, the oil from dry (exported) leaves is slightly different 
from the oil distilled from fresh leaves on the place of origin. 

Boldo Leaf Oil is yellow and has a strong, spicy-hydrocarbon-like odor, somewhat reminiscent 
of American wormseed oil. The oil has powerful therapeutic effects, and it can be considered 
harmful to the human organism even when used in very small doses. 

Boldo Leaf Oil may completely disappear from the perfumer's or the flavorist's shelf (if it ever 
has been there) since it does not present very interesting or unique notes. 

Boronia Absolute. 

Boronia Absolute is a unique perfume and flavor material in more than one respect. First of 
all, it is one of the very few flower absolutes which is not processed into a concrete in the 
immediate vicinity of the growing areas of the plant. Furthermore, it is one of the few, if not 
the only, flower absolute which contains lonones. Finally, Boronia absolute is an excellent 
flavor material in addition to being highly appreciated in perfumery. 

Boronia Absolute is produced by petroleum ether extraction of the flowers of Boronia 
Megastigma which grows wild in abundance all along the coasts and swamplands of western 
and southwestern Australia. Boronia is a small shrub or bushy plant, 4 to 6 feet high. It is 
related to the citrus tree. 

The flowers are collected and immersed in drums with petroleum ether. The filled drums are 
shipped by truck or train to the extraction station. In 1958, there were over 500 flower¬ 
collecting stations in western Australia. There are only a few extraction factories. The most 
important of these is located in Perth on the southwest coast. 

The extraction process is completed in the factory. The extract is an unctuous, dark green 
concrete of boronia in a yield of less than 1 % of the weight of the flowers. An absolute is 
produced by alcohol washing of the concrete. The yield is 55 to 65% of the weight of the 
concrete. Boronia concrete is not a commercial article, but the absolute is usually produced by 
the manufacturer who performs the extraction of concrete from the flowers. 

Boronia Absolute is one of the few natural perfume materials which contain lonone (mainly 
beta ionone, only a little alpha ionone). Although these ketones are present in fairly large 
amounts, they are not immediately detectable in the odor of boronia absolute. The odor of the 
dark green and somewhat viscous absolute is fresh, fruity- green, sweet tea-like, slightly spicy- 
herbaceous (reminiscent of cinnamon and tobacco leaf). The main body notes display a 
tremendously rich and tenacious floral undertone of warm, woody-sweet character. 

The great distance between the producing area and the consumers is partly responsible for the 
unfortunate and regrettable fact that Boronia Absolute appears on the market in widely 
different qualities, some of which do not exactly encourage the perfumer to use boronia in his 
creations. The more important consumers of true boronia absolute will prefer to deal directly 
with the producer or his appointed agents. 


81 


Boronia Absolute is used in high class floral perfumes and bases, e.g. violet, mimosa, cassie, 
honeysuckle, sweet pea, etc., and it blends well with sage clary, bergamot, costus, 
sandalwood, helichrysum, amylcinnamic aldehyde, linalool, salicylates, etc. However, the high 
cost (about the same as for jasmin absolute from concrete) and the limited production (less 
than one metric ton per year) make boronia absolute an item that many perfumers entirely 
avoid using, or else reach for only with reluctance and scepticism. 

Boronia Absolute is used in flavor work where it imparts a unique body and natural richness to 
many fruit essences, e.g. raspberry, strawberry, plum, peach (it blends excellently with 
undecanolide and nonanolide). A special application is typified by the artificial reproduction of 
black- currant flavor, a very difficult problem for the flavorist. The suggested use level is 0.40 
to 0.60 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.01 to 0.03 mg%. Boronia absolute is not 
infrequently adulterated, "cut" or "stretched" with e.g. ionones, eugenol, methyleugenol, 
sesquiterpene fractions from ylang-ylang oil, benzylsalicylate, etc. 

Broom Absolute. 

The perfumer's "absolute de genet", or Broom Absolute, is extracted from the so-called 
Spanish broom, Spartium Junceum. The small decorative shrub grows wild (and is also 
cultivated) in the south of France, Spain, and Italy. Production of broom absolute from 
petroleum ether concrete is almost exclusively carried out in the Grasse area in France. 
Benzene yields a much darker concrete. The original "genet" is related to the above shrub, and 
it grows wild all over Europe and Western Asia, and is found even as far north as Scandinavia 
and Scotland. Its botanical name is Genista Tinctoria, also known as Cytisus Scoparius, the Irish 
or Scotch broom. 

Broom Concrete is a solid, dark brown, unctuous mass of a sweet honey-rose-like, somewhat 
woody and haylike odor. The concrete yields about 35 to 50% of alcohol-soluble absolute. 

Broom Absolute is dark brown, semi-solid or viscous liquid, with an intensely sweet, floral 
haylike fragrance. The deep herbaceous-coumarinic background has great tenacity. The honey- 
rose notes are particularly useful in certain types of rose bases, tuberose, cassie, mimosa, 
violet, honeysuckle, etc. It blends excellently with ionones, vetiver, castoreum, etc. in "tabac" 
notes, and it is generally useful in modern aldehydic perfume types, green notes, etc. 

Little is known about the constituents of Broom Absolute. The annual production can be 
estimated at 50 to about 150 kilos. 

Broom Absolute is used in flavors of the deep- sweet "preserve" type, e. g. plum, fig, raisin, 
date, etc. where it lends a rich body and naturalness. It is one of the most generally applicable 
of all the floral absolutes since trace amounts will yield perceptible improvement without 
being noticeable as a "perfumery" note. Suggested use level is 0.40 to 0.70 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible is about 0.07 to 0.10 mg%. 


Bruyere. 

A perfume material is extracted from the roots of various species of heather shrubs 
(Ericaceae), and the extract is sold under the name of Bruyere Absolute (absolu de bruyere). A 


82 


similar product is obtained by steam distillation of the comminuted roots. The French term, 
"bruyere", actually refers to all kinds of shrubs growing on barren, arid, uncultivated plains. 
However, certain species have distinguished themselves by their ability to grow to a 
considerable size and substantial age. 

Erica Arborea grows all over the Mediterranean countries, and it is particularly common in 
Algeria, Corsica, and in the Canary Islands. This plant may grow to an age of several hundred 
years and a height of 60 feet (18 metres). The roots of such old species are collected for the 
purpose of carving shag tobacco pipes ("Briar" wood). The unusually high content of ashes in 
the wood prevents it from "burning through" in a pipe. 

Waste wood from the pipe carving factories and workshops used to be discarded, but it is now 
occasionally used for the production of Bruyere Absolute. This absolute is a greenish-yellow to 
pale yellow or brownish-yellow, solid but soft mass, resembling guaiacwood or araucaria oils. 
The odor of bruyere absolute is very mild, woody- green and pleasant-balsamic, slightly spicy- 
aromatic. In rose perfumes, chypre bases, crepe de Chine, oriental-woody bases, etc., bruyere 
absolute lends a delightful undertone and excellent fixative effect. It blends well with 
olibanum, ionones, sage clary, oakmoss, labdanum absolutes, etc. 

Bruyere Absolute is produced by a few French houses on a very limited scale. The 
comparatively low cost of this material can do nothing to expand the application or increase 
the popularity of this rare perfume material. 

Buchu Leaf Oil. 

This essential oil is steam distilled from the dried leaves of Barosma Betulina, a herb which 
grows wild and abundantly in South Africa. Tinctures, oleoresins and other extracts are 
produced for pharmaceutical purposes. Only a small fraction of the total amount of harvested 
buchu leaves are used for distillation of essential oil. Distillation takes place almost exclusively 
in Holland, England and the United States of America, rarely in the growing areas. 

Buchu Leaf Oil is a yellow to brownish-yellow liquid, oily or somewhat viscous, depending 
upon the age of the oil and the dryness of the plant material prior to distillation. The odor is 
very peculiar: strong, bitter-sweet, minty-camphoraceous, rootlike, penetrating and somewhat 
medicinal, reminiscent of cough preparations. One of the main constituents of the oil is 
Diosphenol, a terpenoid phenol. It is responsible for the antiseptic effect of Buchu Leaf Oil. A 
significant percentage of menthone in the oil is probably the cause of the minty odor and 
somewhat cool flavor of the oil. 

Buchu leaf oil is occasionally used in chypre bases, certain types of colognes, etc. for its power, 
diffusion, and freshness. In flavors, it may find some application for gooseberry and other 
"tart" fruit essences. On account of its very penetrating odor-flavor, this oil will always be 
limited to being a "low-percentage-item" in the formula. It serves no purpose to mention a 
use-level since the flavor of this oil changes significantly on dilution. Although quantities of up 
to 1000 kilos of Buchu Leaf Oil have been available at times, its production fluctuates and is 
presently decreasing. Interest in the essential oil is failing, and only limited quantities of leaves 
are available since the plant is not cultivated on any significant scale. Buchu Leaf Oil ranks 


83 


among the more expensive essential oils. During 1959, its price was about 2 to 4 times that of 
geranium oil. 


c 

Cabreuva Oil. 

The wood of various species of wild growing Myrocarpus trees in Brazil, Paraguay and 
Argentina is highly appreciated as an ornamental lumber and furniture wood, although it is 
extremely hard to cut or saw. The wood is known as Cabureicica or Cabreuva wood; it is 
extremely resistant to moisture and mold growth. 

Since the tree is related to the trees which yield Peru Balsam and Copaiba Balsam it is not 
surprising, that also the Myrocarpus yields a "balsam" when the trunk is deliberately damaged. 
This kind of "balsam" formation is known as a pathological one in contrast to the "voluntary" 
or physiological products (copaiba or turpentine). 

However, the essential oil of Cabreuva is now produced by distillation of waste wood from the 
lumbermills. Chippings and sawdust of Myrocarpus Fastigiatus are steam distilled in Brazil. 
They yield a pale yellow, somewhat viscous essential oil of sweet-woody, very delicate and 
slightly floral odor. Its tenacity is one of its greatest virtues. Certain lots of Cabreuva Oil may 
display dry topnotes similar to those found in cubeb oil or in the sesquiterpenes from clove 
leaf oil. Although very delicate and apparently faint, the odor of Cabreuva Oil is often under¬ 
estimated in its effect of freshness and suave-floral notes. In rose, lily-of-the-valley, cassie, 
ambre and in woody-oriental perfumes, Cabreuva Oil lends tenacity and distinct notes of 
"precious wood" with a background of slightly green, dry floralness, a combination rarely 
found in synthetic perfume materials. 

The oil is produced by a few Brazilian distillers only, and in very modest quantities. It served for 
some time as a starting material for the isolation of the sesquiterpene alcohol, Nerolidol, the 
main constituent of cabreuva oil. This sesquiterpene alcohol is now produced synthetically at a 
reasonable cost. Adulteration or contamination of Cabreuva Oil with Oleo Vermelho (see this 
monograph) is possible. See also monograph on Melaleuca Viridiflora, variety "A". 

Cabreuva oil, as such, has found very little use in perfumery in spite of the above mentioned 
excellent effects of the oil. 

Cade Oil. 

Strictly speaking, Cade Oil is identical to Juniper Tar (also called juniper tar oil), obtained by 
destructive distillation of the wood from Juniperus Oxycedrus, a shrub related to the common 
juniper. Three other oils are obtained from this shrub: 

1) From the fruits ("berries"), 2) from the twigs and leaves (needles), 3) from the wood—all by 
steam distillation. None of these three oils have obtained any interest from the perfumery or 
flavor industry (see Juniper Wood Oil). 


84 


The Cade Oil, used in perfumery is usually a rectified oil, obtained by rectification (steam 
distillation or vacuum distillation) of the crude juniper tar oil. The latter consists of the upper 
layer of the entire mass of tar which is obtained by destructive distillation of the wood. 

The juniperus oxycedrus is quite common all over the Mediterranean countries, particularly in 
Spain and North Africa. Production of Cade Oil is concentrated in Spain, France, and 
Yugoslavia. The annual output is quite substantial: 125 to 200 metric tons, most of which is 
used in veterinary medicine and for the treatment of various human skin diseases. 

Rectified Cade Oil is a clear, orange-brown to dark brown, oily liquid with an intense "tar-like", 
smoky-phenolic odor. Its use in perfumery is limited to situations where a smoky-leathery, 
woody-phenolic, dry and warm note is called for: forest notes, leather-bases, fougeres, pine 
for "men's fragrances", etc., and in the imitation of certain essential oils, oakmoss, etc. 

Cade oil has certain disinfectant properties for which it can be utilized in soap perfumes, for 
example combined with thyme, origanum, clove and similar phenolic oils, if the discoloration 
creates no serious problem, and with cassia oil, melaleuca alternifolia, ocotea pretiosa, etc. 
Cade Oil finds occasionally use in the flavoring of meat and seafood to which it imparts the 
"smoke"-note previous obtained in a regular smokehouse. 

Cajuput Oil. 

Cajuput oil or cajeput oil is steam distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs of a medium-sized 
tree. Melaleuca Minor and possibly other species of Melaleuca. The botanical source was 
earlier known as Melaleuca Leucadendron. The tree was planted many years ago in Florida, U. 
S. A. and grows now wild in abundance in that state. It is locally known as "Punk Tree". No 
essential oil is produced from the American cajuput trees. 

The cajuput tree is occasionally named "tea- tree" or "ti-tree" on the islands between Australia 
and Malaya, the Indonesian archipelago, in the Philippines, etc. where the tree grows 
abundantly. In Malaya and in the Philippines, the name "kaju-puti" means "white wood", 
referring to the color of the lumber from this tree. 

The essential oil is distilled from material collected from wild-growing trees in the Moluccas in 
the eastern part of Indonesia. A large number of primitive, native stills produce between 75 
and 200 metric tons per year of cajuput oil. Only a small fraction of this production reaches 
Europe and the U.S.A. Local consumption is quite substantial since great medicinal effects are 
attributed to the oil among the Eastern people. 

Cajuput Oil is a colorless, pale yellow, greenish or turquoise-colored, mobile liquid of powerful, 
fresh, eucalyptuslike, camphoraceous odor and a burning-aromatic taste. Characteristic are 
the almost fruity-sweet body notes and the soft tones in the dryout. The green color is not an 
indication that the oil is genuine. This was earlier assumed, and many price lists emphasized 
that the green color was synonymous with genuineness. 

Apart from its use as a general household remedy for colds, throat diseases, pains, headaches, 
etc. in the Far East, the Cajuput Oil has found very little use in Europe and America. Its main 
constituents are identical to those of the pharmaceutical eucalyptus oils; thus, cajuput oil does 


85 


not present any advantages over eucalyptus, save for the slightly milder-sweeter odor and 
flavor. In throat lozenges, gargles, etc., where the oil is often used in combination with other 
flavoring materials, it could easily be replaced by the cheaper eucalyptus oil or a combination 
of eucalyptus oil (pharmaceutical) with small amounts of terpinyl acetate, terpinyl propionate 
and higher esters ofterpineol. 

See also Niaouli Oil. 

Calamintha Oil. 

An essential oil is steam distilled from the wild growing herb Calamintha Clinopodium, also 
known as Calamintha Nepeta. The oil is occasionally offered under the name of "French 
Marjoram Oil" or Wild Basil Oil. However, this oil has little or no importance beyond the 
above mentioned. It cannot be considered as a replacement for sweet marjoram oil in general. 
See monographs on Marjoram Sweet and Marjoram Wild. 

Numerous species of nepeta and similar Labiatae grow wild in the Mediterranean countries. 
The Nepeta Cataria is harvested for the production of essential oil in Yugoslavia. The oil is 
obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops of the plant: The same plant has been 
introduced in the northern United States where the oil is distilled from fresh plant material for 
the purpose of preparing a wildcat lure. The oil is effective as an attractant for cats, pumas 
(American mountain lions) and other wild beasts. This essential oil is known as Catnip Oil. A 
lactone which is present at 3 to 5% in the oil, is known to be the active cat-attractant in the 
Catnip Oil. The oil contains furthermore between 80 and 90% of odorless substances. 

American catnip oil has found no use in perfumery. Its odor is almost pungent, intensely 
herbaceous, somewhat woody, but it also displays a rich, sweet-spicy undertone. 

The European (mainly Yugoslavian) Nepeta Oil, often called Calamintha Oil, may be distilled 
from a different species. Its odor seems to reveal a great variety of components, such as citral, 
nerol, citronellol, limonene, etc., often a typical "fresh" odor. Certain oils from Poland contain 
substantial amounts of citral. Calamintha Oil is mainly used in the various countries of origin 
and it has attained little importance elsewhere. 

Calamus Oil. 

Calamus Oil is steam distilled from the rhizomes (underground stems) of the wild growing or 
cultivated Acorus Calamus, a perennial plant which is known in the U. S. A. as "Sweet Flag" or 
"Sweet Root", "Sweet Myrtle", "Sweet Cinnamon", "Sweet Cane", etc. The very decorative 
plant grows wild all over the swampy areas of the temperate zones in Europe, Asia, and 
America, along brooks, rivers, lakes, etc. The rhizomes can be dried without a substantial loss 
of essential oil provided they are kept unpeeled. Distillation may thus take place far away from 
the origin of the rhizomes. 

The principal producers of calamus rhizomes are: Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, USSR, 
India, Holland, U.S.A. and Japan. Japanese rhizomes produce an essential oil with a more 
medicinal odor, and these rhizomes are less popular for the production of flavor and perfume 
oils. 


86 


Polish and Yugoslavian oils are often pale colored and they display a delightfully sweet and 
uniform, lasting odor. Calamus Oil is generally a pale yellow to pale brown, viscous liquid of a 
warm, woody-spicy and pleasant odor with increasingly sweet afternotes and great tenacity. 
Poorer oils show more or less pronounced camphoraceous or cineolic notes. The odor of good 
oils bears some resemblance to the odor of dried milk or sweet leather, slightly creamy-nutty. 
Typical laymen-expressions for the odor of calamus oil at the first experience with this oil are: 
"milk-truck odor" or "shoe-repair shop odor", etc. These expressions, whether the perfumer 
agrees or not, can often be more helpful in an odor description than any of the usual 
professional phrases. 

The flavor of Calamus Oil is equally warmspicy, yet slightly bitter with a slowly growing, 
pungent aftertaste. The suggested use-level is 0.10 to 2.00 mg%. The Minimum Perceptible is 
0.04 to 0.10 mg % Calamus oil is usually a minor component in flavor or perfume compositions. 

The main constituent of Calamus Oil is a phenolether, Asarone, which is odorless and 
tasteless. As we could expect, a "de-asaronized" calamus oil has been prepared 
experimentally. The author has no personal experience with this concentrated oil. 

Calamus oil is occasionally adulterated with amyris oil, copaiba balsam, d-limonene, 
cedarwood fractions, sesquiterpene fractions from various essential oils, etc. However, the 
greatest variations in the quality of calamus oil are often due to difference in the botanical 
starting material. Dried roots produce a distinctly different type of oil, but the essential oil 
from fresh roots is not nearly as common. From a perfumery point of view, the author would 
definitely prefer the oils from fresh roots, particularly those of Polish or Yugoslavian origin. 
They can not substitute oils from dried roots in a perfume or flavor formula, but they offer a 
much wider field of application to the perfumer and the flavorist. 

Calamus Oil is useful in perfumes of the woody- oriental type, in leather-bases, ambres, etc. It 
blends excellently with cananga, cinnamon, costus, labdanum, olibanum, patchouli, ionones, 
and methylionones, cis-para-tertiary butylcyclohexanyl acetate, nitromusks, grisambrol, and 
cedarwood derivatives, etc. In flavors, the oil finds some application with cardamom, angelica, 
ginger, etc. in spice blends and flavors for alcoholic beverages. 

The annual production of Calamus Oil is adjustable to demands. It is estimated that more than 
one metric ton is produced annually in India. The European production may be slightly smaller 
at the present time. The botanical material is abundantly available. 

Camellia. 

Among the many known species of Camellia only a few are sufficiently fragrant as to obtain 
any interest in perfumery. One of these is Camellia Sasanqua which grows in China and Japan. 
It is mainly cultivated for its fragrant flowers as a decorative garden shrub. Extraction of the 
flowers with volatile solvents has been undertaken in China during the 1950's. The extraction 
products are not commercially available although samples have reached some parts of the 
outside world. The author has no personal experience with the use of Camellia flower extracts. 

A fatty ("fixed") oil is produced from the seeds of the above camellia species and from the 
related Camellia Drupifera. This oil has a faint odor, but it is not an essential oil and it has no 


87 


application in perfumery. The leaves of the two species of camelia are occasionally used to be 
mixed with tea on account of their pleasant fragrance. The Camellia shrub belongs to the same 
family as Thea Sinensis, the tea shrub (also known as Camellia Sinensis). 

Camphor Oil. 

The group of Camphor Oils ranges high in quantity produced among the "upper ten" of all the 
essential oils in the world, but their use in perfumes and flavors is limited. 

Among the many types of so-called Camphor Oils, only the most important ones should be 
mentioned in this work: 

A crude essential oil is produced by steam distillation of the wood from a number of varieties 
of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum Camphora. Distillation takes place locally, often in 
primitive apparatus. 

In Japan and Formosa, the individual varieties of the above tree yield either "True" Camphor 
Oil or Ho Oil (see monographs). 

In China, the most common variety of Cinnamomum Camphora will yield an essential oil which 
consists mainly of cineole, and which accordingly is rectified and sold as "eucalyptus oil" at a 
price that makes competition from Australia, Africa, and Spain hopeless. Terpineol is a by¬ 
product of the oil from this Chinese camphor tree, and Chinese (isolated) terpineol is now 
appearing on the world market in increasing quantities (see Apopin Oil). 

In the following monograph, only true camphor oil will be described. (Ho Oil is described under 
its proper name, and the cineole-terpineol type of Chinese camphor tree oil is mentioned 
under Eucalyptus Oil, "false", or Chinese). 

The three varieties of Camphor Oils could be distinguished as follows: 

Formosan Camphor Oils = camphor-linalool type and camphor-safrole type. 

Japanese Camphor Oil = camphor-safrole type. 

Chinese Camphor Oil = cineole-terpineolcamphor type (see Apopin Oil). 

In Formosa, the camphor-safrole type as well as the camphor-linalool type are produced, the 
former being the largest in quantity. 

Camphor Oil, "True". 

An essential oil is produced by steam distillation from the wood, rootstumps, and branches of 
the variety of Cinnamomum Camphora known as Hon-Sho, growing in Formosa and Japan. 

Along with the crude oil comes a solid, partly crystalline mass of crude Camphor. The oil is 
separated from the crude camphor by filterpressing. This yields the Crude Camphor Oil. The 
crude oil is subsequently rectified under vacuum, and yields another 50% of crude camphor. 
The remaining 50% of the filterpressed crude camphor oil is now free of camphor. It contains 
light terpenes, cineole, safrole, terpineol, sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols. These 
materials are separated in various fractions known as: 


88 


White Camphor Oil, the light fraction, contains Cineole and monoterpenes; 

Brown Camphor Oil, the medium-heavy fraction which contains up to 80% Safrole, and 
some terpineol; 

Blue Camphor Oil, the heavy fraction which contains sesquiterpenes, etc. of minor 
interest in perfumery. 

The white and the brown camphor oils both amount to about 20% of the crude total distillate 
from the wood, or each about 40% of the filter- pressed, camphor-free oil. 

The three oils will be discussed individually in the following monographs. Annual world 
production (Japan and Formosa) of crude (liquid) camphor oil is estimated at 5000 metric tons 
or even more (1959). 

Camphor Oil, Blue. 

This is the heaviest (=highest boiling) fraction, distilled in vacuum from the crude camphor oil 
from which the camphor has been removed. (See monographs on Camphor Oil White, 
Camphor Oil Brown, and Camphor Oil "True"). 

Only a small part of the annually produced 50 tons (approx.) of this fraction is exported. The oil 
has little importance in perfumery, although it may serve locally for the perfuming of low-cost 
soaps, detergents, etc. 

Blue Camphor Oil is a viscous, dark bluish- green or bluish-brown liquid. It consists mainly of 
sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols of weak odor, but with fair masking effect and 
good fixative value. It finds some use as a drying solvent in porcelain paints. Blue Camphor Oil 
is produced in Formosa and Japan only. 

Camphor Oil, Brown. 

This is the medium-heavy fraction from the vacuum-distillation of the camphor-free oil. (See 

Camphor Oil, White). 

The Brown Camphor Oil amounts to 6 or 7% of the total oil, or 20 to 22% of the de- 
camphorized oil. 

Brown camphor oil is produced almost entirely in Formosa and Japan from the Hon-Sho type 

of Cinnamomum Camphora, the camphor tree. 

This fraction is the most interesting from a perfumer's point of view, Its main constituent is 
safrole, and the redistilled brown camphor oil can be used directly in soap perfumes for its 
magnificent masking effect. The safrole can be isolated from the oil and it then serves as a 
starting material for the production of heliotropine, vanillin, and other perfume materials. 
Terpineol is separated during the safrole-isolation, and serves as is, or it may be transformed 
into terpinyl esters. 

An artificial sassafras oil, "Oil Camphor Sassafrassy", is also produced from the brown 
camphor oil by rectification and adjusting of the safrole content, terpenes, etc. The Formosan 


89 


artificial sassafras oil was the most important replacement for North American (true) sassafras 
oil until the appearance of the Brazilian Ocotea Pretiosa Oil (see this monograph). 

Brown Camphor Oil is produced in quantities exceeding 1000 metric tons per year. 

Camphor Oil, White. 

This oil is produced by fractional distillation of the camphor-free oil, filterpressed from the 
crude camphor oil. The latter is a natural oil, steam distilled from the wood of the Hon-Sho 
camphor tree in Formosa and Japan. The white camphor oil fraction amounts to about 6% of 
the total oil, or 20% of the camphor-free ("de-camphorized") oil. 

White Camphor Oil is hardly used as such in perfumes, but it serves as a starting material for 
the isolation and production of a great number of perfumery chemicals: cineole, pinene, 
terpineol, para-cymene, menthol, thymol, etc. 

The oil itself is used as a solvent in the paint and lacquer industry, and certain synthetic 
perfumery chemicals are produced locally from this oil. Fractions of white camphor oil find 
application in the compounding of artificial essential oils (eucalyptus, thyme, rosemary, 

Spanish sage, lavandin, etc.) as well as for the perfuming of detergents and low-cost household 
products, technical odor masking, industrial products, disinfectants, insecticides, etc. A less 
decent application of white camphor oil is the one as an adulterant in the above mentioned 
essential oils. 

The annual world production (Japan and Formosa) of this fraction of camphor oil runs into 
nearly 1000 tons. The true figure may be still higher since the major part of the oil is used 
locally in the chemical industry. 

Canada Balsam. 

Canada Balsam is a physiological product exuded from the spruce, Abies Balsamea, which 
grows extensively in Canada and the northern and northwestern U. S. A. According to our 
definitions (see Part One of this book), Canada balsam is a Turpentine, a special type of 
Oleoresin. It consists of a monoterpene-type of essential oil and a resin; it is not a true balsam. 

The hemlock spruce (Tsuga Canadensis) which grows all over the northern and midwestern 
U.S.A. also yields an exudation, sold under the name of "Canada Balsam". 

Canada balsam is a very viscous, non-pourable (except when very fresh), honeylike and crystal- 
clear mass of pale yellow color, occasionally with a greenish tint. Its odor is fresh, sweet- 
balsamic with an almost fruity-floral topnote reminiscent of the odor of iso-propyl benzoate, 
but fresher, at times lemon-like rather than turpentine-like. The dryout bears some 
resemblance to the dryout notes of Atlas cedarwood oil. On exposure to air, Canada Balsam 
slowly solidifies to a glass-like, brittle, transparent lacquer. This ability of Canada balsam is 
exploited in microscopy and in optical instruments where the "balsam" is used to glue lenses 
into systems, and to glue coverglasses to object glasses. Canada Balsam contains more than 
20% essential oil. The balance is odorless resin. The essential oil consists almost entirely of 
monoterpenes and has little perfumery value. 


90 


Canada balsam is used to a limited extent as a fixative in finer pine needle fragrances to which 
it also lends a certain freshness. Its high price and limited availability prevents extensive use of 
this material. 

The so-called "Venetian Turpentine" is used in Europe in place of Canada balsam in low-cost 
perfumes. Venetian turpentine is derived from a larch tree which grows in central and 
southern Europe—see: Larch Turpentine. 

See also Oregon Balsam. 

Cananga Oil. 

The true Cananga Oil of today is the total essential oil, water-distilled from the flowers of 
Cananga Odorata (forma macrophylla) in the northern and western parts of Java (Indonesia). 
There are several qualities of Java Cananga Oil, but they are all distilled by the so-called direct- 
fire method (flowers in water, fire under the pot, and no heating jacket). This method is used 
for a great part of the ylang-ylang oil production in Nossi-Be and in the Comoro Islands, but not 
in Reunion (see Ylang-Ylang Oil). 

Although cananga oil is essentially a "complete oil', the yield obtained in Java is considerably 
poorer than the yields of ylang-ylang oil (same tree) in the Comores, Nossi-Be, etc. This is due 
to a very primitive distillation, and to poorly selected flower material; it is also partly due to 
the fact that the cananga flowers are crushed when packed in the still, while ylang-ylang 
flowers are not. The flower is extremely delicate, and easily loses its fragrance when damaged. 
Since World War II, production of cananga oil in Java has increased rapidly, while production in 
the Philippines (earlier home of the ylang-ylang tree) is negligible. The annual world 
production of Cananga Oil is about 20 metric tons (1959) which is almost as high as the pre¬ 
war figure. 

Java cananga oil is a yellow to orange-yellow or slightly greenish-yellow, somewhat viscous 
liquid of sweet-floral, balsamic and tenacious odor. The initial notes are woody-leathery with a 
fresh-floral undertone, a characteristic combination. The odor type is much "heavier" than that 
of ylang-ylang and it is also more tenacious than the first and second grades of that oil. 

Cananga oil is useful in soap perfumery and for the popular "leathery" notes in men's 
fragrances where it combines well with castoreum, calamus, birch tar oil rectified, cyclamal, 
creosol, copaiba oil, isobutyl cinnamate, isoeugenol, labdanum products, guaiacwood oil, 
nerol, para-cresyl salicylate, oakmoss products, etc. and with fougere bases, violet bases, etc. 
The superior stability and tenacity of the odor of cananga oil makes this material interesting 
for soap perfumes where ylang-ylang oil is of comparatively little value. 

The fact that far more cananga oil is available than the 10 to 20 tons annually produced 
indicates that some kind of large-scale adulteration takes place. The most obvious one is most 
likely a "false denomination of merchandise", rather than plain adulteration. A mixture of high- 
boiling fractions ("tails") from the distillation of ylang-ylang oil in the Nossi-Be—Comoro area 
will inevitably end up under the label of Cananga Oil —Java! The principal difference lies in the 
fact that cananga oil is truly a complete oil, not a fraction of an oil. This, of course, leads 
certain suppliers to perform a number of manipulations with the ylang-ylang fractions in order 


91 


to introduce the "missing notes", e.g. by adding synthetic perfume materials, perfume 
compounds, terpenes, fractions of other essential oils, etc. Very crude adulteration may take 
place locally (in Indonesia), but this has become rare. In most cases, these adulterations are 
easily detectable by olfactory analysis. 

Canella. 

Apart from the two "big" Cinnamon types (Ceylon and cassia), several others are known. The 
so-called Saigon-Cinnamon comes from the Indo-chinese tree Cinnamomum Loureirii while 
the Padang-Cinnamon comes from the tree Cassia Burmannii in India and Indonesia. The bark 
of a small tree, Canella Alba, from the West Indies is occasionally marketed under the name of 
White Cinnamon. The tree is also cultivated in the Union of South Africa where it is sometimes 
called "Wild Cinnamon". The tree Canella Alba was formerly known as Canella Winterana. 

The dried bark of this small tree is exported and used in spice blends. However, the greater 
part of the production is consumed in local household. An essential oil is very rarely distilled 
from this bark. It is generally believed that essential oils under the name of Canella Alba or 
Canella Winterana are not true distillates from the bark of this tree. These oils are presumably 
compounded spice oils from cinnamon bark, clove leaf, etc. The author has no experience with 
the true essential oil of "White Cinnamon". 

Cangerana. 

The essential oil of Cabralea Cangerana, often called Cangerana, is steam distilled from the 
bark of the root of a Brazilian tree of the above name. The tree belongs to the genus of 
Meliaceae among which we also find Cedrela Odorata (see that monograph) and Swietenia 
Mahagony, the "true" mahogany tree. 

The name Cabralea is derived from the famous Portuguese navigator and explorer Pedro 
Alvarez Cabral, who found Brazil in A.D. 1500. To be more correct: he found the east coast of 
South America and when he saw the wealth of trees in the new land, he particularly admired 
those with a beautiful, red-colored wood. Accordingly, he named the land: Brazil (= the red 
woods). 

The peel or bark of Cabralea Cangerana root is used in local medicine. The essential oil finds its 
way as a perfume for soaps, floorwaxes and other perfumed household articles in the local 
market. The annual production of this oil is hardly more than a few metric tons. 

Cangerana Oil is a viscous liquid of pale olive- green to pale turquoise color. Its odor is 
distinctly woody, very dry and earthy, spicy-peppery, reminiscent of cubeb oil, cyperus oils, 
carrot seed oil, clove leaf sesquiterpenes, etc. It blends well with clove oils, lavandin, oakmoss, 
olibanum, petitgrain, pine needle oils, vetiver, etc., and with borneol, cedarwood derivatives, 
coumarin, isobornylacetate, methyl anthranilate, nitromusks, etc. The oil could no doubt find 
use outside of its country of origin for the creation of pine needle fragrances, fougeres, 
Oriental perfume bases, violet bases, "men's fragrances", spice blends, etc. and it is 
particularly interesting for use in the construction of artificial essential oils. 


92 


The oil is also known locally as Oleo de Madeira, which is a mutual name for a number of 
essential oils from trees along the Brazilian Madeira River. 


Cape Oil. 

Although hardly available except upon demand well in advance, the oil of Popowia Capea 
deserves some attention. It represents one of the many results of the botanical research 
expeditions which were sponsored by some of the larger Grasse perfume raw material houses 
long ago. More recently, the well-known French botanist, author, engineer, and coffee-expert, 
R.-L. Joly, has explored the West African area for the purpose of finding new perfume plants. 
But even his visits and reports did not seem to call Cape Oil to life. 

The plant is a semi-climbing vine which grows wild in the jungles of Guinea and the Ivory Coast, 
formerly French West Africa (A. 0. F.) The leaves are extremely fragrant, and the natives use 
them to perfume their baths and to scent their vegetable oils. 

Cape Oil is an olive-green liquid of strong, woody-floral and deep-sweet odor with a somewhat 
minty-sharp topnote. The tenacity is excellent and this oil would blend well with Oriental and 
woody-herbaceous bases, floral bases, hyacinth, lilac, ylang-ylang, etc. Very little is known 
about the constituents of the oil. The plant belongs to the same family as do the ylang-ylang, 
but its flowers are not particularly fragrant. 

The best method of production of this oil is by steam distillation of the leaves, after which the 
condensate is collected in a hydrocarbon solvent (see also Manevoro Oil). The heavier 
fractions of the oil contain cinnamic alcohol and esters of this alcohol. These are not only 
heavier than water but also slightly soluble in the distillation waters. The difficulties 
encountered in the collection of the leaves in the jungle and the complicated distillation make 
the production of this oil unrewarding unless there is a strong demand for it. The plant has not 
been found elsewhere. 

Capsicum. 

Under the name of Capsicum, the fruits of various species of the family Solanaceae 
(nightshade family) are used extensively as pungent food additives in pickles, spice blends, etc. 

There are two main sorts of Capsicum of interest to flavorists: 

1) The large pepper from Capsicum Annuum or Capsicum Longum, 

2) The small pepper from Capsicum Frutescens or Capsicum Fastigiatum. 

1) The large "cayenne" pepper is known in many varieties, some of which are free from 
pungent constituents and, accordingly, are used unripe in green salads. This type of capsicum 
fruit is particularly rich in vitamin C. Perfumers will inevitably recall the odor of galbanum or 
certain lower olefinic aldehydes when they enjoy fresh green peppers in a salad bowl. 

The more original types are all pungent, i.e. in the ripe and orange-red fruits, we find the seeds 
located on a central stand inside the inflated, hollow pepper. Only the seedstands which are 
very juicy, contain pungent materials. The best known of these has been identified as Decylene 


93 


Vanillylamide, also known as Capsaicin. The content of capsaicin determines the pungency of 
the pepper. In some of the varieties, capsaicin is also found to a minor extent in the seeds. 

The dried fruits are known as "Spanish pepper' or "paprika". They are cultivated extensively in 
central and southern Europe. The orange-red powder of the fruits, from which the most 
pungent parts have been removed, is known as "Rosenpaprika" and is a Hungarian specialty. It 
is used in numerous dishes and recipes as well as in many variations of the so-called "Indian 
curry powder". Originally, this called for the small capsicum fruits (see below). 

Since the content of pungent matter is much smaller in the "large" capsicum, than in the 
"small" varieties, the latter is frequently used for extraction to Oleoresin Capsicum, etc. 
Although capsaicin is a solid material, it is somewhat volatile, and this may explain the fact that 
other parts of the fruit have a slight pungency when the fruit is mature. However, capsicum 
fruits yield no essential oil on ordinary steam or water distillation. 

2) The "small" capsicums are derived from: 

Capsicum Frutescens, e.g. the "African chiles" (originally: chillies), or from 
Capsicum Anuum, var. conoides, known as "Tabasco pepper" or 'Tabasco piment". 

The latter term has caused some confusion concerning origin, since the Spanish word 
"pimienta" refers to the pungent taste, and should not refer to the botanical name of the plant 
(the Mexican Pimenta Officinalis has been mentioned as parent of the Tabasco spice, but 
apparently is merely an allspice variety with little or no pungency). 

"Tabasco pepper" is also known as "Cayenne pepper". These "small" capsicums are cultivated 
extensively in tropical zones all over the world, and have become everyday additive to native 
food in India, Indonesia, China, Central America, etc. They also enter the spice blends, curry 
powders, pickles, seasonings and table sauces, partly as comminuted fruits, partly as extracts 
(usually oleoresins). The "small" capsicums contain up to 20 times as much capsaicin as do the 
"large" European capsicums. 

Capsicum Oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin, but the term oleoresin is a little out of line of our 
definitions. The extract consists of resinous matter and a liquid phase which is not volatile with 
steam. Extraction is usually carried out with ethyl ether, and the evaporation residue will 
separate into an oily-fatty part and a liquid, rather mobile oleoresin which is collected as the 
yield. 

Capsicum Oleoresin is a dark red or orange-red to brownish-red liquid, soluble in ethyl ether, 
hydrocarbon solvents and most vegetable (fixed) oils, but not in alcohol. If the fruits are 
extracted with alcohol, the oleoresin will be darker, more viscous and contain less pungent 
matter per weight unit. If the ether-extracted oleoresin is extracted with ethyl alcohol, the 
oleoresin will yield an Absolute of Capsicum which contains the pungent material. The 
absolute is soluble in alcohol and is easier to use in flavors where hydrocarbon solvents are 
rarely used or wanted. Capsicum Absolute has an interesting tobacco-like, sweet-herbaceous 
odor which could be utilized in jasmin bases, cassie, mimosa, modern fantasy bases, etc. A 
pungency- free and non-irritant capsicum absolute should be prepared for use in perfumes 
which inevitably come in contact with the human skin. 


94 



Capsicum Oleoresin is used in place of the botanical drug with the advantage that the strength 
can now be standardized since the pungent material is known and synthesized. Also, the fruits 
are fully utilized: fruits of poor appearance may be used for extraction; fruits of various crops 
and quality can be extracted together. The taste or mouthfeel—(flavor is out of the question) 
—of Capsicum Oleoresin is characterized by an extreme pungency: With a dilution of one part 
of oleoresin capsicum in five million parts of a 9% sugar water at 10° C. (i.e. a concentration of 
0.02 mg%), a distinct burning effect in the throat and rear parts of the inside mouth is still 
produced. The above test is obviously very subjective and strongly dependent upon the eating 
habits of the taste panel. At such extreme dilutions, it is impossible to distinguish between the 
pungency of capsicum and that of ginger; this is why capsicum extracts are used to adulterate 
ginger oleoresins, to make them "stronger" for use in "ginger nuts", "ginger ale", etc. A well 
known test is to heat the extract with a weak sodium hydroxide solution. Only the ginger 
extract will lose its pungency; capsicum remains unaffected. Besides, the flavor of ginger 
oleoresin is not present in capsicum extracts, and the ginger flavor would be impaired by any 
addition of capsicum oleoresin. 

Capsicum Oleoresin and Capsicum Tincture, the latter usually produced from European 
capsicum fruits, are still used in pharmaceutical preparations as rubefacients and skin irritants 
(stimulants). 

Caraway Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled from the dried, crushed, ripe fruit of Carum Carvi, a small herb which 
grows wild in Asia, Europe, North Africa and in the northwestern United States. The plant is 
cultivated in Holland, Denmark, Poland, USSR, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Germany, England, Spain, 
Tunisia, India, and Pakistan. The four first-named countries are main suppliers of the fruits; 
Holland is the largest producer of the essential oil. The annual production in Holland may 
exceed 40 metric tons. Other countries supply smaller quantities, and the Dutch oil is 
considered superior, although the scarce English distilled oil (partly from foreign fruits) is also 
of high flavor quality. 

Caraway Oil is offered on the market in at least two grades: 

1) "crude" or "natural" caraway oil—and 

2) "double rectified" or "redistilled" caraway oil. 

Crude caraway oil is the direct distillate. It is a pale yellow to brownish, mobile liquid, 
possessing a strong and peculiar odor typical of the fruit, but with a fatty-harsh undertone. The 
taste is similar, but quite burning, warm, biting. 

Rectified caraway oil is colorless or very pale yellow. The odor is stronger, less fatty. The flavor 
is warmer, less sweet and more biting than that of the crude (natural) oil. 

When presenting a "blind" sample of caraway oil to an odor panel, one may often hear that "it 
smells of rye bread". This is another example of the difficulties one faces in logical odor 
description. Rye bread is flavored with caraway oil (or with other carvone-containing flavor 
material). To the same panel was shown with several weeks interval first a "blind" sample of 


95 


Carvone, later one of spearmint oil. In all three cases, the description "rye bread" came up as 
the most frequently used by the panel. 

Characteristic of crude caraway oil is an initial note of a nauseating, almost amine-like type. 
This note is found in a number of "seed"-oils, particularly those from the family of umbelliferae 
(caraway, carrot, celery, coriander, fennel, etc.), and the unpleasant note may be due either to 
decomposition of proteins in the germ of the seed, or to the presence of glycosides or 
alkaloids. Black pepper oil presents an ammoniacal odor when fresh out of the still, 
conceivably a decomposition product from the nitrogen components of the fruit. 

The above odor is not present in redistilled (rectified) caraway oils. See also Cumin Oil 

Caraway Oil is used primarily in flavors: in bread, cheese, meat, pickles, sauces, and 
seasonings. It is the main flavor ingredient in the Scandinavian "snaps" ( a caraway-brandy), or 
the German "kummel". It is used in mouth wash or gargle preparations, toothpaste flavors, 
chewing gum, candy, and as a masking agent in bad- tasting pharmaceutical preparations. 
Combinations with cinnamon or cassia oils are frequently encountered. 

The suggested use level of rectified caraway oil is about 2.00 to 5.00 mg% and the Minimum 
Perceptible is 0.30 to 0.50 mg%. In perfumery, the use of caraway oil is restricted to soap 
perfumes where it is often combined with cassia oil or similar notes. Minute quantities of 
caraway oil may be used in jasmin bases, tabac perfumes, etc. Caraway oil has a pronounced 
odor-masking effect upon some of the most common insecticidal chemicals and has 
occasionally been used for the purpose of covering the obnoxious odor of the active principles. 

Since the main constituents of caraway oil, Carvone and Limonene (both in the dextro¬ 
rotatory form) are available as synthetic chemicals, the use of caraway oil has been decreasing 
considerably during recent years. Apart from the two materials mentioned, however, trace 
amounts of other ingredients actually decide the characteristic odor of true caraway oil. It is 
interesting to note that spearmint oil also consists mainly of carvone and terpenes (in laevo- 
rotatory form), but the "traces" of odor-flavor materials which characterize the typical 
spearmint odor and flavor are more than mere traces (several percent of certain materials). 

An olfactory analysis of caraway oil will usually reveal any substantial adulteration. In the 
crude oil, sulfide compounds often occur naturally, causing a putrid odor, but these notes soon 
disappear completely on ageing or after rectification. A similar odor is noted in true cumin oil 
(see monograph). Such observations may help in the evaluation of samples of caraway oil. It is 
believed that the sulfides should only exist in the distillation waters from the oil, not in the oil 
itself. Most distillers cohobate the distillation water, others extract the water with volatile 
solvent in order to recover this special fraction of the crude caraway oil. 

Adulteration takes place on an increasing scale with synthetic d-carvone and d-limonene, 
particularly since the former is now produced at a competitive cost (see also Spearmint Oil). 
Adulteration can also take place with Caraway Chaff Oil, distilled from the waste material from 
the threshing of the caraway fruits. This oil contains more terpenes and less carvone; it is of 
poorer grade than true caraway fruit oil 


96 



Cardamom Oil. 


Cardamom Oil is one of the oldest essential oils known. In the reports of Valerius Cordus dated 
1540, cardamom oil is described, and its distillation is outlined. 

The oil is produced by steam distillation of the seeds of Elettaria Cardamomum, a plant of the 
ginger family. This plant grows wild, and is also cultivated in Ceylon, India (Malabar coast, 
Travancore, Canara and other provinces), in Guatemala, and lately in El Salvador, Central 
America. 

The seeds are enclosed in husks (hulls), and should not be removed from the almost odorless 
hulls until immediately prior to distillation. The so-called "green" cardamom, e.g. "Green 
Aleppy", which gives a high yield of essential oil (in rare cases up to 8%, usually 4 to 6%), is 
preferred as distillation material. The essential oil from "green" types of cardamom smells 
more of cineole than does an oil from the bleached or pale yellow, straw-colored cardamom 
(fruits). Until recent years, all cardamom oil was produced in Europe and in the U.S.A., but in 
the 1950's, distillation took place on an increasing scale in India and Ceylon. India is, by far, the 
largest consumer of cardamom spice in the world. It is estimated that India uses between 50 
and 65% of the total world production. 

Guatemala is the second largest producer of cardamom, but still comes nowhere near the 
quantities produced by India and Ceylon. A very good cardamom oil is distilled locally in 
Guatemala. It compares favorably with any other cardamom oil on the market in respect to 
odor and flavor. 

Numerous varieties of cardamom, useful as spice, grow wild or semiwild, and are cultivated in 
Madagascar, east and west Africa, central Africa, China, Siam and Indonesia. These have little 
or no importance as a source of essential oil. 

Cardamom Oil is an almost colorless or pale yellow to light brownish liquid. It darkens when 
exposed to daylight. The locally distilled oils are generally darker than those distilled in Europe 
or the U.S.A. Guatemalan oil is distilled in comparatively modern equipment and under 
experienced technical supervision. It is also light colored. The odor of cardamom oil is warm- 
spicy, aromatic (in the author's opinion it is the most "aromatic" of all the oils from "aromatic" 
seeds), at first penetrating camphoraceous-cineole-like or somewhat medicinal, reminiscent of 
eucalyptus. Later, it becomes balsamic-woody, increasingly sweet and almost floral on the 
dryout. The odor is extremely tenacious with a delightful, warm spiciness and balsamic-floral 
undertone. 

The main constituents of cardamom oil are cineole, terpinylacetate, terpineol, borneol and 
terpenes. AU of these can be and are produced synthetically at a fraction of the price of 
cardamom oil. Obviously, adulteration takes place on a really big scale, and only a good 
experience with genuine oil, for example of his own distillation, will enable a perfumer to 
judge successfully between a true oil and an adulterated one. Spanish sage oil, pine oil 
fractions, etc. are also used in the above fraud. The flavor of cardamom oil is rich-aromatic, 
warm and spicy, somewhat burning or pungent at high concentration, and faintly bitter unless 
well diluted. The use level of this oil in food is strongly dependent upon the further processing 


97 


of the food (high temperatures for baked goods, etc.) but it would be about 0.20 to 0.50% 
while the Minimum Perceptible is 0.04 to 0.05 mg% for a good and true cardamom oil. 

The spice itself is one of the "musts" in the genuine east Indian curry powder. Apart from its 
use as a spice in blends, cardamom oil replaces the spice in the canning industry for pickles, 
meat sauces, seasonings, etc. where uniform quality and constant effect are of paramount 
importance. In certain areas, e.g. the Scandinavian and north European countries, cardamom is 
a very popular addition to bread and all baked goods, while the spice is hardly known at all to 
the American housewife. 

In perfumery, the oil will not only impart spiciness, but also a warm, sweet note which fits into 
floral bases such as muguet and rose. Cardamom oil blends well with bergamot, olibanum, 
ylang-ylang, labdanum products, nerol, methylionones, cedarwood derivatives, etc. or with 
heliotropine, cassione, isoeugenol, hydroxycitronellal, etc. Coriander oil is an extremely fine 
modifier for cardamom oil in perfumery (and in flavors, tool). The oil imparts warmth in 
Oriental perfume bases, chypres and face powder perfumes. 

Recently, a few European and American spice houses started production of Cardamom 
Oleoresin which reproduces the organoleptic virtues of the true spice even more closely than 
does the oil. The oleoresin is produced by extraction of the seed with ethylether, petroleum 
ether or other volatile solvent. The extract will contain about 10% of a fixed oil which is 
odorless. Extraction with hot alcohol produces a very dark extract which is free from fixed oil. 
The ether extract is an orange-brown or greenish-brown liquid of rich and "true-to-nature" 
odor. An Ultrasonic Extract of Cardamom is also available. 

The annual world production of cardamom oil seems to adjust itself to the demand. The oil is 
comparatively expensive, but this is not due to scarcity of raw material. 

Carnation Absolute. 

Known in France as "absolue d'eillet". Carnation Absolute is produced by extraction of the 
flowers of Dianthus Caryophyllus, the common garden carnation. The plant is grown for the 
purpose of cutting the flowers (for decorations, etc.), but at the end of the season, the flowers 
are extracted with petroleum ether to yield a hard, green concrete. 

Cultivation takes place in most European countries and in the U.S.A. Production of the 
concrete and absolute, however, is carried out only in France, Holland, Germany, and Italy. An 
absolute is produced by the usual alcohol washing method (see Part One in this book: 

Absolute). 

Carnation is an olive green to green or orange- brown, viscous liquid of very sweet, honeylike, 
somewhat herbaceous, heavy and tenacious fragrance, reminiscent of the odor of the live 
flowers only to a certain degree and only in high dilutions (5% or weaker). The yield of absolute 
from concrete is very small (about 10 to 25%), and since the yield of the concrete itself is also 
poor (0.2 to 0.3% of the weight of the flowers), the production of Carnation Absolute is a 
costly one. Consequently, adulteration occurs quite frequently, mainly in the form of "cutting", 
and it may be difficult to detect. Synthetic materials such as isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, 
benzyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, etc. or small amounts of everlasting absolute, flouve oil, 


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clove bud absolute, etc. can be added, and these can make the odor of the "sophisticated" 
absolute even more similar to that of the flower. 

Carnation Absolute is used sparingly in certain modern perfumes, and it can add interesting 
notes to rose, lily, narcissus, etc. It blends well with lavender, ylang-ylang, sage clary, 
castoreum, etc. The annual production of carnation absolute has diminished considerably, and 
is now estimated at 20 to 30 kilos. 

Carob Bean. 

The carob bean or "Locust Bean" is also called "St. John's Bread" since it was believed that St. 
John, as referred to in the New Testament, took nourishment from locust and from the syrup 
of these fruits during his stay in the desert. But since the tree, Ceratonia Siliqua, from which 
the fruits are derived is not a desert tree, it is not conceivable that St. John really had these 
pods. The honeylike juice which can be expressed from the fruits is nowadays fermented 
locally and it produces an alcoholic beverage. 

The flowers of the carob bean tree can be extracted to yield a concrete of a very interesting 
mimosa-cassie type of odor. The perfume type "locust flower" was originally intended to call 
this fragrance in mind. It is very likely, however, that the flowers from the carob bean tree are 
used accidentally or intentionally with cassie or mimosa flowers in the extraction of concrete. 
The trees grow in the same areas of the Mediterranean countries. 

Ceratonia Siliqua is a small tree which probably originates in the Middle East. It grows 
abundantly in Cyprus Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The bulk of St. John's bread is, 
however, produced in Spain and Italy. Greece, Turkey and Lebanon produce smaller quantities. 

A syrup of about 50% sugar content is found in the tissue around the seeds of the fruit. The 
fruit also contains some butyric acid, etc. which gives the syrup a cheese-like, almost rancid 
odor. Some people dislike St. John's bread just for this particular reason. 

The five to eight inches long pods (fruits) are used in flavor work in the form of an extract. The 
menstruum for the extraction is very weak alcohol or water. Strong alcohol would not extract 
the sugar which seems to be accompanied by a certain amount of the peculiar aroma. This 
aqueous extract of St. John's bread is used in tobacco flavors, in imitation rum flavors and in 
many types of caramel or nut flavors. 

A tincture made with strong alcohol is prepared specially for use in perfumes. It is pale colored 
and has a faint odor of the bean. This tincture finds occasionally use in the creation of certain 
floral notes, where it seems to introduce naturalness and roundness in spite of the 
unquestionable cheese-note. 

The cultivation of the Carob Bean tree has found renewed interest since the dried and 
powdered endosperm from the seeds produce a most useful gum, known as "Locust Bean 
Gum". Under the brand name of "Rexer" (Spanish product) and other brand names, this 
endosperm powder has become a serious competitor to tragacanth and other gums. The 
locust bean gum is in several respects superior to tragacanth. The waste fruits, known as 
"kibbles", from the production of the endosperm-flour are used as cattle feed. Locust bean 


99 


gum is used extensively in cosmetic preparations, but its greatest outlet is in the textile 
industry as a thickening agent in the printing of fabrics (also for "appretage", etc.). 

Carrot Seed Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled from the dried seed (fruit) of the common carrot, Daucus Carota. 
Production of the essential oil is almost entirely concentrated in France, although Holland and 
Hungary produce minor quantities. In France, it is customary to crush the seed prior to 
distillation, but not all distillers do so. Like celery seed, carrot seed can be distilled without 
crushing, and this will minimize the carry-over of odorless fixed oil (palmitic acid, etc.) in the 
distillate. Superannuated seed which has lost its germinating power can also be used for 
distillation. This makes the distillation more economical. 

Carrot Seed Oil is a yellow or amber-colored to pale orange-brown liquid of peculiar 
drywoody, somewhat root-like, earthy odor. The initial notes are sweet and fresh, but the 
tenacious undertone and dryout is very heavy, weset-earthy, fatty-oily, slightly spicy. The 
flavor is warm- spicy, slightly biting at high concentration, but sweet and piquant. The 
suggested use level is 0.10 to 0.20 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.02 to 0.04 mg%. 
The oil contains large amounts of terpenes, particularly monoterpenes, but the characteristic 
odor and flavor is probably due to certain components related to those found in calamus oil 
and to certain materials with iononelike odor. 

Carrot Seed Oil is occasionally adulterated with d-limonene (although it should be l-limonene) 
or with oil from siftings, etc. The oil is used in France quite extensively for culinary purposes, 
e.g. in spice blends, seasonings, etc., and also in alcoholic beverages. In France and other 
countries, Carrot Seed Oil is used in perfumery for its fatty-woody notes which blend well with 
chypres, citrus oils, costus oil, cassie and mimosa, fougeres, geranium oils, ionones and 
methylionones, cedarwood derivatives, etc. Many Oriental perfume types, modern aldehydic 
or fantasy type perfumes, etc. contain traces of carrot seed oil. For certain artificial essential 
oils, Carrot Seed Oil lends unique and indispensable notes. 

The oil could be produced in amounts of several metric tons per year in France alone should 
the demand continue to increase. Its low price and great power makes it useful and 
economical in a great variety of perfumes and flavors. 

Cascarilla Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled from the dried bark of Croton Eluteria and possibly other Croton 
species, small trees which grow in the West Indies, probably originally from the Bahama 
Islands. The Bahamas are the main producers of cascarilla bark on a commercial scale. Smaller 
amounts come from Cuba. The bark is dried and freed from any adherent sapwood or 
heartwood, but it is not distilled locally. The bark is sold to the large botanical houses and drug 
store suppliers. Alcoholic tinctures or extracts are prepared pharmaceutically, and are used as 
flavor materials, as a tonic additive or as a so-called "bitter". 

In Europe, mainly in France and England, and also in the U.S.A., small quantities of essential oil 
are produced from the imported cascarilla bark. 


100 


Cascarilla Oil is a pale yellow to greenish- yellow or dark amber colored liquid of strong spicy- 
aromatic, warm-woody, slightly peppery odor reminiscent of nutmeg, myrtle, melaleuca 
alternifolia, hyssop and other spices or culinary herbs. Its topnote is not exactly pleasant, but 
the unusual diffusiveness and power of this oil places it among the "trace" components in 
perfumes. The flavor of the oil is somewhat bitter, burning but pleasantly spicy and quite 
powerful. Suggested use level is 0.10 to 0.50 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.02 to 
0.04 mg%. 

The very complex note of spiciness and the warm, woody undertone has intrigued many 
perfumers to use Cascarilla Oil in high-class perfumes. It was even claimed that "I'origan" 
contained this oil as one of the "key" materials (if one can use such an expression at all about a 
creation). But the oil does present interesting notes in chypre bases, "tabac"-types, Oriental 
perfumes, "men's fragrances", fantasy colognes, etc. It blends well with nutmeg, pepper, 
pimenta berry oil, sage oil dalmatian, oakmoss products, quinoline derivatives, cedrenol, 
coumarin, etc. Its power is often underestimated. 

In flavors, the oil has found use in tobacco- aromas, in liqueurs as a "piquant" additive and in 
tonic wines and bitters. The oil is produced on a very limited scale only, and its high price and 
limited area of botanical origin create problems of meeting the demand when significant 
quantities are called for. 

Cassia Oil. 

Cassia Oil, or Chinese Cinnamon Oil, is steam distilled from the leaves of Cinnamomum Cassia, 
large slender trees which grow in the southeastern parts of China and, to a minor extent, in 
Viet-Nam and India (Cochin). The bark of this tree is known all over the world as "cinnamon 
bark" or "cassiacinnamon", not to be confused with the true Ceylon cinnamon bark which is 
derived from a different species (see Cinnamon Bark Oil). 

The bark is distilled together with the leaves and the stalks, twigs and waste material from the 
collection of the bark of the Cassia tree. After proper drying of the plant material, the 
distillation is carried out in local stills, primitive, but quite ingeniously constructed. The 
distillation is, in its principle, a water-distillation. Accordingly, the oil is very crude, and appears 
as a dark brown liquid of strong, spicy, warm and woody-resinous odor with an intensely 
sweet, somewhat balsamic undertone. The bark contains significant amounts of tannin and 
this material causes a certain darkening of the oils from iron or copper stills. 

For various reasons, however, true Cassia Oil hardly reaches the American consumers any 
more. First of all, this oil has been subject to "local" adulteration for several decades, and the 
adulteration was quite skillfully made. Thus, very few buyers ever knew how a true oil looked 
or smelled. Next, the political disturbances and subsequent ban on goods from Red China have 
blocked off this material from the U.S.A. although smaller lots still reach Europe (but these 
may very well be adulterated oils!). All told, these circumstances have been well-nigh 
disastrous for the future of Cassia Oil, and artificial oils have already been accepted by the 
consumers for many years. The result is that the oil is not available any more in the U.S.A., and 
what is available in Europe, Africa and South America may very well be a "compounded" oil. 
The chief constituent, Cinnamal (or Cinnamic Aldehyde) is available as a low- cost synthetic 


101 


chemical. Several other synthetic chemicals have cinnamon-like odor and flavor: alpha-methyl 
cinnamic aldehyde, alpha-methyl furanacrolein, etc., and with the addition of balsamic 
fixatives such as Sumatra benzoin, methyl isoeugenol, etc. it is possible to reproduce the odor 
and flavor of cassia cinnamon satisfactorily. Acaroid resinoid has also been used as a balsamic 
fixative. Its dark color is only an advantage in this case. 

However, for those who may still have the opportunity of working with (more or less) "true" 
Cassia Cinnamon Oil ("cassia leaf oil"), a brief description will follow. The description is partly 
based upon the author's personal notes from the 1930's, partly upon more recent studies of 
small, true samples obtained by supervised distillation of cassia leaves and stalks. The 
botanical material, too, was checked and found genuine by the author. 

Crude, locally distilled cassia oil is a brownish yellow to dark brown liquid from which a 
resinous matter may deposit after ageing. Rectified (redistilled) cassia oil is a pale yellow or 
dark yellow, clear liquid, less viscous than the crude oil. Its odor is somewhat sweeter but less 
tenacious. The flavor is also similar: warm, spicy, slightly woody, balsamic and intensely sweet. 
The suggested use level is 1.00 to 4.00 mg% (with wide variations in concentration according 
to type of flavor, modifier, etc.). The Minimum Perceptible of the redistilled oil is about 0.10 
to 0.20 mg%. A certain degree of water-solubility seems to place this oil among the "medium- 
strong" materials and not, as one should expect from its odor- masking ability, among the very 
strongest of our flavor materials. 

Because of its intense and dark color, crude cassia oil is rarely used in perfumes as such. It may 
easily cause not only coloring but also discoloration of soaps and other perfumed products 
when incorporated in the perfume in modest concentration. For flavors, it often pays to use 
the crude oil which has a tremendous odor-tenacity, thanks to the significant amount of 
resinous matter. As a modifier with benzaldehyde in liqueur-flavors, in cherry flavors or "wild 
cherry" flavors, flavors for baked goods, candy, mouthwashes, etc., a true Cassia Oil lends 
power, sweetness and a popular spicy-warm note. Certain bactericidal effects are also 
attributed to this oil on account of its high content of Cinnamic Aldehyde. 

It was customary to ship crude cassia oil in lead-lined containers, and this occasionally caused 
not only discoloration of the oil, but also formation of the lead salt of cinnamic acid. The latter 
is produced by air oxidation of the main constituent in the cassia oil, Cinnamic Aldehyde. 

Annual production of Cassia Oil is estimated to fluctuate between 175 and 250 metric tons, 
but since the western world has become accustomed to an artificial replacement, it is 
conceivable that production will diminish significantly. It is worthwhile noting that a large part 
of the "cinnamon" which goes into the spice blend in "apple pie with cinnamon" in the U.S.A. 
and other countries, is derived from the bark of Cinnamomum Loureirii, an Indochinese tree 
which is related to the cassia tree. This bark is recognized by authorities in many countries as 
"cinnamon bark". See the monograph on Canella. 

Cassie. 

A valuable and scarce perfume material is extracted from the flowers of Acacia Farnesiana, a 
small tree or shrub which grows in warm-temperate and semi-tropical areas all over the world. 


102 


The tree is cultivated for the purpose of extracting the flowers in Lebanon (near Beyrouth), in 
Morocco, Egypt (near Cairo) and in the south of France. Algerian plantations and flower 
extraction installations are practically abandoned. Flowers are collected on a commercial scale 
for extraction in India (Himalaya) where a local type of pommade is made ("attar" of cassie). 
The tree grows abundantly in the West Indies and in the South Pacific Islands. Other species 
are found in Central Africa, Belgian Congo, Australia, etc. but these locations are prohibitive for 
an economical extraction of the flowers. Insignificant quantities of flower extracts (concretes) 
are produced in Italy, Israel and Bulgaria. 

The flowers are extracted with petroleum ether to yield Cassie Concrete which is a solid, waxy 
mass of dark yellow or brown color, usually much darker than mimosa concrete. The cassie 
concrete is rarely used as such. It is processed further to Cassie Absolute by alcohol extraction 
of the concrete. The concrete yields only about one third of absolute by weight. 

Cassie Absolute from Concrete is a dark yellow or pale brown, viscous liquid, clear at room 
temperature but separating waxy flakes at reduced temperatures. Its odor is extremely warm, 
powdery-spicy, at the same time herbaceous and floral with a deep and very tenacious 
cinnamic-balsamic undertone. 

The absolute is used in high-cost perfumes where it lends a unique warmth and woody- floral 
note. It blends well with all the ionones and methylionones, heliotropine (not to speak of its 
well-known derivative, Cassione), anisalcohol, cyclamal, etc. and with bergamot oil, costus, 
mimosa, orris products, olibanum, ylang-ylang absolute, etc. in ambre bases, oriental bases, 
etc. Cassie Absolute from Concrete is occasionally used in flavors; it gives a delightful 
naturalness and body to a raspberry flavor when used with extreme discretion. Being a typical 
"bouquet" material in flavors, Cassie Absolute should be used at a concentration only slightly 
above the Minimum Perceptible, which is about 0.04 to 0.08 mg%. 

A different type of cassie absolute is made by the enfleurage method (see Pommade in Part 
One of this book). The alcohol-extract from the pommade is known as Cassie Absolute from 
Pommade. This absolute is a very viscous, dark green or olive green liquid. Its odor is distinctly 
different from that of the absolute from concrete. The former has a fresher, almost narcissus- 
or violet-leaf topnote and a much lighter bodynote. Its tenacity is by far inferior to that of the 
absolute from concrete. Cassie Absolute from Pommade is an extremely scarce perfume 
material and must be considered as an individual material, not a substitute for the absolute 
from concrete. 

Cassie Absolute from Concrete is produced in very limited quantities. The annual production is 
hardly more than 100 kilos. It is estimated that about 80% hereof is derived from Lebanon. The 
Egyptian producers send their concrete to France for processing into absolute. Cassie Absolute 
is adulterated with mimosa absolute, isoeugenol, artificial cassie bases, etc. or it can be 
contaminated with extracts of carob bean flowers (see Carob Bean) or flowers from related 
Leguminosae. 


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Castoreum. 


Castoreum is a secretion from the male or the female beaver. It is collected in a gland which 
produces an oily substance in which the beavers rub themselves in order to protect their fur 
from being soaked in water. Castoreum is a term normally used for the entire gland. The 
contents of the gland turn dark and hard when it is sundried. One gland weighs up to 100 
grams. Thus, it is much less expensive than civet. 

Castoreum is collected in Canada (Hudson Bay in particular) and in the U.S.S.R. (Siberia, etc.). 

Canadian castoreum is pear-shaped, wrinkled on the surface, somewhat flat, 5 to 17 cms. long, 
2 to 5 cms. wide. Siberian castoreum is egg- shaped and smooth on the surface, almost the 
same size as Canadian castoreum, but not flat. Siberian castoreum is considered inferior to the 
Canadian castoreum. 

Castoreum is used in perfumery in the form of various processed materials: Tincture, Resinoid, 
Absolute. 

Castoreum Tincture: See Tincture in Part One of this book. 

Castoreum Resinoid: is prepared from the animal tissue and the exudation inside. Accordingly, 
it should not be called a resinoid, but more truly a concrete. Castoreum contains no true 
resins. Benzene extraction of castoreum yields about 20% of a brown "resinoid". However, it is 
customary to prepare an alcohol-resinoid by direct extraction with hot alcohol. 

Castoreum Absolute: The above mentioned alcohol- "resinoid" is not a true absolute and it is 
not clearly soluble in cold alcohol. It can be prepared in a way that will cause it to be fairly 
soluble (chilling before evaporation). The yield by hot alcohol-extraction is about 75 to 80% of 
a dark brown, soft unctuous mass. 

Castoreum Anhydrol is available. It offers certain notes of the castoreum gamut in an almost 
colorless liquid. 

Castoreum (the tincture in particular) is used extensively in perfumery. It's warm, animal, 
leather-like sweet odor makes it an interesting item in "men's perfumes", fougeres, chypres, 
Oriental bases, leather notes, tabac bases, etc. A frequent "smoky" note in castoreum is not a 
natural odor, but is due to the drying of the glands over smoking fires. This curing or 
processing of the raw material may also be responsible for the so-called "birch-tar" note of 
castoreum. 

Castoreum products blend particularly well with ambra notes, calamus, cananga, cedarwood 
Atlas, chamomile moroccan, creosol, labdanum products, isoeugenol, oakmoss products, 
sandalwood oil, veratraldehyde, zingerone, etc. 

In flavor work, it has long been known that castoreum extracts or tinctures were useful in 
vanilla flavor compounds. One very well known vanilla specialty from a European house 
reveals this quite perceptibly. Conversely, vanilla extracts can be used to smooth down the 
coarseness of higher concentrations of castoreum products in fougeres, leather bases, etc. 


104 


Castoreum is readily available in quantities sufficient to meet the normal demand. One cannot 
say that the material is cultivated, but increased production would be possible. However, the 
use of castoreum has decreased during the past few decades. 

Cedarleaf Oil. 

Cedarleaf Oil, which is also known commercially under the name of Thuja Oil, is actually not 
distilled from the most well known cedar. Its name is thus somewhat confusing. The American 
Cedarleaf Oil is distilled almost exclusively from the leaves and twigs of Thuja Occidentalis, in 
the U.S.A. called Eastern or Northern White Cedar. Leaves and twigs of Juniperus Virginiana 
are occasionally admixed to the above material prior to the steam distillation of cedarleaf oil 
(see Cedarwood Oil, Virginia). The white cedar is botanically related to the cypress and it 
grows abundantly in the northeastern States of the U.S.A. and in eastern Canada. The essential 
oil is distilled mainly in New York State, in Vermont and in the Quebec province of Canada. 
Leaves and twigs are collected and distilled in the growing areas. Canadian oil is derived 
exclusively from white cedar. Cedarleaf oil (thuja oil) is a colorless to pale greenish-yellow, 
mobile oil of an intensely sharp, but quite fresh, camphoraceous odor. It bears great 
resemblance to the flowering tansy herb, artemisia herb, dalmatian sage herb, etc. with a 
sweet undertone reminiscent of bitter fennel. 

The annual production of Cedarleaf Oil is quite substantial and the interest in this oil has not 
decreased lately. It is a low-cost and powerful perfume ingredient for room-sprays, 
disinfectants, insecticides, paints, household and industrial cleansers, etc. It's green, sweet- 
herbaceous, although medicinal and camphoraceous-minty note blends well with pine needle 
oils, citrus oils, lavandin and rosemary in chypre or fougere bases. The oil has even been used 
as a "piquant" topnote in high- class perfumes. 

The chief constituent, Thujone, is a ketone which is considered skin-irritant and poisonous to a 
certain degree. At the normal use-level of cedarleaf oil in perfumes, however, it seems 
inconceivable that the oil could be responsible for any harmful effects. 

Apart from occasional adulteration with pine oil fractions or turpentine fractions, Cedarleaf Oil 
is rarely adulterated. The oil serves, on the other hand, as an adulterant for tansy oil, artemisia 
oil and dalmatian sage oil. See these monographs. See also Thuja Plicata Oil. 

Cedarwood "Atlas" Resinoid. 

A concrete can be produced by benzene extraction of the wood from Cedrus Atlantica (see 
Cedarwood Oil, Atlas). The concrete is commercially known as Atlas Cedarwood Resinoid 
(compare: vetiver resinoid). Although not produced regularly on a large scale, this material is 
made available upon demand, and it maintains some interest on account of its magnificent 
fixative effect and fine odor. 

Resinoid of Atlas Cedarwood is a dark amber to brownish mass of high viscosity. The 
Cedarwood "Atlas" Absolute, produced from this resinoid by the conventional alcohol 
washing method, is a brownish-yellow, very viscous liquid. The two materials will usually carry 
some solvent odor (benzene), due to their tremendous fixative power, but they do not present 


105 


the camphoraceous-cresylic, or ketonic-sharp topnote which is usually found in the essential 
oil from this wood. To those who have had the opportunity of smelling the Atlas cedarwood in 
the local lumbermills or in the shape of various handcarved articles of art from Morocco, the 
Resinoid and the Absolute of Atlas Cedarwood present a very true-to-nature fragrance. 

The above products are used in perfumery along with bois de rose oil, boronia absolute, 
calamus oil, cassie absolute, cistus oil, mimosa absolute or concrete (excellent in soap 
perfumes!), olibanum, sage clary, vetiver, ylang-ylang, etc. in certain types of woody, woody- 
oriental, woody- floral or violet bases. 

A so-called "absolute" of atlas cedarwood is also prepared from atlas cedarwood oil by 
fractionated distillation under vacuum, see Cedarwood Oil, "Atlas". 

Cedarwood Oil, "Atlas". 

This essential oil is also known as "Moroccan" Cedarwood Oil. The oil is entirely different— 
chemically and olfactory—from the American Virginia or Texas cedarwood oils. The tree, 
Cedrus Atlantica, is a pine, not a cypress (such as the American and East African cedars). It is 
believed that the Atlas cedar is originated from the famous Lebanon cedars which grow wild in 
Lebanon and in the island of Cyprus, now protected from being felled for essential oil 
distillation and lumbering. The Atlas cedarwood oil may occasionally be offered as Lebanon 
Cedarwood Oil (see Cedarwood Oil, Lebanon). 

Atlas Cedarwood Oil is steam distilled from either the wood and stumps—or from sawdust— 
of the above tree which grows abundantly in the Atlas mountains, particularly in Morocco and 
in the northwestern parts of Algeria. Distillation takes place almost exclusively in Morocco. The 
annual production of this oil fluctuates between 15 and 35 metric tons. It is one of the most 
inexpensive essential oils entering the European market. 

Atlas Cedarwood Oil is a yellowish to orange- yellow or deep amber-colored, viscous oil, 
occasionally somewhat turbid. Its odor is very peculiar and not exactly pleasant when 
undiluted: slightly camphoraceous-cresylic with a sweet and tenacious woody undertone, 
reminiscent of cassie and mimosa. However, it does not present the delicateness or depth of 
these floral oils. The mimosa-like note is typical of the essential oil of atlas cedar- wood and it 
is not present in the so-called resinoid of the same wood. The odor characteristics can vary 
significantly. Certain lots of Atlas cedarwood oil are produced by other methods than the 
direct steam distillation, e.g. high-pressure steam distillation or alkali-treatment (so-called 
"pulping") prior to distillation. Consequently, the essential oil may contain certain odorous 
materials which are not present in the wood. 

Atlas Cedarwood Oil is widely used in perfumery for its fixative effect and unique odor which 
seems to blend so well with labdanum products and with all the woody and woody-floral types 
of perfume materials. 

Although large quantities of the oil are consumed locally as a household medicine of almost 
universal application, the oil finds its way into a wealth of European and American soap 
perfumes and other perfumes. 


106 


The oil is rarely adulterated, but it may be confused with cedarwood oils from other species or 
areas. The only essential oil which has some similarity to Atlas Cedarwood Oil is the Himalayan 
Deodar Cedarwood Oil. This oil is derived from a close botanical relative (see Cedarwood Oil, 
Himalaya). 

Atlas Cedarwood Absolute (or cedrus atlantica absolute) is a name given to two entirely 
different types of perfume materials: 

1) The absolute from concrete of Atlas cedarwood (see Cedarwood Atlas Resinoid) 
and 

2) The heart fractions of Atlas cedarwood oil, redistilled under vacuum. This is not a 
true absolute. 

Cedarwood Oil, East Africa. 

The term "it smells like the pencil sharpener" is frequently encountered when various 
cedarwood oils are presented to laymen for odor description. The above term is particularly 
suitable for the essential oil of Juniperus Procera, a cedar, or rather a cypress, botanically 
related to the "Texas cedar" from Texas and Mexico and to the "Virginia Cedar" of the 
northeastern U.S. A. The east African cedarwood oil is furthermore olfactory related to the 
Texas cedarwood oil. 

East African Cedarwood Oil is steam distilled from the waste wood in the saw mills of Kenya, 
East Africa where the trees are exploited for various purposes, e.g. lead pencils, boxes, hand 
carved figures, etc. The oil is a brownish-yellow or orange-yellow to reddish, usually very 
viscous liquid, occasionally showing a considerable deposit of crystals. The odor is very dry- 
woody, somewhat earthy and quite strong with a slightly cade-like topnote. The dry notes 
yield to an increasing balsamic sweetness as the oil dries out on a perfume blotter. Overall, it is 
less balsamic than the Virginia cedarwood oil, more reminiscent of the odor of Cedarwood Oil, 
Texas (see that monograph). 

The annual production of East African Cedarwood Oil is quite impressive, usually between 55 
and 100 metric tons. The major part of the production goes to the United Kingdom. Here, it 
serves as a starting material for the isolation of its main constituents: Cedrenol and Cedrol, 
production of cedryl esters, cedrenyl esters and other chemical derivatives of cedrenol, etc. 
The oil is also rectified and fractionated for perfumery use in Europe. The rectified oil is almost 
colorless. An almost cedrenol-free fraction (consisting mainly of sesquiterpenes) is used as a 
low-cost odormasking agent in household products, for industrial perfuming, etc. This oil is a 
water white mobile liquid which does not deposit any crystals even on cooling. Its odor is dry 
and woody, quite typical of cedarwood, but virtually deprived of balsamic notes and with little 
fixative power. 

Kenya (or "east African") cedarwood oil is a good fixative for soap perfumes, pine fragrances, 
wood notes, etc., and it blends well with rose notes, Oriental bases, moss notes, etc. In violet, 
fougere and chypre bases, and even in modern, woody-aldehydic perfume types, it may well 
modify the notes of vetiver, patchouli or sandalwood. 


107 


It is believed that the Cedrol and Cedrenol content of this oil is dependent upon the exposure 
of the waste wood to the sun prior to distillation. Due to the great similarity of this oil to the 
(American) Texas cedarwood oil, the East African Cedarwood Oil has little importance for the 
American perfume industry. 

See also Cedarwood Oil, Texas. 

Cedarwood Oil, Himalaya. 

Himalayan cedarwood oil is also called Deodar Cedarwood Oil. It is steam distilled from the 
wood of Cedrus Deodara which grows at high altitude in the mountains of Himalaya, toward 
northern India, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Distillation takes place locally, and the trees are 
felled exclusively for the production of the essential oil since the wood is of little or no use as a 
lumber. The tree is very closely related to Cedrus Atlantica and Cedrus Libani (see Cedarwood 
Oil, Atlas and Cedarwood Oil, Lebanon). The Deodar Cedar tree has been introduced in 
Europe as a decorative plant. It grows now in English countrysides, in central Europe and other 
places unusual for this mountain tree. 

The interest in essential oils and in the local production of same in India has increased 
enormously since World War II. Deodar Cedarwood Oil is one of the oils which probably will 
be produced regularly on a comparatively large scale (50 to 200 metric tons per year). 

Deodar Cedarwood Oil is a yellowish to brownish-yellow oil (when crude), somewhat viscous 
and of rich, sweet-woody, almost balsamic odor, closely reminiscent of Atlas cedarwood oil. It 
presents similar cresylic-camphoraceous topnotes, but it also becomes delicately sweet-woody 
on its lasting dryout. 

It is conceivable that this essential oil will be produced mainly for the purpose of supplying the 
Indian soap industry with a perfume material which otherwise had to be imported. Deodar 
Cedarwood Oil can replace the Atlas Cedarwood Oil is almost any soap perfume formula. 

Cedarwood Oils, Japanese. 

Various essential oils, derived from Chinese and Japanese trees belonging to the genus 
cupressaceae, appear occasionally on the perfume market under the name of Japanese Cedar 
or Japanese Cypress oil. 

Hiba Oil, Hinoki Oil and Sugi Oil are three of the most important essential oils in this group. 
They constitute the cedarwood-like and pine-like raw materials for the Chinese and the 
Japanese perfume industry where they find use in soap perfumes, industrial perfumes, etc. 

Hiba Oil— see monograph on Thujopsis Dolobrata (var. hondai). 

Hinoki Oil— see Chamaecyparis Obtusa, root oil and leaf oil. 

Sugi Oil— see monograph on Cryptomeria Japonica. 


108 


Cedarwood Oil, Lebanon. 

The world famous and antique, perhaps thousand- year-old cedars of Lebanon are finally 
protected by law against felling or any kind of exploitation. The tree, Cedrus Libani, grows wild 
in the mountains of Lebanon and in the nearby island of Cyprus. Although the wood—and 
thereby indirectly the essential oil—from this tree is one of the oldest known perfume 
materials, the oil is no more available. There are to-day only a few—if any—perfumers who 
have ever seen and smelled a true Lebanon cedarwood oil; however, the oil is mentioned here 
for the sake of honor and veneration to this distinguished old material. 

The oils which are offered to-day under the name of Lebanon cedarwood oil are most likely 
oils, distilled from the wood of Cedrus Atlantica, Manetti. This tree is known as the Atlas Cedar 
and it grows in great number in Morocco and Algeria (the Atlas mountains). The essential oil is 
produced regularly, see monograph on Cedarwood Oil, Atlas. 

According to 50-year-old descriptions, the true Lebanon cedarwood oil was a yellow liquid of a 
strong, cedarleaf-like, grassy odor. If this is true, then the oil must have been quite different 
from other cedarwood oils, including to-day's Atlas cedarwood oil. However, the technique of 
distilling high-boiling essential oils has improved significantly during the past half century, and 
it is likely that the oil would turn out to-day with an odor altogether different from what the 
above description says. 

The author is not old enough to have any personal experience with true Lebanon Cedarwood 
Oil, but he owes his thanks to a very high authority for information on this subject. 

Cedarwood Oil, Port Oxford. 

This oil is steam distilled from the sawdust and other waste of the wood of the "Western 
White Cedar", Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana, a tall and very decorative cypress which grows wild 
and abundantly in a limited area of Oregon and California states, U.S.A. The tree is cultivated 
for ornamental purposes all over Central Europe and in other parts of the world. 

Between the two world wars, the sawmills in Oregon and California produced this oil in 
tremendous quantities. Interest in the oil has now almost disappeared, and it is not produced 
on a large scale any more, if produced regularly at all. 

Port Oxford Cedarwood Oil is a mobile liquid, colorless to pale yellow or straw yellow, 
darkening and thickening on ageing. The odor is moderately sweet-woody, pine-oil-like, bitter 
fennel-like, substantially different from the odor of other cedar- wood oils. Its odor could 
remind of the odor of a mixture of pine oil and Virginia cedarwood oil, but the dryout of the 
Port Orford oil is almost herbaceous-woody, long lasting and anisic or fennel-like sweet. 

Since the odor type does not present any unique effect beyond its peculiar complexity of 
fragrance, it is most likely that this oil will slowly disappear from the perfumer's shelf. Probably 
the most interesting thing about the oil is the extraordinarily high content of borneol (10 to 
20%). This material is sometimes hard to obtain as a synthetic chemical in the U.S.A., free from 
isoborneol. See also Wormwood Oil, section: Mugwort, Chinese. 


109 


Cedarwood Oil, Texas. 


Practically unknown 30 years ago, the oil of Juniperus Mexicana to-day ranks among the "over 
100-tons-a-year" oils, and it enjoys the steady interest of perfumers and an increasing interest 
of the manufacturers of aromatic chemicals. The tree, which is a small and poor-looking 
relative of the cypress, grows abundantly in the southwestern parts of Texas, toward the south 
in Mexico and Central America. The oil is steam distilled from the heartwood of this tree which 
is felled exclusively for the purpose of producing the essential oil. Distillation takes place 
mainly in Texas, U. S. A. However, the crude oil is often rectified by the large essential oil and 
perfume houses in New Jersey, U.S.A. 

Crude Cedarwood Oil, Texas is a dark orange to brownish, turbid or clear, somewhat viscous 
liquid. Considerable amounts of crystals deposit from the oil on standing. In cold weather the 
oil may become entirely solid. The odor of the crude oil is pleasant, sweet-woody, yet 
somewhat tar-like or cade-like, smoky. On drying it becomes increasingly balsamic-sweet and 
it shows great tenacity with a uniform, sweet-woody dryout. 

Rectified (redistilled, steam-redistilled, etc.) oil of Juniperus Mexicana is pale yellow or almost 
colorless. Its odor is less tar-like, less cade-like or smoky than that of the crude oil. The dryout 
is clean, sweet-woody with the typical "pencilsharpener"-odor. This type of rectified oil is not 
the most common of the Texas cedarwood oils. It is customary to fractionate the crude oil 
during the re-distillation. A "light" fraction consists mainly of sesquiterpenes and it presents 
the dry-woody part of the cedarwood notes. It has only poor fixative effect but great odor- 
masking ability. The "heavy" fractions consist mainly of cedrenol and cedrol. These 
sesquiterpene alcohols can be isolated in a more or less pure state. They are solid materials of 
weak, but very pleasant, woody-balsamic odor. It has been claimed that these materials are 
virtually odorless when absolutely pure. The commercial grades do have pleasant odors and 
are not always white, dry crystals. 

The sesquiterpenes can be chemically converted into some highly interesting perfume 
materials while the solid cedrenol serves as is or in the form of its acetate (usually liquid). The 
crude oil as well as the rectified oil are used extensively in perfumery. The rectified oil is 
generally preferred when dark perfume color may be a problem. As a blender for ionones and 
methylionones, cinnamic alcohol, nitromusks, ambre bases and leather bases, patchouli, pine, 
spruce, vetiver oil, etc., the oil of Juniperus Mexicana (Texas cedar- wood oil) is a most 
versatile material for the creative perfumer. The oil is readily available, and at a very attractive 
cost. 

See also Cedarwood Oil, East Africa. 

Cedarwood Oil, Virginia. 

One of the most important cedarwood oils from the United States of America is the oil of 
Juniperus Virginiana, known as Virginia cedar or "Southern Red Cedar" (see also Cedarwood 
Oil, Texas). The so-called "Eastern White Cedar" is now used only for the production of 
cedarleaf oil. At present, the wood of that tree is not distilled (see Cedarleaf Oil = "Thuja oil"). 
The Virginia cedarwood oil is also known in the U. S. A. as "Bedford Cedarwood Oil". 


110 


Juniperus Virginiana is a shrub or a tree; it occasionally grows to a considerable size, and is 
found growing wild all over the southeastern United States. The wood from these trees is 
highly appreciated for the manufacture of cabinets, chests, etc.; the essential oil is steam 
distilled from the sawdust and other waste wood from the lumbermills. Older trees are 
preferred since they contain more of the reddish heartwood which not only gives a beautiful 
surface when polished, but also yields much more essential oil than the wood from young 
trees or sapwood (which is white). The annual production of Cedarwood Oil Virginia amounts 
to 200 or 300 metric tons, and it has been steadily increasing since World War II. 

Virginia Cedarwood Oil is a pale yellow to slightly orange-yellow colored oil which, on 
rectification, will yield a water-white, oily liquid. It is slightly less viscous than Atlas or Texas 
cedarwood oils and it does not deposit crystals at ordinary temperatures. The odor of Virginia 
cedarwood oil is at first oily-woody and almost sweet, mild and pleasant, somewhat balsamic 
and typical of cedarwood (lumber). The odor becomes drier and more woody, less balsamic as 
the oil dries out on a perfume blotter (Texas cedarwood oil smells sweeter as it dries out). 

The odor of Virginia cedarwood oil is well known to many eastern American owners of cedar 
chests, cabinets, boxes, etc. On the unpolished surface of such wood, one can often see small 
crystals. The oil, too, may deposit crystals on cooling or prolonged standing. The crystals are 
cedrol crystals and their appearance in the oil is to a certain degree a sign of high cedrol 
content or a sign of age—or both. According to Schimmel, an absolutely pure cedrol, 
recrystallized, is odorless. The content of cedrol in Virginia cedarwood oil is usually rather 
small, and this oil is not a good source for the isolation of cedrol. 

Cedrol, like camphor and menthol, is comparatively volatile, and the odor of very old 
cedarwood chests could not be due to this material which may disappear completely on 
ageing. However, the main constituent of the oil, Cedrene, a sesquiterpene, is slowly 
converted to Cedrol and Cedrenol during ageing of the oil. Due to the fact that Virginia 
cedarwood oil is usually rectified, various fractions are also commercially available: 

1) Cedarwood Oil, Light Fractions, consist mainly of the sesquiterpene Cedrene which 
represents the very dry topnote in the odor of various cedarwood oils. Cedrene can be 
converted into interesting chemical derivatives of great value in perfumery. 

2) Cedarwood Oil #1025 consists of high-boiling materials and it represents the 
balsamic-woody parts of the "cedarwood odor". It is conceivable that the typical sweet 
part of the cedar- wood odor is mainly due to Cedrenol and similar constituents, 
present only in the high- boiling fractions, and found in the total oil only in a small 
percentage. However, some chemists claim that a chemically pure Cedrenol is virtually 
odorless (see above). 

Virginia Cedarwood Oil is used extensively in perfumery, particularly in soap perfumery, as a 
fixative and cost-reducer for vetiver oil, sandalwood oil, patchouli oil or even in the 
comparatively cheap guaiacwood oil. The dry-woody character and the fixative effect of 
cedarwood oil, Virginia, make it almost universally applicable. The oil is frequently used as the 
only active perfume ingredient in room sprays, disinfectants, insecticides, cleansers and other 
industrial products, household products, etc. Mixed with Ceylon citronella oil, it was once a 
popular mosquito- repellent, but it has now been replaced by more active chemicals. 


Ill 



Virginia Cedarwood Oil is also found quite frequently as an adulterant in the above mentioned 
essential oils as well as in numerous others. For the isolation of Cedrol and Cedrenol and for 
the production of Cedryl Acetate, Cedrenyl Acetate and other esters (or "acetylated 
cedarwood oil"), the oils from Cedarwood East Africa and Cedarwood Texas are far superior. 
See these monographs. Virginia cedarwood oil is a good source for the isolation of Cedrene 
which is a starting material in the production of various interesting perfumery chemicals. 

Cedrat Oil. 

As a result of private communication with earlier producers and suppliers, the author is 
convinced that the true Cedrat Peel Oil is no more produced. Oils which are offered on the 
market under that name, are most conceivably compositions of lemon oil, lime oil, citral, etc. 

The Cedrat fruit is the original and classical citrus fruit which is known in English speaking 
countries as Citron. But since this name is generally applied in Europe to the Lemon, the name 
Cedrat has been preferred by the author to describe the above classical citrus fruit. 

The Cedrat tree, Citrus Medica, var. bajoura, grows in the southern part of Italy where the 
peel is preserved, usually in sugar syrup or salt brine. Salt brine removes the bitter taste from 
the peel and makes it edible. 

The very thick cedrat peel may be boiled in sugar syrup for several days to prepare the 
"Sucade", a well-known topping or filling for baked goods, plumcakes, fruitcakes, etc. Most of 
the European "sucade" is derived from the cedrat tree. In the Pacific Ocean Islands, the Citrus 
Decumana (the French "pampelmousse") is used for a similar purpose. The "pampelmousse" is 
the largest of all citrus fruits. Single fruits may weigh as much as 10 kilos. The American 
grapefruit is presumably a hybrid of the above "pampelmousse" with the sweet orange. 

T rue Cedrat Oil was used in the early part of the 20th century as a modifier in citrus colognes, 
etc. 

Cedrat Petitgrain Oil. 

See also Cedrat Oil. 

The essential oil from the leaves and twigs of the tree, Citrus Medica, var. bajoura, possibly a 
local sub-variety, is occasionally steam distilled in some of the French islands in the south 
Pacific (Samoa and other islands) upon demand from European perfume houses. 

Cedrat Petitgrain Oil has been recommended for use in various perfume types ever since the 
name of the oil appeared in various published perfume formulas. 

The oil is a greenish-yellow to olive-yellow or pale yellow mobile liquid of sweet and fresh, 
floral-woody, leafy "petitgrain"-type of odor, somewhat reminiscent of lemon-petitgrain oil, 
however, not nearly as powerful as that oil. 

There would be quite a problem in producing a uniform quality of cedrat petitgrain oil, due to 
the scarcity of true cedrat trees and due to the great number of varieties of these trees. Thus, 


112 


it is unlikely that the cedrat petitgrain oil which has only little news to offer to the perfumer, 
will ever become a regularly produced item. 

See also Combava Petitgrain Oil. 

Cedrela Odorata. 

From the wood of a large tree indigenous to the West Indies, Central and South America, an 
essential oil is steam distilled under the above name. The wood is collected for the purpose of 
making cigar boxes, closets, cabinets, bookshelves, etc. or for plywood. The wood is also 
known as "Cigarbox-Wood", "Indian Mahogany" or "Sugar-Crate Wood". It is a fragrant 
wood, and from the waste materials produced in the lumbering of the boards, the essential oil 
can be produced at a fairly low cost. 

The main supplier is Brazil. Occasionally, lots of Cedrela Oil are offered from Cuba or Jamaica, 
where cigarboxes are also made from locally grown Cedrela Odorata and similar species. 

Oil of Cedrela Odorata is a greenish-yellow to olive-colored liquid of pleasant, dry-woody and 
powerful odor, reminiscent of cedarwood oil, Texas and cubeb oil or clove leaf oil 
sesquiterpenes with an undertone like carrot seed oil, however, without the fattiness of this. 
The odor bears some resemblance to the odor of the Cyperus oils. Cedrela oil blends well with 
cedarwood oil (Texas) and its derivatives, with ionones and methylionones, pine needle oils, 
isobornylacetate, isobutylquinoline, oakmoss, rosemary oil, etc. The oil is used mainly in soap 
perfumes of the woody types, Oriental types, etc., and in the perfumes for disinfectants, 
insecticides, air-freshener sprays, etc. in industrial perfumes, etc. Up to the present, the oil has 
been given very little attention, but it is constantly available in modest quantities. 

In northern India, another species of the tree is grown, Cedrela Toona. The wood of this tree is 
fragrant, but the yield of essential oil by steam distillation is extremely small, perhaps due to 
the very high boiling point of the constituents of this oil. Experimentally, a two-step extraction 
of the wood with hydrocarbon solvents yielded a viscous, orange-colored oil. However, this 
Cedrela Toona Oil is not commercially available, and the oil may be of very little interest to the 
perfumers. The author has no personal experience with the so-called Cedrela Toona Resinoid 
which is extracted from this wood. 

The tree, Toona Calanthas grows in the Philippines and is used locally for the production of 
cigarboxes. 

See also monograph on Cangerana. 

Celery Seed Oil. 

This oil is produced by steam distillation of the fruits (seed) of either wild or cultivated Apium 
Graveolens, the celery plant. This plant is cultivated in France, India, Holland, Hungary, and 
China, and, to a smaller extent in the U.S.A. Distillation takes place in all these countries. Indian 
seed being freely available on the market and frequently preferred for distillation. 


113 


It is customary to crush the seed prior to distillation, but some distillers do not comminute the 
seed prior to distillation. Celery seed, like most other fruits of the umbellifer family, contain 
substantial amounts of palmitic acid and related fatty acids. These are volatile with steam and 
may withhold some essential oil in solution and emulsion. 

The annual production of celery seed oil has increased considerably, and is estimated to be 
between 10 and 50 tons. Most of this is used in the spice industry where all kinds of foods and 
food additives are flavored with celery: soups, meats, sauces, pickles, vegetable juices, etc. The 
oil substitutes for the spice in many cases. More recently, the Celery Oleoresin (see next 
monograph) has replaced the essential oil in food flavors, particularly in meat sauces, canned 
foods and juices, etc. 

Celery Seed Oil is a pale yellow to orange yellow liquid. Its odor is spicy-warm, sweet and rich, 
"soup-like", longlasting and powerful, slightly fatty, typical of the odor of the seed (fruit) but 
less fresh than the odor of the celery plant. The flavor is equally warm and spicy, somewhat 
burning and very powerful. Celery seed oil is one of the most diffusive odors and one of the 
most penetrating flavors. The average use level of this oil in flavors would be somewhere 
between 0.05 and 0.50 mg%, but the Minimum Perceptible is incredibly low: 0.001 to 0.002 
mg%. In other words, the typical celery flavor is perceptible in a dilution of one part of celery 
seed oil in one hundred million parts of a neutral liquid medium. Minor quantities of selery 
seed oil are used in pharmaceutical preparations where the oil is said to exert a sedative 
effect. Consequently, the most important ingredients in celery seed oil are named Sedanolide 
and Sedanolic Acid Anhydride. Although present only to the extent of one percent or less of 
the oil, these materials actually determine the power of the odor and flavor of celery seed oil. 
The two materials are available as synthetic chemicals. The main constituents of celery seed oil 
is the monoterpene, d-limonene, and the sesquiterpene, selinene. The former is the most 
common adulterant or diluent found in commercial lots of celery seed oil (in a too high 
percentage). Maraniol (4-methyl-7-ethoxy cumarin) and Cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2- 
cyclopenten-1- one) are occasionally found in celery seed oil. These materials are not natural 
constituents of the oil, but they are added to fortify or enrich poorer oils (e.g. limonene- 
diluted oils). 

In perfumery, celery seed oil is used very frequently, but only in very small amounts. Used 
skillfully, it can impart warm notes in floral and Oriental compositions, in lavender bouquets, in 
modern fantasy and aldehydic perfumes, etc. Carelessly used, it may easily ruin a perfume. Its 
diffusive power and great odor tenacity should not be underestimated. 

Various oils distilled from other parts of the celery plant are also available on the market under 
the name of Celery Seed Oil or Celery Oil. However, the true seed oil is the one with the 
highest content of the above mentioned "key" materials which give celery seed oil its 
particular effectiveness in perfumes and flavors. All other celery oils have less of this special 
effect. 

An oil distilled from the entire plant, Celery Herb Oil, is also available, but should be 
considered as another spice oil or a "culinary herb oil", representative of the flavor of the 
entire plant; it can not be regarded a replacement for celery seed oil. The herb oil has less 
strength or power, but more freshness than the seed oil. The latter being more expensive, it 


114 



may be adulterated with the herb oil or with an essential oil distilled from the waste material 
from the cleaning of the seed (so-called Celery Chaff Oil.) 

Celery Seed Oleoresin. 

Celery Seed Oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin. It is produced by extraction of celery seed (see 
Celery Seed Oil) with petroleum ether or other hydrocarbon solvents or with ethyl alcohol. 

The latter solvent would yield an ordinary extract from a pharmaceutical point of view. The 
alcoholic extract has the advantage of a lower terpene content and, accordingly, a better flavor 
and solubility than the hydrocarbon solvent extracts. 

Celery Seed Oleoresin is a dark green or brownish green, viscous liquid of a very powerful odor 
and flavor, typical of the aroma of the seed: warm, fatty-spicy and rich, intensely sweet- 
herbal, radiant and tenacious. 

The extract is used in food products where it reproduces the aroma of the celery seed even 
better than does the essential oil. The oleoresin also presents the advantage of containing 
more of the important highboiling odor- and flavor principles, some of which are hardly 
distillable with steam at all. Steam distillation of celery seed is combined with significant 
problems. 

The average use level of Celery Seed Oleoresin in flavors is strongly dependent upon the 
nature of the end product. In straight celery flavors, the concentration of the oleoresin may be 
as high as 0.60 mg%; when used as a "bouquet" flavor material, its concentration in the 
finished product should be close to the Minimum Perceptible which is about 0.001 mg%. 

The oleoresin is only rarely used in perfumery. Its dark color is a disadvantage in many 
compositions. However, the great diffusive power and the outstanding odor-tenacity of this 
product makes it possible for the perfumer to obtain good effects from very low 
concentrations of celery seed oleoresin. 

This interesting perfume material blends very well with lavender absolute, oakmoss absolute, 
opopanax resinoid, deertongue or melilotus extracts, tobacco leaf absolute, melaleuca 
alternifolia oil, etc. and with isoeugenol, anisaldehyde, coumarin, etc. It is related olfactorily to 
lovage and opopanax and the synthetic materials maraniol (7-ethoxy-4-methyl coumarin) and 
cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one). 

The oleoresin gives delightful effects in fougeres, pine needle fragrances, "forest" notes, spice 
blends, etc. 

The annual production of Celery Seed Oleoresin is steadily increasing and is easily adjusted to 
the demand. 

Cestrum Nocturnum. 

This small shrub belongs to the same botanical genus as do the potato and the tobacco plants. 
It is grown as an ornamental and fragrant shrub in many parts of India, in China and in other 


115 


parts of the Far East. The local name for the shrub in India is "rajanigandha" which means 
"night queen", not to be confused with the famous cactus of the same nickname. 

The flowers of cestrum nocturnum are, like many other long-tubed flowers, particularly 
fragrant at night in order to attract certain night- butterflies and moths who are able to reach 
the honey with their very long trunk. The flowers are white with pale green tubes. 

The author has no experience with the use of this oil in perfumery since the samples which the 
author received during the past 6 years have been either too small, too old or, in cases, they 
were merely "attars" and not true essential oils. Judging from the extremely heavy isoeugenol- 
like, faintly carnation-like, woody-warm, yet strongly floral odor, the essential oil of Cestrum 
Nocturnum could find use as a "new note" in many modern "warm-spicy" or aldehydic-floral 
perfume types. 

"Attars" of cestrum nocturnum flowers are prepared in India by co-distillation with 
sandalwood oil or by distilling the essential oil of cestrum nocturnum into a receiver with 
sandalwood oil or with a vegetable (fixed) oil. These "attars" find use in East Indian perfumery. 

Essential oils, absolutes or "attars" of Cestrum Nocturnum are not regularly available outside 
of the countries of origin. 

Chamaecyparis Obtusa. 

Two important essential oils are distilled from the cypress-like tree, Chamaecyparis Obtusa: 
Hinoki Root Oil and Hinoki Leaf Oil. The tree grows abundantly wild and replanted in the 
southern parts of Japan and in Formosa. 

1) Hinoki Root Oil used to be distilled in substantial quantities. Prior to World War II 
about 600 metric tons were distilled annually. Production has now dropped to about 
30 tons in Japan per year. The oil is produced by steam distillation of the roots which 
are chopped but not always dried prior to distillation. Hinoki Root Oil is a pale yellow 
liquid of dry, woody, camphoraceous odor with a peculiar warm-sweet, almost spicy 
undertone. The oil consists almost entirely of terpineol, monoterpenes and 
sesquiterpenes. The presence of isoborneol should have been proved according to 
some scientists. This would be one of the very rare cases where isoborneol is identified 
in nature. 

Hinoki Root Oil is used locally for low-cost soap perfumes, for industrial perfumes, 
insecticides, etc. It is also widely employed for mineral flotation in the local mining 
industry. 

There are two distinctly different types of Hinoki Root oils or, more correctly there is 
an extracted Hinoki Wood Oil which is produced in a similar way as described under 
Pine Oil. The Formosan Hinoki Root Oil is more important since it contains significant 
quantities of terpineol. The two oils are rarely exported in quantity and they do not 
offer new or unusual perfume effects to the perfume industry in other parts of the 
world. 


116 


2) Hinoki Leaf Oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the above mentioned cypress¬ 
like tree. The yield of oil is much smaller than that from the roots. The 1958- 
production in Japan was about 20 metric tons. The oil is also produced in Formosa 
where a related tree yields another essential oil. The latter is occasionally called 
Hayata Oil, see monograph on Machilus Oil (from leaf). There seems to be some 
confusion of the two oils outside of the country of origin. 

Hinoki Leaf Oil is a yellowish liquid with an intensely strong, camphoraceous, fresh 
pine-like and somewhat green odor. The odor is distinctly fresher than that from the 
root oil but also "lighter" of type. The leaf oil resembles the root oil in its heavy-sweet 
undertone. Hinoki Leaf Oil has no importance in perfumery outside of its countries of 
origin where it finds use in soaps, detergents, industrial perfumes, etc. 

Chamomile Oil, "German". 

Also called "Hungarian" Chamomile Oil or "Blue" Chamomile Oil, this oil is distilled from the 
true pharmaceutical chamomile, Matricaria Chamomilla, which grows all over Europe, 
particularly in central and northern Europe. It is cultivated in Hungary, Yugoslavia, 
Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, U.S.S.R., Germany, Belgium, and Spain. Hungary is the main producer 
of the plant material. The name "German" chamomile may refer to the fact that the plant is 
cultivated in Germany, but more likely because the bulk of essential oil used to be distilled in 
Germany (from Hungarian flower material. 

The ligulate florets are collected, dried and steam distilled. It should be mentioned at this point 
that at least one large supplier of Chamomile Oil produces his oil by extraction of the flower 
material and not by distillation. This product is a Chamomile Absolute, not an essential oil. The 
extraction method is also responsible for the extraordinarily high content of Azulene in this 
particular German oil which has an intense, deep ink-blue color and a high viscosity. The odor 
is indirectly affected also since Azulene and other hydrocarbons tend to impart a "rubberlike" 
note in the odor of this chamomile oil. 

Steam distilled chamomile oil is, when fresh, a deep ink-blue, somewhat viscous liquid of 
intensely sweet, herbaceous-coumarin-like odor with a fresh-fruity undertone. In a pure and 
undiluted state, the sweetness and odor-intensity of this oil is almost sickening, nauseating. 

The dryout of a mellow and aged oil is pleasant, sweet tobacco-like and warm, but in freshly 
distilled oils there is often an obnoxiously animal- sweet, amine-like note. The flavor is warm, 
but somewhat bitter and strongly herbaceous. 

Extracted Chamomile Oil (could be called Chamomile Absolute) is produced from the flower 
heads by extraction with alcohol or chloroform. This method will yield the highest content of 
Chamazulene, the blue hydrocarbon, in the extract. Interesting dermatological effects are 
attributed to this constituent, but it has little or no direct influence upon the odor of 
Chamomile Oil. Upon ageing, the color of the oil changes to brown, but apart from telling the 
perfumer that the oil is not of a recent production, this color change is not directly connected 
with the odor of the oil. 


117 


True Chamomile Oil is used in very small percentages in high-class perfumes to introduce a 
warm, rich undertone which lasts through all stages of evaporation. The "topnote-effect" of 
the "blue" chamomile oil is less pronounced than that of the "English" or "Roman" chamomile 
oil, see Chamomile Oil, Roman. It should also be remembered that distilled chamomile oil is 
much less tenacious in its odor performance than the extracted chamomile oil, the latter 
having a superior fixative effect. The unpleasant off-odors in certain extracted chamomile oils 
can sometimes be traced back to the solvent used in the extraction. If the solvent contains as 
much as 0.01% of an odorous, high-boiling impurity, there is a good chance that the 
chamomile extract may contain up to 10% of this material since the total amount of solvent in 
the process is up to 1000 times the yield of extract. 

However, the extracted chamomile oil is so common on the market that some perfumers even 
refuse to believe that they have a true oil in front of them when presented with a distilled 
chamomile oil, which is obviously less viscous, paler blue and often clear. 

In flavor work, Chamomile Oil is used, like the Roman chamomile oil, in certain liqueurs, etc., 
particularly in those of the D. 0. M. or the Benedictine type. In this respect, chamomile oil 
blends well with angelica root oil, artemisia oils, calamus oil, etc. or with the fruity flavor types, 
such as banana, peach, strawberry, etc.* 

Since the main constituents have recently been synthesized (see monograph on Chamomile 
Oil, Roman), chamomile oil may be more and more cleverly adulterated. Even the blue 
hydrocarbon, Chamazulene, has now been produced synthetically, and is available. 

The Extracted Chamomile Oil (Chamomile Absolute) is a semi-solid mass or very viscous 
liquid, often grainy and not homogeneous; it may separate solids at low room temperatures. 
The odor is similar to that of the distilled oil, but less fresh, more heavy-nauseating. 

The very common weed, Matricaria Suaveolens, may occasionally contaminate the flower 
material from which the essential oil is produced. The presence of minor proportions of this 
wild flower in the botanical material does not affect the odor of the produced oil seriously. 

The annual production of Chamomile Oil and Chamomile Absolute is very limited (at times 
below 200 kilos), and the price is comparatively high (about one-third to one-half the price of 
jasmin absolute). But only a small fraction of the total world production of the chamomile 
flowers is used for distillation or extraction, the bulk being consumed by the drug stores as a 
medicinal tea. 

See also Chamomile Oil, Moroccan and Chamomile Oil, Roman. 


(Suggested use level is 0.50 to 2.00 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.10 to 0.20 
mg%.) 


118 



Chamomile Oil, Moroccan. 

Related to "German chamomile" botanically but not at all resembling this plant, is Ormenis 
Multicaulis, a good-looking plant, 90 to 125 cms. high, with very hairy leaves and tubular 
yellow flowers, surrounded by white ligulets, the typical construction of a composite species. 
The plant is probably a native of northwest Africa, and evolved from a very common Ormenis 
species which grows all over the Mediterranean countries. 

Distillation is carried out locally where the plant is most common, i.e. in the northwestern 
parts of Morocco. The flowering tops, harvested at the beginning of the inflorescence, are 
steam distilled. 

The oil of Ormenis Multicaulis is a pale yellow to brownish yellow, mobile liquid. It seems that 
light-colored oils are obtained at the beginning of the inflorescence (better perfume oils), and 
darker oils come in poorer yields at the end of the inflorescence. The odor of the pale oils is 
fresh-herbaceous, slightly camphoraceous, but soon changes into a sweet, cistus-like and 
richbalsamic undertone which is very tenacious and pleasant, almost ambra-like. 

Moroccan Chamomile Oil blends well with artemisia oils, cypress oil, labdanum products, 
lavandin and lavender, vetiver oil or derivatives of cedarwood oils, oakmoss products, 
olibanum, etc. Chemically and olfactorily, the oil is distinctly different from the "German" or 
the "Roman" chamomile oils, and cannot be considered as a replacement for them. Ormenis 
multicaulis oil deserves its own place in perfumery on account of the above mentioned 
valuable notes and effects. The oil finds application in citrus-colognes, ambre-, chypre-, 
fougere-bases, as well as in a multitude of other bases where a fresh modification of ambre- 
herbaceous notes are called for (lavender, pine, etc.). Even trace amounts of the oil may 
introduce a delightful topnote in a herbaceous or floral-herbaceous fragrance. Moroccan 
chamomile oil has occasionally found use as an adulterant in cistus oil (distilled from labdanum 
"gum"). 

Ormenis Multicaulis grows wild, and is available in quite substantial quantities, but the oil is 
not yet a common article although it has been produced for at least 30 years. 

Chamomile Oil, "Roman". 

Occasionally called "chamomile oil", the Roman Chamomile Oil is distilled from the ligulate 
florets of Anthemis Nobilis, a plant which is related to the "true" chamomile (see monograph 
Chamomile Oil, "German"), but which looks more like the wild chrysanthemum. 

Anthemis Nobilis is cultivated in England, Belgium, France, and Hungary for the purpose of 
collecting flowers (flower heads). Distillation is by steam and takes place mainly in England. 
Other flowers are sold to pharmaceutical houses. The yield of essential oil is very small. 

Roman Chamomile Oil is a pale blue, mobile liquid (when fairly fresh) of sweet herbaceous, 
somewhat fruity-warm and tealeaf-like odor. The odor is extremely diffusive but it has little 
tenacity. The flavor of the oil is somewhat bitter, chemical or medicinal, but also fruity- 
herbaceous, warm. Roman Chamomile Oil and German Chamomile Oil are, if distilled in the 
same way, somewhat similar, and they do contain the same odor and flavor principles. The oils 


119 


are distinguished analytically by the fact that they present the highest ester value of all 
essential oils known (the ester value is about 300). This is due to a very high content of the 
butyl-, amyl- and hexyl esters of tiglic and angelic acids. The ester content is about 85%. These 
esters are responsible for the peculiar odor of the chamomile oils. The pale blue color of 
Roman Chamomile oil is due to the presence of a hydrocarbon, Chamazulene which is high 
boiling and thus present only in traces in the "Roman" chamomile oil. See also Chamomile 
Absolute under Chamomile Oil, "German". 

"Roman" chamomile oil is rarely used in flavor work (occasionally in certain types of alcoholic 
beverages), but more frequently, although very sparingly, in perfumes. It imparts a warm, yet 
fresh note and a natural depth which is difficult to obtain by other means. Roman chamomile 
oil blends well with amyl cinnamic aldehyde, bergamot oil, jasmin bases, labdanum products, 
neroli oil, sage clary oil, or absolute, oakmoss products, etc., but it is mainly a trace additive, 
independent of the "body" materials in the perfume. The oil is sometimes preferred over the 
"german" chamomile oil because of the much paler color of the "Roman" oil. However, both 
oils fade on ageing. This color change will tell the perfumer about the age of the oil, but it has 
no direct connection with the odor of the oil. 

Roman Chamomile Oil is produced in limited quantities only. Some years, the production has 
been lower than 100 kilos. It rarely exceeds 500 kilos. 

Champaca Absolute. 

Champaca Absolute is obtained by extraction of the beautiful deep-yellow flowers of Michelia 
Champaca, a medium-sized slender tree, related to the magnolias. The tree is a native of the 
Philippines and the Indonesian islands, but, similarly to ylang-ylang, has been brought along by 
the Melanesian people to places far west of its origin. 

Apart from its native area, the champaca tree grows in the Ganjam and South Orissa districts 
of India, in southeastern China, in Reunion and on the tiny island of Nossi-Be off the northwest 
coast of Madagascar. 

Practically all of the Champaca Concrete which reaches European and American perfume 
houses to-day is produced in Nossi-Be. In Reunion, the trees are no longer exploited, but they 
decorate the sinuous highways and mountain roads. In India and Indonesia, partly in the 
Philippines, the flowers are treated differently for local use: the mature flowers are extracted 
with vegetable (fixed) oil, and the perfumed oil is used as an "attar" in floral bouquets in the 
local perfume industry. Recently, the production of petroleum ether extracted concrete and an 
alcohol soluble absolute has been investigated by the Forest Research Institute in India. It is 
conceivable, that Champaca Concrete will be regularly produced in India, at least for local use. 

In China, the rapidly growing perfume industry has already started exporting the Champaca 
Concrete produced in that country. The author has had a few chances to study the Chinese 
product and he is inclined to believe that it is derived from the flowers of Michelia Alba, not 
from the "true" Michelia Champaca. The Chinese growers also produce an essential oil from 
the leaves of this tree. The so-called Michelia Leaf Oil is a pale yellow to pale olive yellow or 
greenish yellow liquid. Its odor is sweet oily-grassy, reminiscent of perilla oil but less pungent, 


120 


more delicate. The odor also reminds of the fragrance of freshly cut stems or leaves of tulips. 
After this interesting fresh-grassy topnote the odor changes into a delicately sweet, tea-like or 
hay-like fragrance with an undertone of sage clary and rose leaf absolute. Indeed an 
interesting oil. 

The total world production of Champaca Flower Concrete is thus somewhat variable and 
difficult to estimate, but probably runs about 100 to 200 kilos per year. 

Champaca Concrete is a dark yellow to orange- brown, solid, waxy mass of delightfully sweet 
and delicately floral fragrance. 

An Absolute of Champaca is produced by the usual method (see Absolute, Part One of this 
book). The absolute is produced in France. It is a dark yellow or a brownish-orange colored, 
somewhat viscous liquid. Its odor is quite unique: delicately dry-floral, at the same time 
reminding one of orange flowers, ylang-ylang, carnation and tearose. There are notes which 
resemble those of sage clary, methyl eugenol and "the good old type" of guaiacwood oil. But 
since guaiacwood oil has been used as an adulterant, or, more frequently to produce the so- 
called "Champaca Wood Oil", it might be confusing to use guaiac wood oil as an odor 
comparison. 

Being produced right in the areas where ylang-ylang is cultivated, it is not surprising to find 
that champaca is often "cut" with this material, e.g. by co-extraction of the two kinds of 
flowers. 

But a true Champaca Concrete is produced (in Nossi-Be), and its odor is distinctly different 
from that of ylang-ylang concrete. The latter is a liquid while champaca concrete is a solid waxy 
substance. 

An essential oil is not produced. The constituents of the fragrance would not be justly 
represented in a steam distilled oil. Besides, phenyl ethyl alcohol is an important constituent in 
Champaca Concrete and this alcohol would not be found in the distilled oil at the same 
percentage. Phenyl ethyl alcohol is comparatively soluble in water and the loss of this material 
would be quite significant. 

Champaca Absolute is used in certain high-class perfumes where it may produce a unique, 
warm, floral-leafy note which is often compared to that of a fine grade of tea. The absolute 
blends excellently with lily-of-the-valley bases, carnation, rose, violet, etc., and it is almost 
generally applicable in this respect. However, its effect is not perceptible unless the absolute is 
skillfully backed up with rich, but weak-smelling blenders and modifiers. Sandalwood oil is an 
excellent fixative for the champaca fragrance, and so is isoeugenol, benzylsalicylate, etc. It is 
most unfortunate that there are so many poor champaca-reproductions on the market, and it 
is even more regrettable that the name champaca absolute is unscrupulously applied to such 
products. This fact has greatly impaired the interest in champaca absolute which seems to 
remain a very scarce and rare perfume material through several generations. 


121 



Chenopodium Ambrosioides. 


This plant is closely related to the parent plant of "American wormseed oil". The latter is 
distilled from Chenopodium Ambrosioides, var. anthelminthicum. See Wormseed Oil, 
American. This oil is by far the most important of the two. 

Chenopodium Ambrosioides is a plant similar to the American wormwood. It grows wild in 
Brazil and Mexico and it is cultivated in Brazil, India, and Indonesia. Smaller quantities are 
harvested in France, Central and Eastern Europe. 

The essential oil is steam distilled from the dried plant which is harvested just before the 
flowerbuds open. At that moment the essential oil will have the highest content of Ascaridol 
and related therapeutic ingredients. The oil is used exclusively in medicine as a specific 
anthelminthicum (worm exterminator). Since the oil has no application in perfumery or flavor 
work, it will not be described in detail here. The oil is, like American wormseed oil, toxic and 
hazardous to administrate without the advice of a physician. 

The above brief description of Chenopodium Oil was adopted in this work exclusively to 
enlighten the subject of Wormwood oil and to prevent confusion with this oil. See monograph 

on Wormwood Oil. 

Cherry Laurel Oil. 

Cherry Laurel Oil is produced by water distillation or water-and-steam distillation of the 
enzymatically decomposed macerate of powdered leaves of the cherry laurel tree, Prunus 
Laurocerasus. The tree grows commonly in the western parts of Asia, in Asia Minor, the 
Middle and Near East, the Mediterranean countries and in southern Europe. Distillation takes 
place in France, Italy, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R. and occasionally in other countries. The oil has lost 
most of its former importance as a flavor additive to pharmaceutical preparations and foods. 

Cherry Laurel Oil is not a true essential oil according to our definition since it does not occur 
"in natura" in the leaves. A glucoside has to be decomposed just as in bitter almond kernels, 
apricot kernels, black mustard seed, etc., before any steam distillable matter appears. The 
glucoside prulaurasin in cherry laurel leaves is decomposed in lukewarm water under the 
presence of the enzyme prunase. The enzyme is brought about with an infusion of the 
powdered leaves. When this infusion is added to the macerate of cherry laurel leaves in the 
still, decomposition takes place at moderate temperature and the "essential oil" can be 
distilled off. 

Cherry laurel oil is an almost colorless liquid of strong and sweet bitter almond odor. The oil 
consists almost entirely of benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. The latter is usually eliminated 
by neutralization and washing of the oil. Cherry Laurel Oil has nevertheless been largely 
replaced with the non-poisonous benzaldehyde which is obtained synthetically. Cherry laurel 
oil has previously found some use in liqueur flavors, baked goods, etc., but the oil is now 
hardly more than a curiosity. 

See also Almond Oil, Bitter. 


122 


Chimonanthus Fragrans. 


Various exotic or foreign plants have from time to time been introduced in the south of France 
for the purpose of supplying the perfume industry with new and interesting items. One such 
plant is the Chimonanthus Fragrans, a shrub from China and Japan where the decorative plant 
has drawn the attention of certain manufacturers of perfume materials. 

An absolute is produced from the flowers of this shrub by petroleum ether extraction and 
subsequent alcohol washing of the concrete extract. This absolute has never attained any 
significant interest in perfumery and the production remains very occasional, although the 
absolute has been known for over 30 years. It is not a regularly produced, commercially 
available item. 

The odor of Chimonanthus Fragrans absolute is generally described as "resembling jasmin, 
jonquil and orange peel" (mostly quotations from a 1931 publication in a no more existing 
French perfumery periodical). The constituents which have so far been identified in the 
absolute of chimonanthus fragrans would confirm the likelihood of such an odor complex 
(unless the odor description was based upon these findings). 

Considering a yield of little more than 0.1% of absolute, based upon the weight of flowers, it is 
conceivable that this absolute is comparatively expensive. Materials which are occasionally 
offered in the perfume raw material market as Absolute of Chimonanthus Fragrans may very 
well be compounded perfume bases. The author has no personal experience with the use of 
this material. 

Chioranthus Spicatus. 

An absolute is produced from a benzene- or a petroleum ether extracted concrete of the 
flowers of this Chinese shrub. The flowers are also distilled with steam to yield an essential oil, 
but the yield is extremely small. 

Originally, the flowers were used together with the flowers of jasmin, orange tree or mandarin 
tree for the perfuming (scenting) of tea. See also Champaca Absolute and Camellia, 
Nyctanthes Arbortristis and Chimonanthus Fragrans, etc. 

The concrete and the absolute from concrete of Chioranthus Spicatus are not regularly 
available outside of China at the present moment. Small commercial lots of the essential oil 
occasionally arrive in Europe. 

Absolute of chioranthus spicatus is a yellow to dark amber colored viscous liquid of delightfully 
soft, woody-floral odor. The overall odor has a striking resemblance to that of boronia absolute 
(see monograph). The topnote is somewhat dry-woody, but it becomes increasingly 
sweetbalsamic and floral like Peru balsam oil, cassie absolute, boronia absolute, etc. 

The essential oil is a straw colored or amber colored, somewhat viscous liquid of light-woody, 
delicately floral and extremely tenacious odor, reminiscent of the above mentioned materials. 


123 


Chioranthus Spicatus Oil blends excellently with "violet-leaf-green" materials such as amyl 
heptine carbonate (so-called), beta-gamma-hexenyl acetate, methyl nonylenate, dibutyl 
sulfide, sec.-nonyl acetate, 2 ,6-nonadienal, etc., and with methylionones, cardamom oil, 
cassie absolute, mimosa absolute, sage clary, heliotropine, cassione, betaionone, cinnamic 
alcohol, etc. 

It is very conceivable that this essential oil may become a popular and well known item on the 
perfumer's shelf, once the oil becomes available in other parts of the world. 

Cinnamon Bark Oil. 

True "Ceylon" Cinnamon Bark Oil is steam distilled, occasionally water-distilled, from the dried 
innerbark of the shoots of coppiced, cultivated bushes (would-be trees) of Cinnamomum 
Zeylanicum, preferably the variety grown in Ceylon. 

The cinnamon tree is a native of East India and Indonesia, and grows wild in Ceylon, India, 
Burma, Indochina, and on several of the islands of the Indonesian archipelago. In most of these 
areas the tree is cultivated for the purpose of producing cinnamon bark. Climatic conditions, 
soil conditions, pruning or coppicing of the trees, curing (scraping) of the bark, and the age of 
the trees (bushes) strongly affect the quality of the cinnamon bark. The essential oil of the bark 
was not distilled in its countries of origin until quite recently when distillation commenced in 
Ceylon, the Seychelles, and in India and Indochina. The best grades of cinnamon bark oil are 
still produced in Europe and in the U.S.A. Distillation technique and knowledge of the botanical 
raw material play paramount roles in the production of really outstanding qualities of 
cinnamon bark oil (and many other spice oils). Many of these spices, and the above in 
particular, contain volatile aromatic materials which are more or less soluble in water. Native 
distillers in the growing regions and inexperienced European and American distillers frequently 
overlook this very important problem which can be solved only through extraction of the 
distillation waters (cohobation is not sufficient), and by subsequent addition of the evaporated 
extract from the distillation waters to the water- distilled oil. Olfactory and organoleptic tests 
show that such "complete" oils outperform any ordinarily distilled cinnamon bark oil by far. 

Cinnamon Bark Oil "Ceylon" is a pale yellow to dark yellow or brownish-yellow, somewhat oily 
liquid of extremely powerful, diffusive, warm- spicy, sweet and tenacious odor. The undertone 
and dryout notes reveal a persistent dryness which is very unique in combination with the 
distinct sweetness. Characteristic is a dry powdery-dusty, but warm, uniform and lasting dry¬ 
out note. In the very first topnotes, one may find a certain fruity freshness, similar to the sweet 
candy-like freshness in a good clove bud oil. The flavor is distinctly sweet and spicy, and a 
correctly produced oil will show a tremendous flavor power, five or ten times stronger than 
ordinary grade cinnamon bark oils ("commercial" quality or "pharmacopoeia-grade"). 

The main constituents of Ceylon cinnamon bark oil are cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, 
aceteugenol, and trace amounts of various aldehydes. Together with methyl-n-amyl ketone, 
the latter are probably responsible for the power and the characteristic notes in good oils. As 
in clove bud oil, the content of aceteugenol in cinnamon bark oil may be dependent upon the 
method of distillation. Steam distillation will decompose most of the aceteugenol. Water 
distillation is less detrimental to the natural aromatics in the bark. Thus, an Oleoresin of 


124 


Cinnamon Bark would more truly represent the natural aromatic constituents in a 
concentrated form. 

Ceylon Cinnamon Bark Oil is used extensively in flavors for food and candy, baked goods and 
beverages, pharmaceutical and dental preparations, mouth rinses, gargles, etc. where smaller 
amounts give pleasant bouquets to peppermint type flavors, while larger concentrations of 
cinnamon bark oil exert an antiseptic affect. Tinctures and infusions of Ceylon cinnamon bark 
have been used for centuries as germicidal gargles etc., and the essential oil ranks among the 
most powerful of all known natural antiseptics. From available literature, publications, etc., it 
appears that cinnamon bark oil is far more effective than cassia oil and clove oil. If this is 
correct, we do not know yet what causes cinnamon bark oil to be such a powerful germicide, 
unless the explanation can be found in the combination of eugenol and cinnamic aldehyde and 
perhaps certain substances with a synergistic effect in this respect. 

In perfumery, the oil blends well with Oriental- woody notes, and the combination with 
olibanum is known and often utilized. The warmth and dry spiciness, the immediate sweetness 
and tremendous diffusive power (or "radiation") induced by the addition of fractions of one 
percent of this oil in a perfume composition, is highly appreciated by certain perfumers. The oil 
is even more interesting for the flavorists, since cinnamon flavor ranks among the most 
popular and generally applicable flavors. The oil has a magnificent masking power, and is 
frequently used in flavors for pharmaceutical purposes where an unpleasant medicinal taste is 
a common problem. The combination with sweet orange, lime oil, cola extract and de- 
cocainized coca-extract, the cinnamon flavor is an important part of the Coca-Cola type flavor 
complex. The cinnamon note is even more pronounced in. the Pepsi-Cola type. An average 
use-level for the cinnamon bark oil would be about 0.30 to 0.80 mg°/ (where a distinct 
cinnamon flavor is wanted) while the Minimum Perceptible is 0.05 to 0.10 mg%. The author 
wants to emphasize that these figures are based on experiments with exceptionally fine 
cinnamon bark oil from one English distiller (expert in spice oils) and one French distiller. As a 
comparison, similar experiments were carried out with various "ordinary, commercial grades" 
of oils, labelled "cinnamon bark oil" or "Ceylon cinnamon bark oil". The figures for these oils 
were as follows: average use-level: 1.50 to 2.50 mg%, and Minimum Perceptible: 0.60 to 0.90 
mg%. The effect of the high-grade oils is about five to ten times higher than that of the 
"commercial grades". For the sake of completeness it should be mentioned that the high grade 
oils were about two to two-and- one-half times as expensive as the ordinary grades. Which still 
leaves everything in favor of using a very high grade of cinnamon bark oil. 

Since the main constituents of cinnamon bark oil are very common low-cost materials which 
are partly available as synthetic chemicals (partly isolated from inexpensive essential oils), it is 
not surprising that Cinnamon Bark Oil (Ceylon) is very frequently adulterated or "cut". A 
knowledge of the market price of cinnamon bark will enable the buyer of cinnamon bark oil to 
calculate roughly the cost of the essential oil: 120 to 150 times the price of choice bark 
material (not necessarily the best-looking material). Add to this a reasonable overhead for 
distillation, etc., and you can be sure that any oil which is offered significantly below this cost is 
adulterated or "cut". A high price is, of course, no indication that you have a genuine oil. 
Olfactory and organoleptic tests will usually reveal the actual value of the oil. Cinnamon leaf 


125 



oil, canella bark oil, clove leaf oil, eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, etc. are the most common 
additives. 

True Ceylon Cinnamon Bark Oil is produced on a limited scale only. The production is steadily 
increasing, and is estimated at a figure of between five and ten metric tons annually. By far, 
the majority is European distilled. 

The oil produced in the Seychelle islands from the Ceylon type of cinnamon bark is somewhat 
different from the "true" Ceylon cinnamon bark oil. The odor of the Seychelles oil is harsher, 
probably due to camphene and other terpenes, and to camphor which has not yet been 
identified in the bark oil from cultivated Ceylon cinnamon bark. In the Seychelles, wild trees 
are used since the cinnamon tree grows all over the islands' 100 square kilometres, thanks to 
the talking mynah bird (the East Indian acridotheres tristis) who has chosen the cinnamon 
fruits as its favorite dish. The islanders benefit from this activity in their "Garden of Eden", as 
the Seychelles are generally named. It is, furthermore, the only area at the world where white 
people and their descendants, down through the centuries, have lived and valued around all 
day without any sort of footwear. Indeed an interesting place! 

As mentioned above, the label "cinnamon oil" or "cinnamon oil Ceylon" or "cinnamon bark 
oil", often encountered in price lists and market reports, does not specify the quality of the oil; 
it is not surprising then to see Cinnamon Oil offered at prices of from $16.— per kilo up to 
more than $200.— per kilo. Occasionally, even artificial cassia leaf oil is offered under the 
Cinnamon Oil label, with the addition of some Pharmacopoeias's name. 

"Ultrasonic" extracts of cinnamon bark (Ceylon) are known and used in flavors. 

Cinnamon Leaf Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled locally from partly dried leaves and twigs of Cinnamomum 
Zeylanicum, the same tree which yields the Ceylon cinnamon bark (see previous monograph). 
The tree grows wild, and is cultivated in Ceylon, South India, Indonesia, Indochina and in the 
Seychelles, a tiny island group midway between Zanzibar (east Africa) and Ceylon. Recently, 
small scale distillation has commenced in Zanzibar, too. The main producing centers are Ceylon 
(south) and the Seychelles. In Madagascar and the nearby Comoro Islands, small quantities of 
a good cinnamon bark are produced, and occasionally the leaves are distilled on the spot. 

During the recent years of steep decline in the clove leaf oil price, however, there has been 
less interest in the production of cinnamon leaf oil. The two oils both contain about 80 to 90% 
eugenol, and the cheapest oil will serve as a starting material for the isolation of this important 
perfume material. Eugenol, isolated from different natural oils, displays certain small variations 
in odor type. Due to its fresher note, eugenol from Bay Leaf Oil (see monograph) has recently 
become more popular than eugenol from clove leaf oil or from cinnamon leaf oil. If isolated in 
a gas chromatograph column, all the eugenols would smell exactly alike, but traces of 
"impurities" (those which "create odor and natural nuances", the perfumer would say) result 
in different types of eugenols when these are isolated on a large scale. 

Since Cinnamon Leaf Oil is now more expensive than clove leaf oil, the latter presents a 
possible means of adulteration for cinnamon leaf oil. The two oils are produced in rather 


126 


primitive stills (some of the Seychelles installations are, however, quite good: of large capacity 
and fairly up-to-date design), and being produced in neighboring areas, there is always a 
strong possibility of "coupage" ("cutting" of the cinnamon leaf oil with clove leaf oil). Apart 
from that, only the usual crude diluents, such as alcohol, fuel oil, kerosene, petroleum, etc., 
might come into consideration. 

Cinnamon Leaf Oil is a yellow to brownish- yellow oil of warm-spicy, but rather harsh odor, 
lacking the rich body of the bark oil. It has some resemblance to the odor of clove leaf oil and 
clove stem oil. The flavor is somewhat bitter, slightly pungent, irritant-burning, but very spicy 
and powerful. 

The oil is used in perfumery for its spicy notes and its warm and woody-Oriental type. In the 
chemical industry, it is used for the isolation of eugenol (from which again vanillin and other 
derivatives are produced), and in flavors, as a modifier in spice blends, as a "warm" note in 
certain fruit essences, e.g. cherry, raspberry and prune, in chocolate and liqueur flavors, in soft 
drinks and candy, etc. It blends well with benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, anisalcohol, vanillin, 
ethylvanillin (so-called), peppermint oil, nonanolide and undecanolide, many glycidates, ion- 
ones (and ionone-glycidates), cinnamic alcohol, etc. 

The annual world production of cinnamon leaf oil is, as mentioned, somewhat dependent 
upon the demand for eugenol and the production of clove leaf oil. An average of 150 metric 
tons of Cinnamon Leaf Oil is estimated. Up to 90 tons annually has been produced in the 
Seychelles alone. 

Cistus Oil, so-called. 

Cistus Oil (so-called) is the essential oil which is steam distilled from the crude "gum" 
labdanum, collected almost exclusively in Spain. More recently, the oil has been obtained by a 
two-step extraction with benzene/ethyl alcohol or with ethyl ether/ethyl alcohol. The product 
is then, according to the definitions in Part One of this book, an Absolute from Resinoid of 
Labdanum (Spanish). Distillation of the crude "gum" labdanum takes place in Spain and France. 
For details of the plant from which the crude labdanum is boiled off, see monograph on 
Labdanum. 

Cistus Oil (so-called) is an amber-colored or dark yellow, viscous liquid having a very powerful 
and tenacious odor: warm and sweet, yet dry and reminiscent of ambra in its somewhat 
animal notes. The oil is used in modern aldehydic or ambre types of perfumes, in Oriental 
bases, and in numerous "fantasy" bouquets where it will lend tenacity, warm tonalities and an 
intriguingly spicy-animal note. It has the advantage of yielding the main odor effects of the 
labdanum resinoid, concrete, or absolute, but it does not have the intense color of these 
products. Its greater solubility makes it interesting for colognes where it blends extremely well 
with citrus oils, sage clary and oakmoss products. Cistus oil also blends well with cinnamic 
alcohol, juniperberry oil, ionones and methylionones, heliotropin, lavandin oil, pine needle oils, 
opopanax, etc. Artificial musks are frequently rounded off with Cistus Oil if the formula 
permits the comparatively high cost of this oil. Little is known about the chemical composition 
of the so-called cistus oil, and adulterations are most often of the "artistic" kind rather than 
the "scientific". 


127 


Cistus Oil is used quite frequently in trace amounts as a "bouquet" material in certain essential 
oils (sage clary and others). The annual production of so-called Cistus Oil is steadily increasing, 
but has probably not yet exceeded 300 kilos. The residue of exhausted labdanum "gum" from 
the distillation of this type of cistus oil unfortunately presents good possibilities for 
adulteration of labdanum "resinoids" or even for the crude labdanum "gum". 

Steam distillation of the entire plant is carried out in Spain. The plant is known under the name 
of Cistus ("ciste") in France, and the essential oil from the entire plant is described in the 
following monograph. 

Cistus Oil, true. 

An essential oil which is truly a Cistus Oil is produced in Spain by steam distillation of the entire 
herb (leaves and stems with flowering tops) of Cistus Ladaniferus. A product derived from this 
oil by rectification, has been sold by a well known French perfume house for many years. The 
product is marketed under a brand name. The same Spanish producer has also placed a 

Terpeneless Cistus Oil on the market. 

True Cistus Oil is a pale orange colored liquid of a very peculiar, warm-herbaceous odor. The 
odor bears some similarity to that of Roman chamomile, to decaying fruits, to certain 
methacrylates, etc. The tenacity is much inferior to that of the so-called cistus oil (see above 
monograph), but the true cistus oil has an immense power in its topnote. It produces 
interesting effects in lavender bouquets, colognes, spicy after shave fragrances, etc. The oil is 
produced on a very limited scale only. 

Citronella Oil, Ceylon. 

Ceylon citronella oil is steam distilled from the leaves (grass) of the so-called Lenabatu variety 
of the citronella grass. This variety is cultivated in Ceylon only. It can be considered a variety of 
Managrass, the only wild growing citronella grass which is also found in Ceylon. Cultivation of 
Lenabatu grass is concentrated in a comparatively small area on the southernmost tip of 
Ceylon. 

The grass is dried prior to the distillation which is carried out locally in primitive stills. Annual 
production has been surprisingly stable, between 500 and 800 metric tons during the past 50 
years. Until 1926, the Ceylon type of citronella oil was the most important and the largest one. 
But the production of Java-type (see monograph: Citronella Oil, Java-type) has increased 
steadily because of its better yield and higher content of "totalgeraniol" (see below). 

Ceylon Citronella Oil is a yellow to brownish yellow or even olive-brown liquid, occasionally 
hazy due to a water surplus. The odor is very peculiar, warm-woody and yet fresh, grassy and 
somewhat reminiscent of wet leaves. Geraniol and citronellal are the main constituents, but 
they are not predominant in the odor of this oil. The camphene-borneol-methyleugenol 
complex seems to characterize the odor of Ceylon citronella oil. 

The oil is used extensively in low-cost perfumes for soap-flakes, detergents, floorwaxes, 
cleansers, insecticides and other household products. Its great masking power makes it an 
effective and universally applicable material for technical products, industrial perfumes, etc. 


128 


Mixed with cedar- wood oil "Virginia", it has been a popular remedy against mosquito attacks 
for many years prior to the appearance of DDT and other modern insecticides. In the chemical 
industry, it serves as a starting material for the production of geraniol, citronellol, citronellal 
and menthol. For these purposes, however, the Java type oil presents definite advantages and 
may completely replace the Ceylon type. In spite of its extremely low cost, Ceylon citronella oil 
has been subject to very serious adulterations for many decades. Only quite recently, the 
Ceylonese authorities attacked the problems caused by a series of disastrous adulterations of 
the locally distilled oil by instituting thorough control measures which should now guarantee 
the customers against future "on-thespot" adulterations and contaminations. 

Commercial lots of poor grade oils are still appearing on the market, some with considerable 
amounts of water, others with precipitate, etc. But the "old" type of adulteration with coconut 
oil, kerosene or rice alcohol is becoming rare. On its way to consumers through transithouses, 
the oil may be adulterated with more skill, e.g. with fractions from geraniol production, with 
orange terpenes, lemon oil terpenes, camphor oil fractions, etc. An olfactory test will usually 
reveal such additions. 

See also Citronella Oil, Java-type, following monograph. 

Citronella Oil, Java-type. 

Among all the essential oils which find direct application in perfumery, Java-type citronella oil 
is one of the largest in quantity, surpassed only by turpentine, pine oils and camphor oils. 
Seventy years ago, it was unknown; to-day it is produced from cultivated grass in practically all 
the tropical and semitropical areas of the world except Australia. 

Citronella Grass, Java-type, so-called Maha Pengiri grass, is cultivated in Formosa (Taiwan), 
China (Hainan island), Java, Malaya, Guatemala, Honduras, and to a lesser extent in Ceylon, 
Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, east and central Africa, Madagascar, Comoro islands, Seychelles, 
the West Indian Islands, in Mexico and in Salvador. It is cultivated for local use in numerous 
islands of the Pacific Ocean and in the Indonesian Archipelago. In many of these areas, 
however, the grass which is cultivated under the local name of "citronelle" is actually 
lemongrass (e.g. in central Madagascar where it is served as a tea, according to the author's 
personal experience). 

Chinese production is concentrated on the island of Hainan, and the production here in 1959 
surpassed 2000 metric tons. Very little, if any at all, of this oil reached consumers outside of 
Asia. 

The Maha Pengiri grass has the advantage over the Ceylon type grass in that it yields up to 
twice as much essential oil. The Java-type oil contains more of the components important for 
the production of synthetic or semi-synthetic perfume materials than does the Ceylon type oil. 
Java- type oil (maha pengiri oil) is distilled either from fresh grass or from partly dried grass. 
Java-type Citronella Oil is almost colorless or pale yellow. This is mainly due to the fact that 
the oil is generally distilled in equipment which is more modern than that used for distillation 
of Ceylon citronella oil. The equipment used by the citronella oil industry in Formosa, Hainan, 
Guatemala and Honduras is particularly and completely new and of modern design. 


129 


The odor of Java-type citronella oil is fresh and sweet, revealing the high content of citronellal 
and geraniol + citronellol. The oil does not present at all in its odor the camphene-borneol 
notes characteristic of the Ceylon citronella oil. The dryout of the Java-type oil is also sweet, 
but somewhat woody; this is probably due to the sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols 
(Elemol, etc.). 

The oil contains from 30 to 45% geraniol or related alcohols. Furthermore, it contains from 40 
to 50% citronellal (in good oils). Java-type citronella oil, now mainly produced in Taiwan 
(Formosa) finds extensive use in perfumery, both directly and indirectly. Soaps, soapflakes, 
detergents, household cleansers, technical products, insecticides, etc. are often perfumed 
exclusively with this oil. The oil itself, or certain of its isolated components may serve as 
starting materials for the production of numerous important perfumery materials: 

Java-type citronella oil may be treated with aluminium-propoxide in the so-called Meerwein 
Ponndorf-Verley reaction (reduction without affecting the double bonds), or directly 
condensated with acetone. The citronellal may be transformed into menthol by means of 
several steps. One French manufacturer of synthetic menthol used to consume about 10% of 
the total world production of citronella oil, Java-type, for this purpose. Citronellal is used for 
the production of hydroxycitronellal. Geraniol is used either as such, or it may be processed 
further to geranyl esters, etc. Citronellol (sometimes labelled "rhodinol") and esters of this 
alcohol are also produced from citronellal. 

The commercial labelling of citronella oil, Java- type, is often expressed in terms of 
"totalgeraniol" and "citronellal", e.g. 85/35, which means that this oil contains a minimum of 
85% geraniol + citronella! + various alcohols, and a minimum of 35% aldehydes, calculated as 
citronellal. A good oil should contain at least 40 % citronella! and it may contain up to 95% 
"totalgeraniol". 

The oil is not frequently adulterated. The large- scale production in Formosa, Java, Guatemala 
and elsewhere, and the fairly modern setup seem to insure uniform quality. Recent years have 
not been very interesting from the producers' points of view since the price of citronella oil 
Java-type has reached an ultimate minimum. Adulteration may take place in "transit" if large 
consumers of citronella oil also happen to be suppliers of citronella oil to smaller industries. 
Fractions from the isolation of geraniol or citronellal (foreruns or after runs, etc.) may be 
added to the natural oil which accordingly changes composition and odor effect. The "old" 
type of adulteration with fatty vegetable oils, etc. is hardly found any more. 

The annual world production of Java-type citronella oil is significantly in excess of 5000 metric 
tons, distributed as outlined below: 

Formosa: 3000 tons (best of recent years) 

China-Hainan: 1000 to 2500 tons (1957-58-59) 

Java: 800 tons (and increasing) 

Other areas produce more than: 1000 tons. 

It is noteworthy that a considerable percentage of the world production is not freely available 
in all overseas areas outside of the producing regions. 


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Civet. 


Civet is a glandular secretion collected from various species of the Civet Cat, male and female, 
preferably the male. The Abyssinian variety, Viverra Civetta, is the most important supplier of 
this animal perfume raw material. Smaller quantities of civet are collected from other species 
of the civet cat in India, Indonesia, Malaya, China, Belgian Congo, Somali, Kenya, and 
occasionally in Haiti. The total annual world production runs into several tons, and with 
respect to value, Civet ranks among the 20 most important perfume raw materials. 

The crude civet arrives in Europe and the U.S.A. in Zebu horns, containing about 500 to 1200 
grams of the buttery yellowish paste which turns darker and more solid on age. The contents 
of one average Zebu horn represents the production from one civet cat in Four Years. During 
this period, the animal will consume something like the raw meat from 50 (fifty) sheep, and 
the poor cat, frequently teased in its narrow cage, will have undergone 400 to 800 painful 
"scrapings" of its glands. The raw meat, the narrow cage and the teasing are all means of 
increasing the production of the civet secretion which is scraped off with regular intervals 
while the cat is caged. It is no wonder that Civet is one of the most expensive perfume raw 
materials! But, thanks to the outstanding power of civet, its price does not prohibit its use by 
any means. 

From the crude natural civet, a Concrete of Civet is produced by hydrocarbon extraction. In 
turn, the concrete is usually further processed to an absolute by the conventional method. The 
yield of Concrete is about 50 to 60% of the crude secretion, and the larger part of the concrete 
is alcohol-soluble Civet Absolute. 

Civet Absolute dilutions, or Civet Tincture, are very commonly used perfume materials. They 
not only present excellent fixative value, but, most important, they lend a distinct natural- 
animal note when used with care and with an experienced touch. Overdoses produce 
obnoxious notes, and it should be kept in mind that civet products tends to "grow" in a 
perfume. A mellow and well aged civet tincture is less capricious in this respect. 

Civet Tincture may be produced directly from the crude civet by maceration with 95% ethyl 
alcohol. It is customary to use either 5 or 10 parts by weight of alcohol to one part by weight of 
civet. The tinctures may be prepared with or without the application of heat. In any case, the 
tincture must be well chilled prior to filtration which can take place after a maceration time of 
several months. The tinctures are labelled Civet Tincture 20% (respectively 10%). See also the 
monograph Tincture in Part One of this book. 

It seems to be a general conception among older perfumers that civet is no longer what it used 
to be. This suspicion is not uncommon. Similar worries are expressed about opopanax, 
guaiacwood oil, patchouli oil, etc. In a few cases these worries can be traced back to the very 
human tendency of glorifying the "good old times". Among other reasons, one of the most 
frequently given is the fact that the exotic perfumery raw materials come to the consumer 
much more quickly today than they did 20 or 30 years ago. But this excuse certainly does not 
cover all the obvious differences. 


131 


Civet products are used in a 'great variety of perfume types, particularly in the better lotion 
perfumes of the rose-type, Oriental types, "honey"- notes, narcissus bases, ambre types, etc. It 
blends well with the nitromusks, coumarin derivatives, quinoline derivatives, vanillin and 
related materials, etc. and many commercial fixative specialties are based upon such mixtures. 
The use of civet extracts or tinctures in muguet and other delicate floral bases may seem 
surprising to the layman, but this application of civet is well known and highly appreciated. The 
"lift" and radiation (diffusive power) derived from minute quantities of civet tincture in certain 
types of perfumes is quite unique and this effect can only be adequately understood through 
long experience with good grades of civet. 

The odor of Civet extracts (tinctures, absolutes, etc.) and of crude civet, too, should be 
typically animal-sweet, free from faecal notes, urine notes or the like. The undertone bears 
some resemblance to that of ambrette seed oil and of a well cured goat skin. The odor of civet 
preparations appears not immediately powerful, but it is very tenacious, an upon dilution the 
true richness becomes quite apparent. 

The, recently developed synthetic materials Civettone and Civettol represent individual notes 
from the civet complex, and cannot fully replace the natural civet or its extracts. The main 
advantage of the synthetic materials is in the total absence of faecal notes, and in the constant 
availability in a uniform quality and cost. An Anhydrol of Civet has been prepared by molecular 
co-distillation of a civet extract with a high- boiling, odorless solvent. Civet Anhydrol is a 
viscous, almost colorless liquid. Its odor is free from faecal notes, but it is not typical of the 
entire gamut of odor principles in natural civet. 

Civet is frequently adulterated (mainly before shipping out of Africa) with "ghee" butter 
(another product of the zebu!), honey, beeswax, soybean oil, baby excrements, etc. Some of 
the most experienced importers of civet actually taste the unctuous substance from the horns, 
before they pay for it. Honey can be detected this way, but the other adulterants — ! 

Clausena Anisata. 

An essential oil is locally distilled from the leaves of a small tropical tree, Clausena Anisata, 
related to the citrus trees. The tree is cultivated in Indonesia and in East Africa (Tanganyika and 
Somali), but it is particularly popular in the Philippines where the essential oil is distilled and 
used for a local brandy, equivalent to the French "anisette". 

The oil of Clausena Anisata is almost colorless or pale yellow and its odor is very similar to that 
of star anise oil or "true" anise oil (see monographs on Anise Oil and Star Anise Oil). Frequent 
attempts have been made to promote the interest in this oil which, after proper rectification, 
could become a good and low-cost replacement for anise oil or star anise oil. 

The appearance on the market of synthetic Anethole from large-scale production in the U.S.A. 
in the early 1950's and the rapid improvement in the flavor of this synthetic product almost 
completely wiped out the interest for anise, star anise and similar essential oils in the U.S.A. or 
other countries where these oils were unavailable due to the fareastern troubles. 


132 


Clausena Anisata Oil is produced in the Philippines and in East Africa exclusively for local use 
and for the purpose of releasing scarce foreign currency for more important articles. The oil is 
not regularly available in Europe or in the U.S.A. 

The annual production of clausena anisata oil is adjusted to the local demand but in view of 
the abundance of the tree it seems conceivable that this oil could—in case of emergency- 
cover a good part of the world's demand for the anise-type oils at a reasonable cost. 

Clavel Moena. 

Oil of Clavel Moena is not produced on a commercial scale but it represents one example 
among the hundreds of essential oils which have been produced experimentally and which, in 
case of significant interest, could be produced on a larger scale with little or no notice and at a 
very reasonable cost. 

The oil is also called "Peruvian Spice Oil" (or Peruvian spicewood oil). It is steam distilled in 
Peru from the wood of a tree of the genus lauraceae (possibly myrtaeceae). The Spanish name 
for clove (or carnation) is Clavel. 

Oil of Clavel Moena is an almost colorless or pale yellow, mobile liquid of a warm-spicy, 
nutmeg-like, cinnamon-leaf-like odor. The undertone and the dryout are distinctly dry-woody, 
less spicy and it is strongly reminiscent of the odor of clove leaf sesquiterpenes 
(caryophyllenes). 

Clavel Moena oil could, in view of its peculiar composition, possibly find use in perfume work 
on artificial essential oils (clove, cubeb, nutmeg, black pepper, etc.) or the oil could be used in 
perfumes of the woody-Oriental and spicy type. 

The flavor of Clavel Moena oil is far from attractive. It merely represents a high concentration 
of the dry-bitter notes which are so carefully avoided in the selection of a good clove bud oil 
for flavor use. 

It has been claimed that the essential oil from the leaves of the above tree consists almost 
exclusively of Myristicin. The leaf oil is not a commercially available article. 

Clove Bud Absolute. 

Clove Bud Absolute is produced from Clove Bud Concrete. The concrete is produced by 
hydrocarbon solvent extraction of the dried and comminuted flower-buds of Eugenia 
Caryophyllata (see monograph on Clove Bud Oil). Petroleum ether, benzene or gasoline is 
used in the extraction. Gasoline yields a superior concrete in respect to odor. The color and 
general appearance, too, varies according to the solvent used. 

Clove Bud Concrete is a semi-solid mass or a viscous liquid of dark brown, yellowish brown or 
pale olive green color. The author has prepared extracts with all the above mentioned 
solvents. The extracts were in all cases clear and viscous liquids of pale brown to olive color. 
Several commercially available concretes are waxy and semi-solid masses. 


133 


The odor of clove bud concrete is oily-sweet, intensely rich and spicy, slightly sour-fruity and 
refreshing. The odor is very closely reminiscent of that of the dry clove buds. 

Clove Bud Oleoresin is a commercial name for various extracts of clove buds. The direct 
extraction product from the buds with boiling ethyl alcohol is quite common. It is a viscous 
brown liquid, occasionally separating waxy particles on standing. Its odor is often perceptibly 
affected by the presence of small amounts of solvent (ethyl alcohol). A "wine"-like note 
develops upon ageing but the overall fragrance is very typical of the spice itself. The alcohol- 
extracted "oleoresin" is generally a more powerful perfume and flavor material than any of the 
other types of extract. It is less refined or delicate in odor and it is considerably darker in color 
than the hydrocarbon solvent extracts or the corresponding absolutes. True Clove Bud 
Oleoresin should be prepared by hydrocarbon solvent extraction, preferably by room- 
temperature percolation. 

Clove Bud Absolute is prepared by alcohol extraction of the concrete (sometimes called 
oleoresin). The absolute from a gasoline extracted material is usually superior in respect to 
odor. The yield is somewhat smaller than that from benzene extraction. Absolute from 
petroleum ether extracted material is very pale of color (olive green) and of a more "piquant" 
odor than the absolute from benzene extracted material. The latter is richer in odor body. 

Clove Bud Absolute is usually an olive-green, greenish brown or orange brown, viscous or oily 
liquid which may solidify at reduced temperatures to a semi-solid mass. The absolute is soluble 
in alcohol in all proportions. The odor of the absolute is not only a very close approach to the 
odor of the botanical material. It presents a floral and refined type of this fragrance, also 
resembling the balsamic, sour-sweet and immensely rich fragrance of clove flowers in full 
bloom. 

Clove Bud Absolute (and other cold-extracted products from clove buds) contains apparently 
only those aromatic principles which are present in the buds from nature's side. There is no 
trace of a dry caryophyllene-type of odor (such as found in clove leaf oil). It seems beyond 
doubt, that these unwanted off-notes in odor and flavor are formed during the distillation of 
the buds, particularly when the distillation is performed at temperatures beyond 100° C. (see 
monograph on Clove Bud Oil). 

Clove bud absolute is particularly useful in perfumes where the non-phenolic notes of cloves 
are wanted to impart a spicy, yet fresh-floral and intriguing note of great diffusive power. The 
absolute can be used with surprisingly good effects in many floral bases and it lends interesting 
twists to ylang-ylang, carnation, rose, cassie, narcissus and other floral perfume types. 

The absolute is occasionally used in flavors to bring the true fragrance of the clove buds to life 
in a delightful topnote. The use level for Clove Bud Absolute from Gasoline Concrete would be 
about 0.80 to 2.50 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.08 to 0.12 mg%. It is noted that the 
flavor strength of the absolute is about twice the strength of an average quality of clove bud 
oil. 

Oleoresin of Clove Buds (various direct extraction products) is used quite extensively in table 
sauces, baked goods, etc. in place of powdered clove buds. 


134 



Clove Bud Ultrasonic Extract is available in limited quantities but the recent development in 
this technique of extraction may result in improved capacity and consequently in more 
attractive cost of these extracts. 

Clove Bud Oil. 

Clove Bud Oil is water distilled (rarely steam distilled) from the dried flower buds of Eugenia 
Caryophyllata, a slender, medium-sized, tropical tree, originating in the Moluccas, particularly 
the island of Amboyna in the eastern Indonesian archipelago. The original wild clove tree from 
the Moluccas does not produce a eugenol-containing essential oil at all. This wild tree still 
grows in the islands among plantations of cultivated trees. The cultivation of clove trees is at 
least 2000 years old. 

Clove Bud Oil is the largest of the essential oils produced from "stable" material which is 
brought to European or American distilleries thousands of miles from the areas where the 
cloves grow. No clove bud oil is produced in the clove growing areas. Madagascan, Zanzibar or 
Comoro clove buds are used for the distillation. Amboyna clove buds are usually sold as the 
highest grade of the whole spice. The yield of essential oil by water distillation of the clove 
buds is about 15%. Up to 20% of the world production of clove buds is used for distillation, but 
the figure fluctuates with the immediate cost of the cloves. 

The clove buds are comminuted prior to distillation. During the water distillation of clove buds, 
certain materials are formed in the essential oil which do not exist in the clove bud in natura, 
e.g. Caryophyllene and possibly other sesquiterpenes. The same happens during steam 
distillation, but not during a low-temperature hydrocarbon-extraction of the buds (see 
monograph on Clove Bud Absolute). If the cloves are steam distilled, hydrolysis takes place, 
and most of the natural acetyl eugenol (aceteugenol) is converted to eugenol. Since this 
hydrolysis takes place only to a minor degree during water distillation, the latter method is 
accordingly preferred. Water distilled clove bud oil has a very high content of "total eugenol" 
(usually over 92%), but a substantial part of this is aceteugenol (10 to 15%) which is partly 
responsible for the characteristic odor of clove bud oil. The author wishes to extend his 
acknowledgements to a well known English distiller and expert in spice oils for this simple and 
handy test on clove oils: 

"add a few drops of the clove oil sample to an aqueous paste of magnesium hydroxide, stir 
well, and leave overnight in a closed beaker. The eugenol is then fixed as an odorless 
magnesium salt while esters of eugenol, methyl-n-amyl ketone, etc. are not affected by the 
magnesium hydroxide. If pure clove bud oil was used in the experiment, the odor of the 
mixture the next day will be a strong, pure clove odor". This experiment emphasizes the 
importance of trace elements among the odor principles in essential oils. The quality of a clove 
oil can not be judged by the eugenol content of the oil (unless the oil is purchased for the 
purpose of isolating eugenol). 

Trace amounts of lower aliphatic ketones lend this oil a peculiar fruity-fresh topnote, and a 
touch of an acetic odor makes it quite refreshing and distinctly different from clove stem oil 
which may even have the same content of "total eugenol". The acetic note could very well 
derive from traces of acetic acid, produced from the aceteugenol which even in a gentle water 


135 


distillation hydrolyzes to some degree. The eugenol note in a good clove bud oil is distinctly 
subdued, sweetened and freshened by the presence of the above mentioned materials in the 
bud oil. Clove Bud Oil is used frequently in perfumery for its sweet-spicy note, but the largest 
part of all clove bud oil by far is used in flavor work. 

In perfumes, clove bud oil blends well with its derivatives, e.g. aceteugenol, methyl eugenol, 
isoeugenol, vanillin, "ethyl-vanillin", etc. to form part of the well-known "carnation" base. In 
rose, honeysuckle and certain deep-sweet florals, clove bud oil lends a unique note of natural 
richness and body. The classic "rondeletia" perfume type is based upon the combination of 
clove and lavender oils. Modern variations include the use of lavandin, sage clary, bergamot, 
bay leaf oil, pimenta berry oil, etc. The oil blends excellently with ylang-ylang and cananga oils, 
and Oriental types of perfumes often contain significant amounts of clove bud oil. 

Clove Bud Oil is used extensively in flavors in a large variety of food products: spice blends, 
seasonings, pickles, canned meat, baked goods, powder cakes, ready-made mixes etc. Due to 
its well-known antiseptic effect, the oil finds its way into numerous mouth washes, gargles, 
dentifrices and pharmaceutical and dental preparations. Candy, particularly chewing gum, is 
also flavored with clove bud oil in combination with other essential oils. The suggested use 
level for a high- grade clove bud oil is 1.00 to 3.00 mg%, while the Minimum Perceptible is 
0.15 to 0.30 mg%. Wide variations in the figures for the use level must be expected according 
to the specific use of the oil in each case. 

The annual world production of clove bud oil fluctuates according to the price of the buds. 300 
to 500 tons has been the annual output in recent years. This corresponds to 2100 to 3500 
metric tons of clove buds distilled, or: 10 to 15 percent of the annual clove bud production. 
This huge progress in clove bud oil production has brought the price down to an all-time low, a 
fact which is interesting to study along with the fact that eugenol has not yet been synthesized 
on a commercial scale. 

The fluctuating production of clove bud oil is not a true picture of the demand for clove bud 
oil. The price of the buds is strongly dependent upon the demand for clove buds in Indonesia. 
That country is the largest customer for the clove bud growers. Comminuted clove buds are 
used to the extent of up to 8% in Indonesian cigarette tobacco. If this peculiar need for "spicy 
smoke" should fade away, there will be an enormous surplus of clove buds on the market. The 
price will drop, and clove bud oil can be produced at a fraction of its normal price. The spice 
houses can keep clove bud oil for many years, and a large stock does not require much space. 

The adulteration of clove bud oil could be described in immediate connection with the above 
remarks of demand for clove buds. At the present moment (1960) there is only little profit in 
the "cutting" of clove bud oil with clove stem oil or rectified clove leaf oil. Eugenol and 
caryophyllene, two of the main constituents of all clove oils, are not produced synthetically on 
a commercial scale. Accordingly, there is no reason for adulteration of clove bud oil until its 
price increases twice or three times, and that is not very likely. 


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Clove Leaf Oil. 


From the whole leaves and twigs of the clove tree (see Clove Bud Oil, previous monograph), an 
essential oil is distilled in the clove growing areas of northeastern Madagascar. The distillation 
is a so-called “direct-fire" distillation and corresponds to a type of water-distillation. The stills 
are mostly of an extremely primitive kind. Almost inevitably a certain amount of clove stems 
are found among the leaves and twigs, but the stems will obviously appear only during and 
right after the clove bud harvest (there is only one bud harvest per year in Madagascar). It is 
estimated that, out of Madagascar's annual 1000 metric ton-production of clove oil, about 
80% is derived from leaf material and 20% from clove stems. The oil is usually bulked, but lots 
of oil of high eugenol content, sold separately, may derive from distillation of "high- stem- 
content" material. Clove leaf oil is not produced outside of Madagascar, but production can be 
expected in the near future from the Comoro islands where extensive plantings of young clove 
trees (seedlings from Madagascar) are growing up since 1952. 

When crude and natural, Clove Leaf Oil is a dark brown, often violet- or purple-brown oil 
which may show some precipitate or cloudiness. Madagascan-French bulk-producers make an 
effort to strain and dehydrate the oil before it is exported, and they usually obtain oils with 
very high eugenol content. The crude oil is usually rectified (steam distilled or vacuum- 
distilled) in Europe or in the U.S.A. before it is used in perfumes or flavors. However, the major 
part of all clove leaf oil is used in the chemical industry for the isolation of eugenol of which 
the oil contains 82 to 88%. The oil also contains significant amounts of the sesquiterpene 
Caryphyllene which is isolated during the production of eugenol. Caryophyllene finds some 
use in perfumery, particularly in the reproduction of certain essential oils, e.g. cubeb oil, black 
pepper oil, etc. (skilful adulteration!). More recently, caryophyllene has been used as a starting 
material in the production of new and interesting perfume materials, e.g. certain related 
ketones, etc. Neither eugenol nor caryophyllene have yet been produced synthetically on a 
commercial scale. The odor of crude clove leaf oil is somewhat harsh, phenolic, only slightly 
sweet, with a "burnt" breadlike note, and distinctly different from the odor of eugenol, and 
different also from the odor of clove bud oil. Woodiness and dryness probably are the most 
typical notes of clove leaf oil. 

Rectified (sometimes called redistilled) clove leaf oil is pale yellow and clear; it smells sweeter 
than the crude oil, less harsh and burnt, but still somewhat dry-woody. The odor is much 
closer to that of eugenol. Rectified clove leaf oil may find use in all types of spicy perfumes, 
particularly in "low-cost" types and soap perfumes. In the case of the latter, however, the risk 
of discoloration at higher concentrations should be kept in mind. Alkali will produce a brown, 
iron and purple- violet discoloration in the presence of significant amounts of clove oils. On the 
other hand, only eugenol itself gives the typical spice odor. None of the non-phenolic 
derivatives (methyl eugenol, aceteugenol, etc.) will produce a similar spicyness in a perfume. 
Thus, there is no substitute for clove oil or eugenol, if the hydroxyl group (—OH group) is 
occupied or "inactivated" in the eugenol molecule. Accordingly, there are no stable white 
soaps containing significant amounts of eugenol or clove oil on the market. Spicy smelling 
soaps are usually colored dark amber or brown ("Windsor", etc.), whereby the discoloration is 
camouflaged. 


137 


In flavor work, the clove bud oil and, occasionally, the absolute from clove buds are preferred 
since these products reproduce the true clove flavor to a higher degree, and they are far more 
than being merely "eugenol"-flavor materials. The Minimum Perceptible of clove leaf oil 
(crude) is only one-third of the figure for a high-grade clove bud oil. The flavor type of the 
crude leaf oil is, however, inacceptable for use in foods. It does not reproduce the flavor of the 
clove bud such as it is known by many consumers. The apparent power in the clove leaf oil 
flavor is probably derived from traces of lower aldehydes, furfural, etc. which are often 
present in essential oils from leaves and other green plant material. 

The isolated eugenol from clove leaf oil is used in pharmaceutical and dental preparations, in 
the synthesis of vanillin, for the production of eugenol derivatives, etc. Eugenol is not 
produced synthetically on a commercial scale, and clove leaf oil is the cheapest starting 
material for the isolation of this important aromatic chemical. The switch to "lignin-vanillin" 
during recent years has caused decrease in the clove leaf oil price, and the oil is now (in 
1959/60) hardly profitable to produce. A series of devastating cyclones in March, 1959 on the 
Madagascan east coast destroyed portions of the clove plantations, and this caused a 
temporary increase in the price of the leaf oil. In respect to quantity produced, Clove Leaf Oil 
ranks among the 12 largest essential oils in the world. 

Clove Stem Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled from the stems upon which the clove buds grow (see Clove Bud Oil). 
Prior to distillation, the stems are sun-dried but not pulverized; the distillation takes place only 
in Zanzibar. The entire output of clove stems (3000 to 5000 metric tons per year) is distilled on 
the spot at the Clove Growers Association's modern distillery in Malindi, a Zanzibar port. There 
are 12 stainless steel steam stills which operate in shifts of 6, around the clock every day of the 
year. The exhaust stems are mixed with coconut shells and used as fuel in the fireplaces under 
the steam generators. All clove stem oil on the market is derived from this distillery. 
Accordingly, clove stem oil is one of the most uniform of all the essential oils on the market. 
Since the stems are distilled and then destroyed by law, there is no possibility of producing an 
experimental, water-distilled clove stem oil. It would be interesting to see, if this oil should 
have odor qualities similar to those of a water distilled clove bud oil. 

Zanzibar Clove Stem Oil is—when fairly fresh and well stored—a pale yellow to straw yellow 
colored liquid of strong spicy, somewhat woody, but quite pleasant odor. The odor is not very 
different from that of eugenol (which is sweeter and less woody). The annual production is 
about 225 to 250 metric tons, all of which is exported, mainly to Europe and the U.S.A. Part of 
the oil is redistilled by the buyers, part is used as such in perfumery and flavor work. Some 
clove stem oil is used for the isolation of eugenol, production of eugenol-derivatives, vanillin, 
etc. Freshly redistilled clove stem oil is almost colorless. It finds use in perfumery for its spicy 
note in Oriental bases, spicy after-shave fragrances and other "men's odors", and in flavor 
work as a low-cost replacement for the more delicate and true-to- nature clove bud oil. 
Redistilled clove stem oil contains 90 to 96% eugenol, but does not present the sweet-floral, 
fruity-fresh notes found in the water-distilled clove bud oil. The exceptionally low Minimum 
Perceptible of the redistilled stem oil (0.04 to 0.06 mg%) may be due to the absence of the 


138 


odor-depressing caryophyllene. The redistilled stem oil then performs almost like a pure 
eugenol. It has power, but no bouquet, no typical clove nuances. 

Coconut Absolute. 

Coconut Absolute is one among a great number of natural perfume materials which are not 
commercially available but nevertheless are used and appreciated by many perfume houses. 
The material may accordingly serve in this book as an example of the group of raw materials 
which are "made on our own premises", as the individual perfume houses would probably say. 
See also Linseed Oil Absolute, Cypress Absolute, Lemon Aroma Distillate, Lupulin Distillate, 
etc. 

Coconut Absolute is produced by extraction of the comminuted endosperm of Cocos Nucifera, 
the coconut. Flaked or "grated" coconut meat may be used, but in order to obtain the full and 
natural gamut of volatile and alcohol extractive matter, it is adviseable to start from the 
"deoleated" coconut. 

When coconut meat is expressed hydraulically the oil will contain the volatile substances. The 
crude coconut oil is subsequently steam distilled in order to recover these odorous 
components. An essential oil of coconut is produced this way. However, the so-called Coconut 
Absolute is prod- used by alcohol extraction of the crude coconut oil. The alcohol is distilled off 
under gentle vacuum. A somewhat different coconut absolute is obtained by alcohol 
extraction of the press-cake of "deoleated" coconut meat. This type of coconut absolute has a 
"heavier", more nutty type of odor and a darker color. 

Coconut Absolute is usually a pale yellow, dark yellow or brownish yellow colored viscous 
liquid or a low-melting solid, waxy mass. It has a peculiar fruity-fatty, very fresh and light, yet 
tenacious odor. Only upon extreme dilution (about 1.0 mg% or lower) the nutty and typical 
fragrance appears. 

Coconut Absolute is an interesting material in the hands of the experienced and artistic 
perfumer for his work in unconventional perfumery. Floral fragrances such as jasmin, lily-of- 
the- valley, lily, lilac, ylang-ylang, etc. and in particular gardenia as well as fruity notes may be 
excitingly lifted or modified with this unusual perfume material. It blends well with ambrette 
seed oil, clove bud oil, cognac oil, neroli oil, sweet orange oil, etc. and with amyl cinnamic 
aldehyde, decylpropionate, cyclamal, isoeugenol, linalool, methyl nonyl acetaldehyde, 
trimethyl undecylic aldehyde, etc. 

Coconut absolute is rarely, if ever, used in flavors although it definitely has a delicate 
mellowing effect upon synthetic coconut flavors; its flavor strength is comparatively small and 
it has only little diffusive power. Besides, natural coconut meat flakes or "grated" coconut 
meat is used extensively "as is" in the candy industry, for baked goods, foods, etc. 

Cognac Oil. 

Cognac Oil, also known as Wine Lees Oil or Weinhefeoel (in German), is a by product from the 
distillation of Cognac (Brandy). It is present in cognac to the amount of about 2 mg%. The 


139 


aromatic substances contained in cognac oil derive partly from the activities of the particular 
yeast fungus used, partly from the type of grapes fermented. 

An oil can be obtained by steam distillation of the residue of grape tissue and fungus 
precipitate after fermentation (and distillation) of the alcoholic beverage. Water distillation is 
also applied directly to a slurry of the yeast residue in water. The aromatic principles in Cognac 
Oil are generally higher boiling esters of ethyl and iso-amyl alcohols, and they do not distil 
readily with the hydro-alcoholic mixture which is known as Cognac after proper maturing and 
ageing. 

The crude cognac oil may be redistilled to yield a very powerful aromatic which represents the 
maximum concentration of high-boiling esters from the cognac yeast precipitate. Cognac Oil is 
a pale yellow or greenish yellow, somewhat oily liquid of intensely strong, almost harsh-fruity, 
oily-fatty, yet green-herbaceous odor of outstanding tenacity and great diffusive power. 

The rectified oil is used in flavors and perfumes in trace amounts to give "lift" and fresh-fruity, 
natural notes, e.g. in liqueurs, fruit flavors, colognes, fougeres, after-shave fragrances, etc. It 
blends excellently with ambrette seed oil, amyl salicylate, bergamot, coriander, galbanum, 
lavender, linalool, sage clary, styrax, ylang-ylang, etc. The average use level in flavors would be 
about 0.50 mg% (in aqueous medium) and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.05 to 0.08 mg%. In 
cognac proper, the flavor of the 2 mg% of Cognac Oil is partly masked by the presence of 45 to 
56% of ethyl alcohol. When the cognac is diluted with water, it smells stronger of cognac oil. 

See also Rum. 

Cola. 

The Cola "nut" is one of the most important of all the essential-oil-free—and practically 
odorless —natural flavor materials. The botanical material which we call cola "nuts" are 
embryo-leaves from the seeds of the cola fruit. The fruit is obtained from a large tree, 

Sterculia Acuminata (or other Stercula species) originating in west Africa. The cola trees are 
now cultivated extensively in other tropical regions since it is too difficult to transport the 
fresh "nuts" over long distances. The fresh cola "nut" has been the indispensible tonic of the 
west African people from time immemorial. It can be packed in green banana leaves and kept 
fresh for many days during exhausting travels through jungles or across deserts. The active 
ingredient in the cola "nut" is Caffeine which also lends an intensely bitter taste to the "nut" 
when it is chewed. The "nut" is about the size of a. walnut, purple colored on the outside, 
white inside when it is fresh. The cola "nuts" are usually halved during the drying process. They 
become chocolate brown, hard as wood, and they lose part of their stimulant effect. 

Dried cola "nuts" are shipped all over the world. They are used in pharmaceutical 
preparations, in mild tonics, in non-alcoholic beverages and for the extraction of Caffeine. The 
ground or coarsely comminuted cola "nuts" are extracted with a weak ethyl alcohol or with 
hot water. In the latter case, a mild alkali is added in order to transform the caffeine into a less 
bitter substance, and to make it easier soluble in the aqueous extract. The extract is 
evaporated to a standard strength (one part of extract to be equivalent to one part of dry cola 


140 


"nut"), or the extract is evaporated completely to a dry extract which is approximately five 
times stronger than the crude botanical material. 

For the use of Cola in flavors it has certain advantages to add an edible, non-volatile solvent, 
such as propylene glycol to the extract during the evaporation which should be carried out 
under vacuum. By this method it is possible to produce a concentrated Cola-extract (two-fold 
or more) which is miscible with other flavor materials or with alcohol of reduced strength. 

Cola Glycol Concentrates are dark brown, clear and viscous liquids of bitter-woody but not 
unpleasant taste. The odor is typical of the amine-like or "animal" odor of the wet and 
pulverized cola "nuts". This "proteine" type of odor is also found in certain fractions of Atlas 
cedarwood oil. It vanishes completely when cola extracts are used in acid media and it is 
conceivable that this unpleasant odor is due to an alkaline substance. 

Cola Extracts are used in the Coca-Cola type of carbonated beverages in the flavor complex of 
coca, lime, cinnamon, ginger, orange peel and other natural materials. 

The Coca flavor is characterized by methyl salicylate, the main flavor principle in the 
decocainized Coca-leaf extract which is also used in the above popular beverage. 

Combava Petitgrain Oil. 

Among the numerous varieties of edible citrus fruits, many are known only in small or isolated 
areas where they have become not only a local variety, but also a local delicacy. A certain 
citrus tree in the Comoro islands northwest of Madagascar and in other nearby islands and in 
Madagascar itself produces large and very delicate fruits, locally known as combavas. 

It was not until recently that the perfumery industry became interested in this tree, Citrus 
Hystrix, varietas Combava. For obvious reasons the essential oil of the peel of these edible 
fruits of the tropics is rarely expressed or distilled. Fruits are used as part of everyday food. 

But when a local essential oil distillery undertook steam distillation of the leaves and twigs of 
this citrus variety, a new petitgrain oil was discovered: Combava Petitgrain Oil. The oil is 
distinguished by its very delicate sweetness and freshness which is distinctly different from 
bitter orange petitgrain or other well-known petitgrain oils. Still more interesting is it, that this 
oil contains laevo-Citronellal as one of its main constituents. It was hoped that the oil could 
thus become a new starting material for the production of laevo-Citronellol (by reduction), a 
perfume material sometimes called rhodinol. It is not possible at the present moment to 
predict the future of combava petitgrain oil, but the next decade will no doubt tell us. 

Combava Petitgrain Oil is a pale yellow to greenish yellow, mobile liquid of fresh-leafy, sweet- 
rosy odor, somewhat reminiscent of the odor of Guinea lemon petitgrain oil and eucalyptus 
citriodora oil. The flavor is, contrary to that of most other petitgrain oils, sweet and pleasant, 
fresh lemon-lime-like and when sufficiently diluted, it is without the perfumery note which one 
could expect from the known constituents of this oil. The Minimum Perceptible is about 0.02 
to 0.05 mg%, but at a suggested use-level of 0.50 mg% there are still little or no woody- 
perfumery notes perceptible in the flavor. The oil could possibly find application as a 


141 


freshener-modifier in citrus type flavors, etc., or in trace amounts as a bouquet material for 
raspberry, apple, etc. 

In perfumes the oil would probably be needed in larger concentration since it appears well fit 
for the soap and detergent type of fragrances. It could also find use as a modifier in citrus 
colognes and, generally, as a new topnote ingredient. 

The annual production of Combava Petitgrain Oil is still at the "upon demand" scale, but 
considerable quantities of botanical material is available for an increased production of the oil. 

The presence of Citronellol in certain other varieties of citrus leaf oils and peel oils is not 
uncommon. The essential oil from the peel of Citrus Hystrix, varietas torosa, contains a 
significant percentage of laevo-Citronellol although not enough to make an isolation 
economically attractive. This tree grows in the Philippine islands and may be the ancestor to 
the combava tree. Many of the utility trees and plants of the Philippines and Melanesia 
(ginger, lytchie, pepper, ylang-ylang, etc.) have been brought along by the immigrants to 
Madagascar, Nossi-Be and the Comores. The essential oil from the peel of Citrus Hystrix, var. 
torosa, is known in the Philippines as Colobot Oil and it is used locally for the perfuming of 
cosmetic preparations, etc. The author has no personal experience with the odor of Philippine 
Colobot Oil. 

Copaiba Balsam. 

Copaiba Balsam, also known as Copahu Balsam is one of the most "natural" (unprocessed) of 
all the natural perfume materials. It is used in perfumes exactly as it comes out of the tree, 
exactly as it occurs in nature. It is not a balsam according to the definitions given in Part One of 
this book (see Balsam). 

Copaiba Balsam is a natural oleoresin which occurs as a physiological product in various 
Copaifera species. These are large trees which grow wild in the northeastern and central South 
America. The chief producer is Brazil, and smaller amounts come from Venezuela, British 
Guiana, Surinam and Colombia. 

The oleoresin flows abundantly from large cavities in the trunks of these trees when holes are 
drilled for collection of the copaiba "balsam". 

Copaiba "Balsam" is a more or less viscous, brownish-yellow or grayish-greenish yellow liquid 
which dries to a hard and brittle resin upon exposure to air. The oleoresin is not always clear or 
translucent, but may be hazy due to its water content or to the continuous resinification of the 
essential oil part of the oleoresin, a process which starts already inside the trunk. The odor of 
the oleoresin is very faint, mild-woody, slightly spicy- peppery and modestly tenacious. The 
flavor is bitter and irritant. 

Since copaiba "balsam" is mainly used for its fixative properties, it is reasonable that the 
"balsams" with a low content of essential oil are preferred for this purpose ("Maracaibo 
balsam"). These copaibas contain about 30 to 50% of essential oil. "Balsams" with high (60 to 
80%) content of essential oil are used for the distillation of essential oil (see following 


142 


monograph). The resin which is left when the essential oil has been removed is odorless, and 
has no perfumery value beyond that of a fixative. Its high acid number is a drawback. 

Copaiba "Balsam" blends well with cinnamic alcohol, styrax, amyris oil, coumarin, lavandin oil, 
cedarwood oils, ionones and methylionones. nitromusks, and numerous other common 
perfumery materials. It is often used as a fixative in low-cost violet and wood perfumes, for 
lavender or fougeres in detergent perfumes, industrial perfumes, etc. 

The "balsam" is also used in the adulteration or "reproduction" of essential oils, and in the 
"cutting" of guaiacwood oil, amyris oil, patchouli oil, etc. (see also Gurjun Balsam). Copaiba 
"balsam" is produced in quantities of 50 to 90 tons annually, and it is one of the most 
inexpensive natural fixatives. 

Copaiba Balsam Oil. 

An essential oil is obtained by direct distillation (dry, in vacuum) of Copaiba "Balsam" (see 
previous monograph). It is customary to select the copaibas which contain a very high 
percentage of volatile oil for this purpose (Para balsams). Such balsams are less appreciated as 
commercial copaiba balsam since they dry out more slowly and yield less resin. For the same 
reason, they are poorer fixatives in perfumery, and thus the low-oil copaibas find their way 
into perfumery and porcelain-painting, etc., while the high-oil copaibas are distilled. Brazilian 
copaibas are in the latter category, Venezuelan copaibas in the former. 

Copaiba "Balsam" Oil (or Copaiba Oil) is a colorless or pale yellow to yellow-green or bluish, 
very mobile oil. The odor is similar to that of the "balsam", but much milder, sweeter, almost 
creamy-balsamic with a faint peppery-spicy undertone. There are notes which resemble 
furfuryl alcohol and cadinene, others may remind of the notes in Peru balsam oil. A very 
peculiar and complex, but very faint odor. 

Copaiba Oil finds some use in perfumery, but its fixative value is negligible and its contribution 
to the overall odor of a fragrance is questionable. Its main use is that of a blender-modifier. It 
blends well with cananga, ylang-ylang, heliotropine, hydroxy-citronellal, isoeugenol, vanillin, 
ionones and methylionones, sandalwood oil, jasmin absolute (!), amylcinnamic aldehyde, etc. 
The oil is used in pine fragrances, woody bases, violet perfumes, spice fragrances, etc., and its 
low cost and good availability makes it popular for some of these purposes. However, it is still 
missing from many a perfumer's shelf, and it is unlikely that the oil will ever arouse any 
particular interest. Only its low price will keep it from becoming completely obsolete. 

Copaiba "Balsam" Oil can be used in the "reproduction" of certain essential oils and to 
"correct" the physico-chemical properties of such oils. In this respect, Gurjun Balsam has been 
even more outstanding. 

Coriander Oil. 

Coriander Oil is steam distilled from the dried fully ripe fruits (seed) of Coriandrum Sativum, a 
small herb native to southeastern Europe. The fruits are crushed immediately prior to 
distillation. The coriander herb grows not only wild, but is cultivated extensively all over the 
world: U.S.S.R., Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Morocco, 


143 


Spain, Yugoslavia, Roumania, Turkey, Norway, England, India, Mexico, Guatemala, Argentina, 
etc. 

Distillation takes place mainly in the U.S.S.R., Poland, Hungary, Holland, France, and England. 
Fruits from India and Morocco are distilled in the U.S.A. by a few companies which specialize in 
such work. Consequently, it is difficult to estimate the actual production of Coriander Fruit Oil. 
But with an annual production of more than 20,000 metric tons of coriander fruit, and an 
estimated use of 15% for distillation, a rough figure of 20 metric tons of annual world 
production of coriander fruit oil seems conceivable. It must be kept in mind that a tremendous 
amount of coriander seed (fruit) goes into certain classic spice blends, particularly those of the 
"Indian Curry" type, and this spice blend has not yet been replaced by any liquid essential oil 
mixture. The distillation of Coriander Fruit Oil presents at least two kinds of problems: a 
physical and a chemical problem: 

Physical problem: The seed contains 0.7% essential oil if it is the correct quality of coriander. In 
addition, it contains 25% fixed oil (fatty, vegetable oil). In other words, the crushed mass of 
fruits in the still contains 25% oil, of which only 3% is volatile. The aromatic seed is rather 
bulky. One metric ton of crushed coriander in a 4500 litres (1200 U.S. gall.) still will yield 7 kilos 
(15 Zi lbs.) of coriander oil, and this amount of oil requires many thousand kilos of steam to be 
liberated. Furthermore, coriander oil is slightly soluble in water. 

Chemical problem: The principal constituent, dextro-linalool, is a tertiary terpene alcohol 
which also occurs as an acetate in the oil. Linalylacetate is easily hydrolyzed, and linalool 
readily undergoes a molecular rearrangement, particularly when exposed even to very weak 
acids. 

Coriander Fruit Oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a pleasant sweet, somewhat 
woodyspicy, aromatic-candylike odor. The floral- balsamic undertone and peppery-woody, 
suave top- note are characteristic features of this delightful fragrance. 

The flavor of coriander fruit oil is mild, sweet and spicy-aromatic, yet somewhat warm, very 
slightly burning. In flavor compositions, it blends well with anise, cardamom, bergamot, clove, 
sage clary nutmeg, etc., or with sweet-fruity bases such as peach, cherry, plum, etc. The 
combination with bergamot oil is well known from hard candy flavors. The oil is used 
extensively in flavors for alcoholic beverages, candy, tobacco, pickles, meat sauces, seasonings, 
etc. A suggested use level would be around 0.30 to 1.00 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 
0.05 to 0.10 mg. These figures are based upon true and genuine, good coriander oils. Poor 
grade oils may easily show four times higher figures. In perfumery, its warm and sweet notes 
blend equally well with sage clary and bergamot in colognes, with floral notes in jasmin, lilac, 
apple blossom, honeysuckle, etc., and with olibanum and Ceylon cinnamon, it may produce 
highly interesting effects in perfumes of the "Oriental" type. The oil blends well with neroli, 
petitgrain, citronellol, nerol, sandalwood oil, cananga oil, calamus oil, ginger oil, cypress oil, 
pinus pumilio oil, decylalcohol, decylpropionate, aliphatic aldehydes, citral, etc. The use of 
coriander oil in tobacco flavors has also brought the oil into a position as an interesting 
modifier in "tabac" type perfumes. 


144 



The main constituents of Coriander Fruit Oil are readily available as synthetic chemicals. 
Consequently, the oil is frequently adulterated. Certain essential oil houses even make it a rule 
to "cut" their coriander oil with 20% synthetic (or isolated) linalool prior to resale. Small 
amounts of bouquetting materials are added: decyl aldehyde, decyl alcohol, linalylacetate, 
phellandrene, limonene, etc. Only a thorough olfactory investigation and knowledge of the 
true oil (or of the botanical proper) will enable the perfumer to judge between true and false 
oils. An organoleptic test is particularly useful for the flavor chemist in detecting even minor 
additions of natural or unnatural constituents. The author has yet to see an artificial or 
adulterated coriander oil which displays a more powerful flavor (in respect to coriander flavor) 
than a true, good grade coriander oil. 

Adulteration with Coriander Herb Oil may occur, but since the pure herb oil consists almost 
entirely of Decylaldehyde, only small amounts can be used for the cutting of the fruit oil where 
this aldehyde occurs in traces. However, the herb oil could very likely find use in perfumery 
because of its interesting and powerful odor. But decylaldehyde is now produced synthetically 
at a very low price, and the herb oil cannot serve as an economical source of this perfume 
material. 

Costus Absolute. 

Costus extracts have been manufactured on a smaller scale in France and a few other 
countries for several decades. The raw material is the Costus root, see description under 
Costus Oil Substantial quantities of the root are still exported from the Himalayan areas to 
perfume houses all over the world for distillation or extraction. 

The Costus root contains certain very high boiling aromatic materials. Accordingly it requires a 
lengthy distillation which is harmful in general to most constituents of essential oils. Extraction 
with hydrocarbon solvents (benzene or petroleum ether) at modest temperature will produce 
a concrete of a rich and true-to-nature odor. An absolute is produced from the concrete by the 
conventional alcohol extraction method. The Concrete is commercially called Costus Resinoid. 
The costus root which has been steam distilled for essential oil is occasionally extracted with a 
volatile solvent. This second extraction yields a resinous and faintly aromatic material which 
unfortunately is used as a "cutting" agent for true Costus Resinoid. Other so-called Costus 
"Resins" are merely residues from the rectification of costus oil. An Anhydrol of Costus is 
commercially available. It is a molecular distillate of costus root extract. A neutral solvent is co¬ 
distilled with the extract. 

Costus Absolute is a semi-solid mass or very viscous liquid of pale amber or brownish-amber 
color. Its odor is similar to that of the essential oil but it appears at first much weaker and less 
harsh The odor of the absolute is strikingly similar to that of the root itself—to those who have 
had the opportunity of smelling the root material. The odor of the absolute is soft, sweet- 
woody and fatty without any unpleasant "harsh" or "rancid- fatty" notes. The tenacity of this 
odor is tremendous and its fixative value can hardly be overestimated. 

Costus Absolute is available at a quite attractive cost thanks to the fact that the yield of 
alcohol- soluble absolute by extraction of the concrete (or "resinoid") from costus root is 
almost the same as the yield of essential oil by steam distillation. However, only an increased 


145 


demand will bring the price of the absolute down near the cost-level of the essential oil. The 
trend in perfumery raw material production is steadily going toward the extracted products 
rather than the distilled ones. This is particularly true when the problem is "expensive" 
perfume materials. Several Grasse factories specialize in extracting practically any natural raw 
material to produce a perfume material. 

Costus Absolute and Costus Concrete (costus "resinoid") are used in similar perfume 
combinations as those described under Costus Oil. 

Costus Oil. 

Costus Oil is steam distilled from the comminuted, dried roots of Saussurea Lappa, a large 
impressive plant which is found growing wild in the Himalayan highlands at high altitude. The 
plant has been introduced in the southwestern parts of the highlands, and is found also in 
southern China, i.e. on both sides of the Himalaya. Only recently, the roots have been 
submitted to distillation in India. Earlier, the oil was produced in places outside the origin of 
the plant. 

Prior to distillation, the roots are not only comminuted, but also macerated in water. The 
distillation is then a combination of water- and steam-distillation. This is similar to some 
vetiver distillations. The oil does not separate well from the condensed water, partly because 
of the fact that its specific gravity is almost the same as that of water, partly because of water- 
solubility of certain components of the oil. The oil is actually extracted from the distillation 
waters by means of hydrocarbon solvents, usually benzene. (See also Manevoro oil and certain 
other oils which are produced in a similar way). 

Costus Oil is a pale yellow to brownish yellow, very viscous liquid. It has a peculiar soft, but 
extremely tenacious odor, reminiscent of old, precious wood, orris root, fatty (but not rancid) 
acids, vetiverol, etc., with a distinctly animal or sebaceous undertone. The odor has been 
compared to that of human hair, fur coats or "wet dogs". The latter description is often heard 
from people who smell costus oil for the first time. It is certain that not all people will like this 
odor. 

In surprisingly small concentrations, Costus Oil will induce warm, woody and "natural" notes 
to a perfume; however, this is limited to certain perfume types, e.g. Oriental bases, chypres, 
violet bases, certain floral fragrances, etc., and many types of the "modern-aldehydic" theme. 
The oil blends well with alpha-decanolide (various isomers), cinnamic alcohol, flouve oil, 
isoeugenol, methylionones, decylpropionate, nitromusks, patchouli, opopanax, oakmoss, etc. 
Overdoses of costus oil may easily produce obnoxious effects, and the power of this oil is often 
under-estimated. Similar in effect to angelica root oil, Costus Oil has the peculiar ability of 
producing diffusive power and intriguing topnotes, and at the same time it works effectively as 
a fixative of unusual tenacity. 

Only a good knowledge and experience, including knowledge of the botanical raw material, 
will enable the perfumer to choose a genuine costus oil from among the many poor ones 
which are offered. Although the selection of raw materials— and natural materials in 
particular—for the use in perfumes and flavors is mainly a matter of esthetics, it is still an 


146 


advantage to know when a natural raw material is genuine and unadulterated. (See 
monograph Adulteration in Part One of this book). 

Costus Oil is quite expensive, and accordingly subject to frequent and extensive adulteration. 
Elecampane root oil, distilled from the roots of a related plant, is available in most parts of the 
world, and it presents certain notes which can be compared to those of costus oil. However, it 
does not have the typical fatty-sebaceous, animal- like notes. Elecampane Oil, in turn, is also 
adulterated (see monograph on this oil). The selection of a good costus oil thus becomes quite 
complicated and problematic. 

In spite of all this, Costus Oil is regularly produced in substantial quantities, estimated at 6 to 
12 metric tons per year. India is the main producer, but good oils in considerable quantities are 
also distilled in Europe, particularly in Grasse, from Indian roots. Occasionally, the oil from 
Indian roots is distilled in the U.S.A. Large quantities of Indian costus root are shipped to China 
and other countries in the Far East for use among the population as a "factotum" remedy and 
house-scent. 

Elecampane and other, similar plants grow in China and are distilled locally. This is another 
source for the "on-the-spot" adulteration of costus oil. 

The constituents of costus oil are mainly very high boiling sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene 
alcohols. Among a number of ketones found in costus oil are alpha- and beta ionone, which 
occur in nature very rarely (see Boronia, Cassie, Chloranthus Spicatus, etc.). Ketons and 
lactones are held responsible for the peculiar odor of costus oil. 

See also Costus Absolute, previous monograph. 

Cryptomeria Japonica. 

Cryptomeria Japonica Oil is occasionally known as Sugi Oil or Japanese Cedarwood Oil, see 
also the monographs on Cedarwood Oil, Japanese and Chamaecyparis Obtusa. 

Various essential oils can be obtained from the cypress-like Japanese tree, Cryptomeria 
Japonica: 

Root Oil, Bark Oil and Leaf Oil. Only the Root Oil has obtained any significant interest for the 
perfume industry. The roots are readily available since the fragrant wood of the above tree is 
used extensively in the local production of beer- barrels. The bark oil and the leaf oil have been 
produced experimentally in Japan. 

Sugi Root Oil is produced in quantities of about 5 to 10 metric tons per year, and only in Japan 
(figures from 1958). The oil is colorless to pale yellow or pale olive-green. Its odor is 
woodycedarlike with a faint peppery undertone, not unlike Atractylis Oil (which is much more 
pungent) or Araucaria Oil (which is much milder). The oil consists almost entirely of 
sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols. 

Sugi Root Oil is used locally in soap perfumes for its good fixative value, equivalent to the use 
of cedarwood oils elsewhere. Little, if any, Sugi Root Oil is exported and the oil has no 
importance for the perfume industry outside of Japan. 


147 


See also Machilus Oil. 


Cubeb Oil. 

Cubeb Oil is steam distilled from the unripe, dried, crushed fruits of Piper Cubeba, a climbing 
vine similar to the pepper plant. The plant is a native of the greater Sunda Islands (Indonesia) 
where it is commonly grown on coffee and cocoa plantations. Cubeb is also cultivated in 
Ceylon, on the Malayan peninsula and on a number of Far Eastern islands. The fruits are 
harvested before they are ripe; this explains the wrinkled surface of the dried fruits. A short 
piece of stem is usually left on the fruit which also bears the name of "Tailed Pepper". 

Distillation takes place almost exclusively in Europe and the U.S.A. Considerable quantities of 
cubebs are locally consumed as a spice, and a great number of other species of this family are 
also cultivated in the same areas, mainly for local use as spice. This fact, however, has lead to 
very frequent contamination, not to speak of adulteration, of the berries as such. It takes quite 
a bit of experience to distinguish between true cubebs and the many false varieties, etc. The 
so-called "Singapore-seed" is generally preferred for distillation. 

Importers of cubeb will be very disappointed after an initial trial distillation if their cubeb lot 
was false or a poor mixture. Not only is the essential oil from these cubeb-resembling varieties 
of very little value, but the yield of oil from most of these false cubebs is usually much lower 
than the yield from the genuine berries. 

Cubeb Oil is a pale greenish-yellow to bluish- yellow, occasionally almost colorless, somewhat 
viscous oil. The presence of blue or greenish-blue color usually indicates that the distillation 
has been carried through to the very highest boiling constituents of the oil (azulenes and 
related hydrocarbons). During the distillation, one can observe a distinct ammoniacal odor in 
the condensate. This is also observed during the distillation of black pepper, allspice, ginger, 
and numerous other oils. Although this phenomenon has not been officially explained, it 
seems conceivable that proteins (which are amines) in the plant material may be hydrolytically 
decomposed during the distillation, probably due to the presence of certain activators in these 
particular botanicals. The annual world production of true cubeb oil is difficult to estimate, but 
probably does not exceed 10 metric tons. 

The odor of Cubeb Oil is very dry-woody, but simultaneously warm-camphoraceous, spicy- 
peppery. The odor should be free from the very light pepper-like characteristic found in black 
pepper and elemi oils, and it should rather present the heavy-woody peppery notes found in 
guaiacwood. atractylis, araucaria, schinus molle, etc. The closest approach to the cubeb oil 
odor in a single perfume material is probably found in the oil of Cedrela Odorata. The flavor of 
cubeb oil is warm, but bitter, hardly pungent at all. Accordingly, cubeb oil is only rarely used in 
flavors, occasionally in spice blends. Cubeb Oleoresin (see following monograph) is preferred 
in flavor work. 

Cubeb Oil, consisting mainly of sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene alcohols and minor quantities of 
monoterpenes, etc., is useful in soap perfumes where it may lend "peppery" undertones and 
warm-woody character. Black pepper oil would be almost wasted if thus used. Cubeb oil is also 
very useful in the creation of woody-peppery perfume bases, carnation perfumes, and in the 


148 


"construction" of artificial essential oils. The oil blends well with cananga oil, cinnamic alcohol, 
clove stem oil, coumarin, eugenol, galbanum, isoeugenol, lavandin oil, rosemary oil, etc. 

Cubeb Oil itself is frequently subject to adulteration, e.g. additions of clove leaf oil 
sesquiterpenes, cedrela oil, copaiba oil, schinus molle oil, etc., and fractions of other essential 
oils. False cubebs, e.g. Piper Crassipes (see monograph) are, however, the most frequent 
cause of a poor grade of Cubeb Oil. 

Cubeb Oleoresin. 

Cubeb Oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin for flavor use. It is produced from the dried, unripe, 
coarsely powdered cubeb fruit (see Cubeb Oil) by extraction with a hydrocarbon solvent or 
with ethyl alcohol. According to the definition in Part One of this book, the alcohol extract is a 
Resin Absolute. In pharmaceutical terms it is an extract of unusually high essential oil content. 
Alcohol is usually preferred as a solvent since it is quite difficult to remove the solvent 
quantitatively— even under good vacuum. The extract is used in flavors and should not have 
any trace of hydrocarbon solvent. Prolonged exposure to heat and reduced pressure will 
inevitably cause a loss of aromatic components of the oil in the extract. 

Cubeb Oleoresin is produced almost exclusively in Europe (particularly in England) and in the 
U.S.A. The most recently developed extraction methods are applied to cubeb (and other 
spices) in Grasse factories. This includes the Ultrasonic extraction method, see Ultrasonic 
Extracts, Part One of this book. 

When alcohol is used as a menstruum for the extraction of cubeb fruits, the resulting oleoresin 
will be free from waxes and fatty oils. Upon standing for 24 hours this alcohol extract will 
deposit a crystalline mass and some waxes. The crystalline mass consists mainly of cubebin, a 
bitter principle. A clear, viscous oleoresin in then obtained by draining the extract through a 
funnel with absorbent cotton. The cubebin and the waxy deposit are of no value to the 
flavorist. Good alcohol-oleoresins of cubeb are accordingly clear, homogeneous and viscous 
liquids. Hydrocarbon extracts tend to deposit very slowly a grainy, waxy substance. 

The odor of Cubeb Oleoresin is warm-spicy, peppery-camphoraceous with a rich, herbaceous 
undertone. The flavor is equally warm and spicy, peppery but not very pungent. Hydrocarbon 
solvent extracted oleoresins are usually bitter of taste. The oleoresin produces slowly a 
burning mouthfeel. It is primarily a flavor material and it finds some application in spice blends 
for pickles, meat sauces, etc. It is also used in certain countries for the flavoring of shag (pipe) 
tobacco along with many other flavor ingredients. 

Cubeb Oleoresin is not produced on a large scale but it seems to be available in sufficient 
quantities as to cover the small demand. The main constituent of cubeb oleoresin is Cubeb Oil 
which is present to the amount of 50 to 55% (see monograph on Cubeb Oil). The oleoresin 
blends well with oleoresin of black pepper, clove, allspice etc. in combination spice blends. It 
has little or no use in perfumery. 


149 


Cumin Absolute. 


From Cumin fruits (seed) an Oleoresin can be prepared the usual way (see Oleoresin, Part One 
of this book), and by alcohol-washing of the oleoresin an Absolute of Cumin is produced. 

Cumin Absolute is a dark olive-brown or dark yellow, viscous liquid of a powerful, but 
delicately mellow and round, green-spicy odor, very closely reminiscent of the odor of the 
crushed seed from which it is derived. The absolute has a striking resemblance to curry powder 
in its complex and exciting fragrance. Cumin seed is an important ingredient in curry powder. 

The extracted product seems to contain more of the sweet notes from the extractive plant 
matter than does the essential oil. This fact makes the absolute superior to the oil in flavor 
work. The essential oil is extremely volatile and of tremendous diffusive power, while the 
absolute displays a richer, softer, true-to-nature cumin seed character. 

The suggested use level for Cumin Absolute is about 0.20 to 1.00 mg%, and the Minimum 
Perceptible is 0.05 to 0.10 mg%. The figures are somewhat higher than those for the essential 
oil. 

Cumin absolute is produced on a very limited scale only, but the advantage of its use in flavor 
compositions, particularly in extracts for pickles, etc., is obvious. It is very conceivable that 
cumin absolute will be a common item in future price lists. In perfumes, the intense color of 
the absolute is only a minor drawback, considering the minute amounts necessary for 
obtaining "green-spicy" effects. The absolute needs less fixation than does the essential oil, 
and cumin absolute blends excellently with oakmoss absolute, lavandin absolute, galbanum 
resinoid, etc. in lavender-fougeres, chypres, aldehydic bases, etc. 

For details of botanical origin, etc., see Cumin Oil. 

Cumin Oil. 

This oil is distilled from the dried, ripe fruit (seed) of Cuminum Cyminum, known as "Roman 
Caraway", a small herb originating in the Middle East. The cumin seed belongs to the group of 
very old spices whose history of use can be traced back thousands of years. To-day it still is one 
of the important ingredients in the ever-popular "Indian Curry Powder". 

The plant is cultivated in its native area, in Cyprus, Lebanon, Morocco, Malta, Turkey, Spain, 
U.S.S.R., China and, on a small scale, in Central America. Distillation is performed in India, in 
Europe and in the U.S.A. The fruits are crushed immediately prior to the steam distillation. The 
problems connected with the distillation of Cumin Oil are similar to those encountered in the 
production of other essential oils from fruits of umbellifer species: 

1) a high content of fatty (fixed) oil which is partly distillable and forms emulsion, 

2) proteins which are decomposed and produce putrid odors, 

3) an essential oil which is partly water-soluble. Cohobation of the distillation waters is 
necessary. 


150 


The yield, however, is quite encouraging in the case of Cumin Oil. Cumin Oil is a pale yellow to 
brownish yellow liquid; it occasionally displays a greenish tint. Dark-colored oils may have been 
stored in iron containers or under poor conditions. The oil is quite sensitive to daylight, air, 
moisture and metals as well as to alkali. Its odor is extremely powerful, diffusive, green-spicy, 
slightly fatty, but at the same time not sharp or pungent, almost soft and mellow. This softness 
is one of the main features of a true oil, and is very hard to duplicate when making an artificial 
oil with a similar content of Cumin Aldehyde (the main constituent of cumin oil). The synthetic 
aldehyde has a very sharp odor of cumin type, far from mellow or pleasant. The characteristic 
odor and flavor of cumin oil is probably due to its minor constituents such as 
Dihydrocuminaldehyde and various monoterpenes. 

The flavor of cumin oil is spicy-herbaceous, faintly pungent and fatty-green, not pleasant in 
high concentrations. The suggested use level is 0.20 to 0.50 mg%, and the Minimum 
Perceptible is 0.02 to 0.05 mg%. A powerful flavor material. 

As previously noted, a freshly distilled Cumin Oil presents a peculiar, putrid odor, recalling 
sulfides and/or amines on top of its true fragrance. Similar topnotes are encountered in freshly 
steam distilled fruits of other umbellifers and in black pepper oil (ammoniacal odor), etc. It is 
conceivable that such odors represents trace amounts of decomposition products from 
proteins, etc., in the endosperm of the seeds. However, most cumin oils offered in the market 
do not possess this type of odor. Obviously, such oils have been "treated" somehow, or 
"doctored up" to eliminate or mask the off-odor. For those who have observed an actual 
distillation, however, the presence of these typical by-odors is often a valuable criterion in 
determining whether or not an oil is genuine. 

Cumin Oil is used in perfumes in trace amounts to introduce green-spicy and green-woody 
top- notes, particularly in the woody-floral perfume types, Oriental bases, mimosa, cassie, 
violet, etc. It is also used for "special effects" in modern aldehydic fragrances, etc. and for its 
unusual diffusive power. The oil blends well with lavandin, rosemary, galbanum, oakmoss, bois 
de rose oil, etc. and it performs well in soap although it may discolor a white soap tablet visibly 
after a few months of ageing. 

In flavors, the oil may replace the fruits (except in curry powder), and it is generally used for 
seasonings, pickles, meat sauces, etc. Cumin Oil is very frequently adulterated with or even 
substituted for by artificial cumin oil, based upon Cuminaldehyde, cymene, etc. Only a 
thorough olfactory and organoleptic analysis will reveal such adulterations to the experienced 
perfumer flavorist. See also Cumin Absolute. 

Curacao Peel Oil. 

The essential oil which is generally offered under the above name is the hand-pressed oil from 
the peel of green (immature) bitter oranges. The green peels are also dried and sold to 
botanical and pharmaceutical houses under the name of Jacmel or Jacmal orange peels 
(quartered or halved). These peels are produced in the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica 
where also the ordinary bitter orange oil is produced (see Orange Oil, Bitter). The true 
Curacao peel is derived from a variety of the bitter orange tree, the so-called "varietas 
curassaviensis". This tree is cultivated in the tiny island of Curacao, off the north coast of South 


151 


America. The island is part of the Dutch West Indies. The true Curacao peel is slightly smaller 
than the jacmal peel and the Curacao peel is much stronger in aroma. It is doubtful, however, 
if any essential oil at all is produced from the true Curacao peel. The larger part of the 
production of Curacao and Jacmal peels are shipped to Europe and the U.S.A. for preparation 
of tinctures and flavor extracts. These are used in flavor compositions for liqueurs of the 
"Curacao" type, "Triple Sec", "Grand Marnier", etc. 

True Curacao Peel Oil is an olive-green, mobile liquid of powerful, fresh and rich, grapelike 
citrus-peel odor reminiscent of expressed lime oil, petitgrain oil and bitter orange oil, however, 
the odor of the curacao oil is slightly sweeter, almost perfumery. The essential oil of the peel is 
justly replaced by an alcoholic tincture which is more stable and which contains less terpenes. 
The purchase of true Curacao peel requires great experience. The author was unable to 
confirm any local production of Curacao Peel Oil in 1959 in the Dutch West Indies, and it is 
conceivable that the oil is not produced on a commercial scale, if the true oil is produced at all 
anymore. 

Curcuma Oil. 

The plant, Curcuma Longa, is related to the ginger plant which it also resembles. Curcuma is a 
native of the south Asian countries where it has been known and used for thousands of years 
as a spice and as a common house medicine. The plant is now cultivated extensively in India, 
Indonesia, southeast China, Formosa, the Philippines, Indochina and Japan. Distillation of oil 
takes place in India, China, Japan in or near the growing areas. Imported rhizomes of the 
curcuma plant are distilled in Europe and the U.S.A. 

Curcuma Oil is produced by steam distillation of the dried, comminuted rhizomes ("tubers") of 
the curcuma plant. The finely powdered rhizome is also used directly as a spice which is known 
under the name of Turmeric. This ingredient is responsible for the intensely yellow color of the 
world famous "Indian Curry Powder". This yellow color is particularly visible when moisture or 
water is present (in gravies, etc.). Curry powder is usually made up from capsicum (or paprika), 
black pepper, ginger, coriander, cardamom, clove, allspice, cinnamon, nutmeg, etc. This spice 
blend is used all over the world in hundreds of international or local dishes, but above all the 
Indonesian "rijstafel" is spiced with curry powder and numerous other pungent additives. At 
wedding ceremonies in Indonesia the bride and groom tint their arms and waists with a dye of 
curcuma. 

Curcuma Oil is a yellow to dark orange-yellow liquid which occasionally shows a faintly blue 
fluorescence. The odor is usually spicy and fresh, reminiscent of sweet orange, ginger and 
galanga. The flavor is slightly pungent and bitter except in extreme dilution. The odor of 
Japanese curcuma oil is warm, dry-woody, powdery, camphoraceous and slightly peppery- 
spicy with a peculiar undertone reminiscent of the odor of Atlas cedarwood oil. The flavor of 
the Japanese oil is bitter, spicy and slightly burning. Curcuma Oil finds comparatively little use 
in flavor work since curry powder has not yet been replaced by a mixture of the respective 
essential oils or oleoresins. 

Curcuma oil can be used in certain types of perfumes where it introduces warm-woody, dry- 
powdery tonalities in Oriental bases and fantasy fragrances, etc. The oil blends well with 


152 


cananga oil, cistus oil, elecampane, ginger, labdanum, orris "resin", etc. and with heliotropine, 
ionones, methylionones, nitromusks, etc. Although the spice itself is so extremely widely 
known, the essential oil seems to have failed to catch the interest of most perfumers and 
flavorists. The annual world production of Curcuma Oil is adjusted to the modest demand, 
which is estimated at not more than a few metric tons. 

A Curcuma Absolute is produced on demand by various Grasse houses and by a few 
internationally known specialists in spice extraction. See also Curcuma Oleoresin. 

Curcuma rhizomes are known in Europe under various names which can be translated as 
"yellow root". This name should not be confused with the American "yellowroot" which 
unfortunately also bears the name of "Indian turmeric" (note: American-lndian!). The 
American plant has the botanical name Hydrastis Canadensis. The rhizome of this plant 
contains two alkaloids of doubtful therapeutic effect. The plant which resembles the wind¬ 
flower (anemone), was used by the American Indians as a stomachic tonic, etc., and it is still 
used in world-wide medicine for its dubious hemostatic effect. 

Curcuma Oleoresin. 

This flavor material is produced from the Curcuma rhizome (see Curcuma Oil) by extraction 
with a volatile solvent, usually petroleum ether, ethyl ether or, in special cases with diluted 
ethyl alcohol. The hydro-alcoholic extract can be considered as similar to the conventional 
pharmaceutical extract of curcuma. 

The hydrocarbon-solvent extracts of curcuma are not soluble in water. The hydro-alcoholic 
extract is soluble in diluted alcohol but not in concentrated alcohol, nor in water. A well-known 
hydro-alcoholic extract is marketed under the brand name of Tumerol (not to be confused 
with the sesquiterpene alcohol turmerol. The extract contains mainly Turmerone which is the 
ketone corresponding to turmerol). 

Curcuma Oleoresin is a dark yellow to brownish- yellow, viscous mass of faint odor 
reminiscent of the odor of the spice. Solvent odor should not be perceptible. The oleoresin is 
used in flavor work as a replacement for the powdered rhizome. It is by far superior in this 
respect to the essential oil of curcuma. The flavor of the oleoresin is richer, more woody- 
sweet, free from terpene-like notes, resembling ginger oleoresin but less pungent than this. 

An Absolute of Curcuma has been produced from the oleoresin by the usual alcohol-washing 
method. The absolute is a viscous, brownish- yellow liquid. Its odor resembles that of the oil 
but the absence of terpenes in the absolute is distinctly perceptible in its odor: a soft, spicy- 
woody, warm and mellow, tenacious fragrance. It blends excellently with cassie, mimosa, 
methylionones, cedar- wood derivatives, sage clary, heliotropine, etc. 

Curcuma Absolute is not a regularly produced flavor and perfume material. 


153 


Cymbidium Virescens. 

The essential oil of Cymbidium Virescens is a comparatively recent product in the Chinese 
perfume oil industry. The oil is not yet available all over the world. It is used in southeastern 
China for the perfuming of cosmetic preparations. 

The plant is a multiflowered orchid from tropical China and from the Philippines. It represents 
one of the comparatively few examples of fragrant orchids. See also Sulpitia Orsuami under 
the monograph of Perilla Oil. 

The author has no personal experience with the essential oil of Cymbidium Virescens. 

Cymbopogon Connatus. 

The east African grass Cymbopogon Connatus is related to citronella, gingergrass and 
inchigrass (see these monographs). The plant is locally known as "sar saharu" which means 
something like: "desert grass". It grows in the western parts of north-Abyssinia (formerly called 
Erithrea) and into the eastern parts of southern Sudan (Kassala province). 

A great deal of research was carried out on the agricultural aspects of these areas during the 
Italian occupation of the Abyssinian area. Encouraging remarks on the above essential oil can 
be found in the reports which are now more than 30 years old. Experiments have been 
recommenced lately and the perfumery industry has also shown an increasing interest in 
essential oils which can supply new notes for creative perfumery. The presence of about 40% 
of Dihydro Cuminyl Alcohol in the essential oil of Cymbopogon Connatus makes it 
immediately interesting as a source for the isolation of this alcohol which is also known as 
Perilla Alcohol. 

The odor of cymbopogon connatus oil is intensely fatty-green, spicy-fresh with a sweeter 
dryout and a strongly herbaceous undertone. The oil is olive-green to yellowish green and 
mobile, but its viscosity increases on ageing. 

During the author's visit to the above mentioned areas in 1956, he had the impression that a 
confusion between two or more species of Cymbopogon was very possible. A related plant, 
Cymbopogon Schoenanthus, subspecies nervatus, grows abundantly in the Kordofan province 
alongside and east of the blue Nile. This area is adjacent to the above mentioned home of 
Cymbopogon Connatus. The cymbopogon schoenanthus subspecies nervatus produces an 
essential oil of very similar composition (it consists mainly of dihydro cuminyl alcohol and 
laevo-limonene). This oil smells almost exactly like the sample of Cymbopogon Connatus Oil 
which was submitted to the author later on. 

Being unaware of the above facts at the moment of his study trip, the author would prefer 
now to avoid a definite statement in respect to the possible confusion between the two oils. 

However, the fact remains that we have at our possible disposal a highly interesting source of 
a powerful perfume raw material. The essential oil of Cymbopogon Connatus could 
furthermore find some use "as is" in perfumery. It lends a certain naturalness and freshness 
together with its outstanding diffusive power. In the reproduction of "missing" notes in 


154 


artificial essential oils, the oil would no doubt attract the perfumer who works on artificial 
bergamot oil, ylang-ylang, jasmin, etc. 

The essential oil of Cymbopogon Connatus can be produced at a low cost and in large 
amounts. 

See also Inchigrass Oil. 

Cyperus Oil. 

Various essential oils from the roots of certain tropical grasses appear on the perfumery 
market under the above name. The greater part of these oils are used locally, but one seems 
to have obtained more than local interest: 

The essential oil of the rootlets of Cyperius Scariosus (or cyperus scariosus) is marketed under 
the brand name of Cypriol in India. The oil has been known for many decades in its home 
country where the roots are used in the same way as vetiver roots for the scenting of sari's 
and other women's clothing. The grass is locally known as Nagar Mustaka. 

Cypriol is produced by steam distillation of roots and rhizomes after proper washing, drying 
and comminuting, similar to the treatment of vetiver rootlets. The distillation is a lengthy 
process since all the volatile constituents of this botanical material are high-boiling: 
sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene alcohols, sesquiterpene ketones, etc. —a composition very 
similar to that of vetiver oil. 

Oil of Cyperus Scariosus ("Cypriol") is an amber colored or light brown viscous liquid of woody- 
earthy and very tenacious odor. The very first impression of the odor of this oil bears great 
resemblance to the odor-impression of the "Oriental" cinnamon-olibanum complex: diffusive, 
dry, woody, slightly spicy. The overall body- note resembles that of Virginia cedarwood and 
vetiver oils, but toward the dryout there is a strong similarity to vetiver in sweet-woody and 
rich undertones. Apart from the excitingly fresh topnote this oil is distinguished by a firm 
uniformity in odor throughout all stages of evaporation. 

Cypriol blends well with bergamot, labdanum, patchouli, sage clary, etc. for dry ambre notes 
which can be further enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of "fixateur 404" or the 
complex "grisambrol", etc. Cypriol is useful in perfumes or bases of the woody, Oriental or dry- 
ambre types, in heavy fougeres, in hyacinth (along with galbanum resinoid), in forest notes 
and in general as a fixative. In higher concentrations it will display its peculiar, soft-woody note 
and intriguing topnotes. The relatively low cost of this oil makes it attractive even in soap 
perfumery where its odor-tenacity and stability come to their right. 

Cypriol is produced on a limited scale by one producer in India. The annual production is 
perhaps in excess of 2 metric tons, but this figure could easily be increased since the natural 
raw material is abundantly at hand. 

Among the other Cyperus species which grow in tropical and semi-tropical regions all over the 
world, only a few have caught the perfumer's interest: 


155 


Oil of Cyperus Rotundus (in French: "souchet rond") is steam distilled from the rootlets of a 
grass which grows in China, India, Japan and scattered over parts of Sudan south of Sahara. 

The African Cyperus Rotundus is, to the author's knowledge, not distilled locally. Shipments of 
the rootlets arrive irregularly in Europe where an essential oil is distilled upon demand for 
certain perfume houses. 

Cyperus Rotundus Oil is a yellowish or amber- colored to dark orange-brown (locally distilled 
oil) or pale yellow-brown (European distilled) viscous liquid. Its odor is quite interesting. The 
topnote is almost floral-woody, resembling cassie and boronia with a violet-like or tea-like 
warmth. The odor becomes drier and more woody, borneole-like, camphor-like but it remains 
faintly floral throughout the long-lasting dryout. The oil blends well with mimosa absolute, 
cassie, costus, methylionones, isoeugenol, oakmoss absolute, sage clary, etc. 

There are some facts which confirm the possibility of confusion of this oil with vetiver oil from 
certain parts of Africa. Small shipments of southwest African vetiver oil arrive occasionally in 
Europe. These oils often display quite abnormal physical constants, such as strong laevo- 
rotation and very high ester number. Some of the Cyperus oils are naturally laevo-rotatory and 
they do have odor types similar to that of vetiver oil, however, more to the dry, cedarwood¬ 
like type. 

The grass Cyperus Rotundus is very abundant in certain of the above mentioned areas, but the 
production of root oil is still very occasional and irregular. Accordingly, the oil of cyperus 
rotundus is not a regularly available or commercial item in Europe or in the U.S.A. 

Cyperus Longus is a west-Sudanese grass. Its rootlets are collected by the natives in West 
Africa (formerly A. O. F.) for the purpose of scenting their clothes, etc. The roots smell woody- 
violet-like, reminiscent of alpha-lonone, but the author has no personal experience with the 
essential oil of Cyperus Longus, if this oil is produced at all. In respect to odor, the roots 
resemble the wood of the Australian Acacia Homalophylla, the so-called Australian 
Violetwood. 

The foliage of various Cyperus species in China and Japan are twined into ropes which are 
commercially known as "sea-grass" and used for seats, baskets, etc. 

Cypress Absolute. 

The yield of essential oil by distillation of the leaves and twigs of Cypressus Sempervirens is 
comparatively small (0.2 to 0.3%). The steam distillation is quite time-consuming since it is 
necessary to continue the distillation until the high-boiling and more valuable constituents are 
carried over (12 to 18 hours at low steam pressure). It is therefore not surprising that 
hydrocarbon solvent extraction of the plant material was considered already long ago. 

Concrete of Cypress Leaves has been produced by benzene extraction. The yields are 5 to 8 
times higher than the yields of oil by distillation. Cypress Concrete is a semi-solid, dark green 
to brownish-green mass of powerful balsamic-fatty, sweet and pine-like odor. The concrete 
yields 65 to 75% of alcohol-soluble absolute which is only slightly more liquid, unctuous and 
greener of color. The odor of Cypress Absolute is lighter and more powerful than that of the 
concrete. Apart from the components which are found in the essential oil, the Cypress 


156 


Absolute contains large amounts of alcohol-soluble resin acids. The absolute could accordingly 
be classified as a prepared oleoresin. Cypress Oleoresin is one of the commercial names for 
this product. 

Cypress Absolute is produced in very small quantities and usually only upon demand. 

However, this product is far more interesting for ambre perfumes, chypres, colognes, pine 
fragrances etc. than is the essential oil. The absolute blends well with amyl salicylate, 
cedarwood derivatives (vertofix, etc.), cistus oil, isobutyl-cinnamate, etc. The intense green or 
brownish-green color of the absolute is a certain drawback unless it is used with oakmoss, etc. 
It is not conceivable that Cypress Absolute will ever become an important perfume raw 
material. The limited amount of botanical raw material available for its production seems to 
scare the larger consumers from including cypress absolute in their current formulae. 

Cypress Oil. 

Cypress Oil is distilled from the leaves (needles) and twigs of the evergreen, Cypressus 
Sempervirens, and possibly from other species of Cypressus. However, only oils distilled from 
the sempervirens species should be accepted as Cypress Oil. The tree presumably originated in 
the eastern Mediterranean countries, and now grows both wild and cultivated (primarily as a 
windbreaker) along the coasts of southern France, Italy. Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, North Africa, 
Spain and Portugal, and, to a lesser degree, in the Balkan countries. 

Distillation is concentrated in the South of France. It is customary to collect and distil the 
material which is obtained by the annual pruning of the trees, perhaps together with twigs, 
etc. torn off the trees during the winter mistral, the violent storm. This is why Cypress Oil is 
usually available only in very limited quantities and only at certain times of the year. This 
quantity could easily be increased to 3 or 5 metric tons annually, perhaps more, provided the 
distillers were notified of the demand well in advance. Unfortunately, other varieties of 
Cypress are distilled with the "true" one, and branches and other woody material are not 
always screened away prior to distillation. Thus, the various lots of Cypress Oils which are 
offered present themselves in a very unattractive manner, exhibiting a far from uniform 
quality. An essential oil, distilled exclusively from Cypress Fruits has also been available, but 
this oil is now only produced on demand. 

Cypress Oil is a pale yellow, pale olive-greenish or almost colorless, mobile liquid of 
sweetbalsamic, yet refreshing odor, reminiscent of pine needles oil, templin oil, juniper berry 
oil, cardamom oil (without the cineole-note), and with a unique dryout of delicate and 
tenacious sweetness, often compared to that of ambre (labdanum ambre). For this reason, 
Cypress Oil is frequently submitted to fractionated distillation under vacuum, or simply to a 
"topping-off" under vacuum. The high-boiling fractions or, in the case of "topping", the residue 
in the still, usually 40 to 45% of the natural oil, are particularly useful. 

This "partially deterpenized" cypress oil is used in perfumes of the ambre-labdanum type in 
combinations with cistus oil or other labdanum products, delta-methylionone (so-called), 
lavender oil, mandarin oil, sage clary, musk ambrette or macrocyclic musks, styrax products, 
moroccan chamomile oil, etc. 


157 


Cypress Oil (natural oil) is occasionally used as a modifier in pine needle fragrances, in citrus 
colognes, fougeres, chypres, and in the modern aldehydic type of perfumes. 

The main constituents of the oil are monoterpenes (60 to 70%), pinene and camphene in 
particular, but these are not responsible for the above-mentioned sweet and tenacious ambre 
notes. 

Cypress Oil from areas other than the Mediterranean countries are distilled from different 
species (e.g. Brazil, Japan, Kenya, etc.). Adulteration of cypress oil is effected with these oils, 
and with the addition of pinene, camphene, juniper- berry oil, juniperwood oil, pine needle 
oils, etc. 

In spite of its scarcity, Cypress Oil is in no way an expensive material. The cost level is usually 
slightly higher than that of a good "Siberian" pine needle oil. 


D 

Dacrydium Elatum. 

An essential oil can be produced by steam distillation from the wood of this conifer. 

This essential oil seems to have disappeared from the world market since 1952, like so many 
other products from the former French Indochina. The tree grows in the northern parts of that 
country, previously known as Tonkin, and this particular species does not seem to be known 
outside of that area. A number of related conifers from neighboring areas yield other 
interesting essential oils, see Huon Pine Wood Oil and Siam Wood Oil. 

The essential oil of Dacrydium Elatum is a dark, yellow-brownish liquid of dry-balsamic, woody 
odor, reminiscent of crude Virginia cedarwood oil. The yield by steam distillation is very good 
and it is most likely that the oil still serves as a soap perfume and household article perfume 
ingredient on the local market. 

The author has no recent experience with the essential oil of Dacrydium Elatum. 

Davana Oil. 

This oil is obtained by steam distillation of the overground parts of the flowering herb, 
Artemisia Pallens. The plant grows in the same parts of southern India where also sandalwood 
is grown. 

Davana Oil is very dark green or brownish green (similarity to several other artemisia oils). Its 
odor is sharp, penetrating, bitter-green, foliage- like and powerfully herbaceous with a 
sweetbalsamic, tenacious undertone. 

The oil is a comparatively new item resulting from the activities of the world-known research 
institute in Dehra Dun, India. It is still too early to predict a future for this oil and the 
production of it remains on a small scale. The oil will no doubt find use in local flavor and 
perfume work in compositions where similar artemisia oils are used in European or American 


158 


formulae. The intense color is a certain drawback but the oil blends well with most chypre and 
fougere materials which also include strongly colored products (oakmoss, labdanum, etc.). 

See also Artemisia Alba, Artemisia Vulgaris and Wormwood Oil. 

Deertongue. 

Various species of the genus Liatris, particularly Liatris Odoratissima, grow wild in the 
southeastern United States, and have been known for their medicinal effects for a long time. 
The roots were extracted or infused to prepare a medicine of diuretic effect, etc. The leaves of 
this plant become very fragrant when they are dried. This is similar to the observations one 
can make with hay, everlasting, woodruff, melilotus, etc. Apparently the aromatic substances 
are combined (e.g. glycosidically) into odorless materials in the live plant. (See also Flouve Oil 
and the above mentioned oils). 

The leaves of Deertongue, as the composite plant is called in the U.S.A., do not yield any 
essential oil when they are distilled, but a highly aromatic extract, called Oleoresin of 
Deertongue, is prepared from the dried leaves with a volatile hydrocarbon solvent. After 
removal of the solvent in vacuum, the oleoresin appears as a dark green, very viscous liquid or 
semiliquid mass, possessing a heavy-sweet, coumarin-like, rich herbaceous odor. The 
immediate odor-similarity to shag tobacco is probably a reflection of the fact that the extract 
has been used since long ago for the flavoring of tobacco. It is interesting to note that 
extraction has mainly been carried out in Europe, particularly in England and France. 

Under the name of Deertongue, Lacinaria or Liatris Oleoresin, the extracts have been used for 
many decades in the food flavoring industry also, until the coumarin ban in 1952. The extract is 
still used in tobacco flavoring, which is, for some inexplicable reason, considered as "exterior 
use". 

In perfumery, however, Liatris Oleoresin or Liatris Absolute (prepared from the "oleoresin") 
are used frequently in chypre, moss, new mown hay, Oriental, and similar sweet or coumarinic 
bases. Its high content of coumarin and related compounds makes it an excellent fixative, but 
its intense color is a drawback in certain creations and uses. With synthetic musks, it produces 
very interesting, dry-perfumery powder-notes, particularly in combination with heliotropine, 
"gamma"-methyl ionone, cinnamic alcohol, etc. It blends well with oakmoss, labdanum, 
lavandin, olibanum, clove bud oil, amyl salicylate, patchouli, etc. In odor type, it is very similar 
to Flouve and Melilotus, both of which are prepared in Europe, the former also as an essential 
oil. 

As previous mentioned, there are several species of Deertongue, and they present various 
modifications of the coumarin-type of fragrance: from green-sharp herbaceous to intensely 
vanilla- sweet and candylike. The plant is very common in the southeastern U.S.A., where it is 
also known as Prafrie Pine or Blazing Star, these names referring to the shape and the flowers 
of the fair-sized composite plant. 

Although it is not a very expensive perfume material, Liatris Oleoresin is used in comparatively 
small quantities, and the annual production hardly amounts to more than a few metric tons. 
The designation "oleoresin" is stubbornly applied to the commercial product although it 


159 


contains no volatile oil and very little resinous matter. According to the definitions in this work, 
it is a concrete (which happens to be a pourable, viscous liquid). 

Dictam Oil. 

Dictam Oil is steam distilled from the flowering tops of Dictamnus Hispanicus, a small plant 
which belongs to the same family as the rue plant. Dictam herb has been a common drug store 
item for many decades and the fragrant leaves were previously used as a culinary herb and as 
a house medicine. 

The essential oil is distilled on a very small scale in Spain and only upon demand. The plant 
grows wild in several countries in southern Europe and north Africa. The production of Dictam 
Oil could be increased considerably in case of more interest from perfume of flavor houses. 

Dictam Oil is a pale yellow mobile liquid of very fresh, sweet and anisic odor, reminiscent of 
Texas goldenrod oil. The odor also resembles that of estragon but it is less green-herbal than 
this. There is finally some resemblance to the odor of dill weed oil which has a slightly burning 
taste, while dictam oil has a milder, intensely sweet taste. 

Dictam Oil could be used in perfumes to introduce topnotes or modifying notes in fougeres, 
chypres, colognes, in lilac and ylang-ylang bases, narcissus and other floral bases, etc. In flavors 
the oil blends well with mild spice oils, such as anise, basil, dill, goldenrod, hyssop, estragon, 
etc. It may find use in seasonings, table sauces, pickles, etc. The suggested use level is 0.50 to 
1.50 mg% (perhaps higher in acid media) and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.03 to 0.08 
mg%. 

It has been mentioned that Dictam Oil is occasionally used as an adulterant for sweet (French) 

Basil Oil. 

Dill Seed Oil. 

Of little interest to the flavorist, and holding hardly any interest for the perfumer, is the 
essential oil from the fruits (seed) of Dill (see Dill Weed Oil, following monograph, the more 
important of the two oils). Dill seed oil is also known as Dill Fruit Oil. Although chemically 
almost identical to Caraway Fruit Oil, there is a distinct difference in the odor and flavor of the 
two oils. However, caraway oil is the one which is produced on a large scale, and is thus 
available regularly at an attractive price; dill seed oil is a small item, produced by only a few 
specialists in Europe, mainly in England, rarely in the U.S.A. Lately, the essential oil of the fruits 
of Anethum Sowa (see monograph) has been subjected to more extensive investigation in 
India where the plant is cultivated quite commonly. The oil of anethum sowa is somewhat 
different from dill seed oil. Dill is cultivated in the U.S.A., Hungary, Holland, Italy, England, 
Germany, India, and Pakistan (see Dill Weed Oil). 

Dill Seed Oil is steam distilled from the crushed, dried, mature fruit of Anethum Graveolens. 
One distiller in England, however, insists upon water- distillation, and his oil is unquestionably 
superior in flavor to any other dill seed oil on the market. Dill seed oil is pale yellow or almost 
colorless (when fresh) and very mobile. Its odor is light and fresh, warm-spicy and reminiscent 
of caraway and spearmint, although less sharp. The taste is warm, slightly burning, but 


160 


pleasant and powerfully aromatic-sweet. The suggested use level is 2.00 to 6.00 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible is 0.40 to 0.60 mg%. Dill seed is extremely popular in Sweden where 
many types of bread are flavored with the seed (or with anise or fennel seed). The American 
"rye bread" is flavored with caraway oil or carvone. Hence the popular odor- description "it 
smells like rye bread" for Carvone. 

Dill Seed Oil is produced in modest quantities only, but there is usually available a plentiful 
supply for those who want to use this oil. 

Dill Weed Oil. 

Also known as Dill Herb Oil. The dill plant, Anethum Graveolens, is one of the many 
umbellifers which supply us with aromatic seed or culinary herb material. The plant grows wild 
in most parts of Europe, the Middle East up to southern Russia, all around the Mediterranean 
Sea widely in India and Fareast Asia, in Italy and in Kenya. In most of these areas, it is 
harvested for use as dry botanical material. In England and Hungary, it is cultivated for the 
purpose of distilling the seed oil (see monograph), and in the U.S.A. and Hungary, distillation of 
the entire Herb (the "weed") is effected on locally grown cultivated dill. Smaller quantities are 
cultivated and distilled in Germany and Holland (weed oil). The plant is distinguished by having 
yellow flowers (like the pimpinella plant) in contrast to the white flowers of most other 
umbelliferes. 

Dill Weed Oil is distilled from the partially dried, fully grown herb which is harvested 
immediately prior to maturity of the seed (fruits). The herb is steam distilled on the growing 
spot, and the yield of dill weed oil per acre is slightly less than the yield of oil from spearmint 
(which is concentrated in the midwestern area where harvesting is mechanized, thus making 
the production more economically attractive. Practically all of the American dill weed oil is 
used in the American pickle industry. Pickles are the largest quantity canned food item in the 
U.S.A. 

Dill Weed Oil is an almost colorless or pale yellow mobile liquid with a powerful and fresh, 
sweet-spicy, peppery and aromatic odor, reminiscent of elemi oil, spearmint oil, citrus oils, etc. 
with a sweet, nutmeg-like undertone. The taste is warm and slightly burning, but pleasant and 
not pungent although very peppery and spicy, with a faint anisic undertone. The suggested use 
level is. (measured in a neutral medium; the figures should be significantly higher in acid 
medium, e.g. vinegar): 3.00 to 8.00 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.40 to 0.80 mg%. A 
comparatively mild tasting oil. 

Although it is used in this large industrial product (canned pickles), Dill Weed Oil is used very 
little in other cases, mainly those connected with sauces, seasonings, etc. The production of 
the oil is not impressive, and outside the U.S.A., the herb itself is still widely used for the 
flavoring of pickles, vinegar, etc. With the rapid growth of the canning industry, it is 
conceivable that the oil will be introduced in other countries, too, as a replacement for the 
herb. 

From the related plant, Anethum Sowa (see monograph), another seed oil is distilled which 
differs slightly from the oil distilled from Anethum Graveolens. Anethum sowa oil is mainly 


161 


used in the Far East where the plant is cultivated and is also found as a native, wild-growing 
plant. 

Douglas Fir Needles Oil. 

The essential oil from the leaves (needles) of the "Douglas Fir" or "Oregon Fir" (see Oregon 
Balsam) is briefly mentioned in this work, although the oil is not regularly produced. 

The tree, Pseudotsuga Taxifolia, is not only very abundant in the northwestern United States 
but it has been introduced in many European countries for its useful lumber. Accordingly, 
there is ample leaf material at hand whenever a distillation may seem interesting enough for 
the lumber mills. 

Douglas Fir Needles Oil is a pale yellow liquid of very rich, woody-balsamic, sweet pine-needle 
type odor. Oils from various sources show quite wide differences in odor, but the main 
characteristic seems to be a softness and a sweetness, a very rich bodynote and a great odor 
tenacity which is exceptional for a "pine needle oil". 

The oil could find use in all kinds of pine fragrances and it would make a good supplement to 
the so-called Siberian pine needle oil which regularly floods the market but in most cases 
never saw Siberia. Douglas Fir Needles Oil would undoubtedly perform better in soap and in 
other products where a natural fixative is essential. 

Unfortunately, the oil of Douglas Fir Needles is not regularly available in quantities sufficient 
to attract the interest of the soap perfume manufacturers. 


E 

Elderflower Absolute. 

The flowers of Sambucus Nigra or other species of Sambucus yield on extraction with 
benzene, gasoline or petroleum ether a solid, dark green or olive-green concrete. The concrete 
is brownish- yellow in the case of petroleum ether extraction. 

Elderflower Concrete yields an absolute when treated as described under Absolutes in Part 
One of this book. 

Elderflower Absolute is a solid, waxy mass only slightly lighter colored than the parent 
concrete. The odor varies according to the solvents used but it is in general intensely sweet- 
herbaceous. honey-waxy, faintly anisic-floral or spicy. The odor of elderflowers does not please 
many people and the elderflower absolute presents a very concentrated edition of the 
nauseating sweetness of these flowers. 

Elderflower Absolute lends, however, interesting warm-floral effects in suitable dilution and in 
the trace amounts where it is useful at all in perfumes. It blends well with bergamot, boronia, 
oakmoss, ylang-ylang, anisalcohol, ionones, isoeugenol, etc. in carnation bases, lilac, tabac 
bases, etc. 


162 


The eldertree grows wild or is planted as an ornamental shrub in most European countries 
including France, and the yield of absolute from the flowers is far better than the yield of 
essential oil by distillation. Therefore, several Grasse houses and at least one German producer 
make regular extractions of this flower material. The annual production is probably less than 
100 kilos but it could be increased significantly in case of increased interest. 

Elderflower Absolute is occasionally used in flavors where it can lend interesting bouquet 
notes to honey, blackcurrant and cherry flavor compositions. 

Elderflower Oil. 

This perfume and flavor material is only very rarely offered on the market. The concrete and 
the absolute (see the previous monograph) are generally preferred by the producers because 
of the better yield and by the consumers because of the more versatile application of the 
extracted material. 

The small tree or shrub, Sambucus Nigra, grows all over Europe wild or planted. It is 
appreciated for its flowers which are used in medicine for their mild diuretic effect, for their 
berries which serve as a food (soup) or a preserve (syrup), and finally for the soft marrow 
which finds use in certain carvings and for industrial purposes (insulation, etc.). 

The dried flowers are steam distilled in Hungary, Germany and France. The essential oil is 
known in France as "essence de sureau". The oil is solid at room temperature and it has a very 
peculiar, intensely sweet, honeylike, faintly animal and unpleasantly nauseating odor. The fact 
that the odor of this oil does not immediately remind one of the suave, sweet-balsamic 
fragrance of the flowers (at a distance) may be due to the very low content of essential oil in 
the elderflowers. Hence, the oil is very concentrated as compared to the volume of flower 
material. On extreme dilution the odor of the oil becomes more pleasant. 

Elderflower Oil is available in modest quantities and only upon demand. 

Elecampane Absolute. 

An oleoresin or a concrete can be produced by volatile solvent extraction of the roots of Inula 
Helenium (see Elecampane Oil). The concrete is rarely used as such in perfumery but it is 
further processed to an alcohol-soluble absolute by the conventional method (see Absolute, 
Part One of this book). 

Elecampane Absolute is a dark olive-green or brown, semi-solid mass which is hardly pourable 
at room temperature. Its odor is very soft, woodyrootlike, slightly fatty-sweet or "oily", 
extremely tenacious. The material blends well in perfumes with ionones, methylionones, 
heliotropine, sandalwood, bergamot, orris products, cistus oil, labdanum products, cypress oil, 
etc. 

Elecampane Absolute produces interesting notes in ambre bases, woody-floral or oriental 
bases, heavy fragrances, etc. such as mentioned under elecampane oil. The absolute has a less 
earthy, more tenacious and rich odor than the essential oil. 


163 


The absolute is produced in France from imported or locally grown roots. Experimental 
batches of elecampane absolute have been produced lately in China. The annual world 
production of this absolute is probably less than 100 kilos. 

The author has, however, some suspicion as to the genuineness of the samples and shipments 
of Elecampane Absolute which form the basis of the information in this monograph (in respect 
to odor description). On the other hand, if only a few producers offer this material, one must 
consider the product arbitrarily as a "perfume material" and not as a "guaranteed 100% pure 
extract of elecampane root". One meets this problem quite frequently when dealing with rare 
perfume materials. 

Elecampane Absolute is presumably used as an adulterant in costus oil and perhaps in other 
expensive essential oils. 

Elecampane Oil. 

The roots and rhizomes of Inlua Helenium, a tall plant related to the sunflower, have been 
known and used in medicine for many centuries. The roots contain an essential oil which can 
be isolated by steam distillation. The extraction products of elecampane root are described 
under Elecampane Absolute (previous monograph). 

Elecampane Oil is produced from the dried comminuted roots which are collected from 
cultivated plants in Belgium, Germany, France, and southeastern Europe, or from wild-growing 
plants in southeastern Europe and Asia, in particular India and China, the countries in which 
the plant originated. Distillation takes place mainly in France from imported roots. 

"Essence d'Aunee", as the oil is called in France, is a semi-solid mass or a viscous liquid which 
often displays a mass of crystals. The color is dark yellow to brownish-yellow, occasionally pale 
yellow and turbid. It is dry-woody in odor, but also sweet, somewhat ambre- or honeylike with 
a fatty undertone. The odor has some resemblance to those of calamus, costus and cedrela. 
The flavor is warm, woody-rootlike, slightly bitter, nauseating, reminiscent of calamus oil and 
manevoro oil. 

Elecampane Oil is useful in perfumery for heavy-woody, Oriental or ambre-like bases, and it 
blends well with cananga, cinnamon, labdanum, lavender, mimosa, olibanum, orris, tuberose, 
violet, cedarwood, patchouli, nitromusks, etc. It has been found as an adulterant in Costus Oil 
where it can be quite difficult to trace olfactorily. The tenacity and soft woodiness of the odor 
of elecampane oil makes it an attractive fixative in perfumes. It has very little application in 
flavors. 

Chinese Elecampane Oil has a somewhat harsher topnote than have the European oils. The 
annual production of elecampane oil is less than one metric ton at present, and the oil is still 
comparatively expensive. 

Elemi. 

Elemi "gum" is a natural oleoresin in the subgroup of turpentines. It consists almost entirely of 
resin and essential oil. The term "gum" is thus a misnomer. Elemi is an exudation of a 


164 


pathological product from the tree, Canarium Commune, and other species of Canarium 
which grow wild and, to a lesser degree, cultivated in the Philippine islands. The tree belongs 
to the same family as do those which yield myrrh, olibanum, opopanax and Indian linaloe. A 
mutual feature of these plants is that each of them is known or cultivated in only a 
comparatively small part of the world and never widely distributed. 

Elemi, however, is quite abundant in the Philippines, and it is one of the most inexpensive 
sources of fixative resinoids. The annual production (harvesting) of Elemi runs into several 
hundred metric tons, most of which ends up in perfumes, etc. 

Crude Elemi is a semi-solid, pale-yellow, waxyhoneylike mass, usually containing numerous 
woodsplinters, bark pieces, insect debris, dirt and earth, etc. Elemi is graded on the bulking 
place (locally), and it is possible to get lots which are quite clean, dirt-free and almost water- 
free. The odor is very fresh, terpeney, peppery-lemony, with a woody-balsamic background 
note. The odor bears some similarity to that of dill weed oil. 

Elemi Resinoid is prepared by extracting the crude elemi with a volatile solvent, and removing 
the latter in vacuum after proper filtration. Acetone gives a very high yield and is a very good 
solvent for elemi. The acetone-resinoid is pale yellow, and soon shows white masses of crystals 
separating in the soft, slowly solidifying resinoid. Benzene gives a lower yield, and the odor of 
this solvent is more difficult to remove from the resinoid. Ethyl alcohol is a comparatively poor 
solvent for elemi, but some perfumers prefer to extract only once with one or two parts of 
ethyl alcohol. It will be necessary to filtrate the extract before it cools off. A smaller yield of 
resinoid is thus obtained, but it presents the heart of the fragrance of elemi in a more 
concentrated form: fewer monoterpenes, resin acids, sesquiterpenes, etc., and higher 
concentration of the rare but important oxygenated components of elemi. One could call this 
product Elemi Resin Absolute. This is a very interesting fixative for artificial bergamot, lemon, 
lime, etc., as well as for the various verbena compositions, e.g. eau de verveine bases and 
other cologne types. In lavender colognes, fougeres, spicy colognes, etc., it simultaneously 
introduces freshness and fixation. For many of these purposes, one can omit evaporating the 
alcohol and use the concentrated extract ("tincture") as is. 

The very high content of essential oil in Elemi is not always an advantage, and the factories 
that produce elemi oil (see following monograph) will have a useful pot residue when they 
have distilled the essential oil out of the crude elemi. 

Various specialties are based on this residue. 

Elemi Oil. 

This is steam distilled from the crude Elemi (see previous monograph). Distillation takes place 
almost exclusively in Europe and the U.S.A. It is not advisable to dry-distil or vacuum-distil the 
oil. Its high content of unstable monoterpenes which tend to form peroxides presents a hazard 
of explosion at comparatively modest heating of the elemi (oil). 

Elemi Oil is responsible for the fresh-lemony, peppery odor of crude elemi and of elemi 
resinoid. The main constituent of the oil is Phellandrene, a very unstable terpene, widely 
distributed in the plant kingdom. Small amounts of high-boiling, oxygenated components lend 


165 


character and interesting dry-out notes to this oil which is found in amounts of 25 to 28% in 
elemi. 

Elemi oil is colorless or pale yellow, mobile, and possessing a light, fresh, lemon-like, peppery 
odor which later dries out into a balsamic, slightly green-woody and sweet-spicy, pleasant 
note. The oil is not very stable, but antioxidants can retard decomposition of the phellandrene 
and dipentene. Peroxide-free oils can be "topped-off" in vacuum, whereby the bulk of the 
monoterpenes are removed (see Elemol below). 

However, the natural Elemi Oil is very useful as a freshener and topnote material in various 
perfume compositions, e.g. fougeres, chypres, colognes, and even in the heavy-sweet floral 
bases. The partially deterpenized elemi oil will prove particularly interesting in the Oriental 
bases, muguet, orchid, etc. It blends well with cinnamon bark oil, olibanum, labdanum 
products, rosemary oil, lavandin, sage oils, etc. 

Elemi Oil is freely available, but should be freshly prepared from acceptable crude elemi; since 
the oil tends to resinify and polymerize, the odor can accordingly become disagreeable. 
Because of its main constituent and its optical rotation, elemi oil is frequently used as an 
adulterant or in the "constructing" of artificial essential oils which "conform to the 
specifications of this or that Codex or Pharmacopoeia". The oil has been found as an 
adulterant in lemon oil, black pepper oil, dill weed oil, angelica seed oil and numerous other 
essential oils. 

Elemol is the commercial designation for a processed elemi oil from which the lower boiling 
terpenes have been removed. Elemol is a yellow or pale yellow, somewhat viscous liquid of 
peppery-balsamic odor and good stability. 

Erigeron Oil. 

Among the comparatively few essential oils which are produced exclusively from wild growing 
plants is the oil of Erigeron Canadensis. The plant is a weed and its original habitat is unknown 
to the author. 

The plant is known in the U.S.A. as Fleabane and it is also common in other parts of the world, 
except in the tropical zones. The fleabane is almost a nuisance in the corn fields in the 
midwestern United States and it also causes trouble in the peppermint and spearmint fields 
there. One fleabane plant will produce about million seeds in one season. Accordingly, the 
plant is considered a weed and not a utility plant. 

The entire overground part of the fleabane plant is steam distilled in the spearmint growing 
area of the midwestern United States (Michigan and Indiana). To the author's knowledge, 
there is no production of this oil on a commercial scale outside of the U.S.A. The annual 
production runs into a few tons of this oil. 

Erigeron Oil is a water-white or pale yellow liquid of a sweet, but very fresh-spicy, herbaceous, 
basil-like odor. The dryout note is peculiar, winey-herbaceous and sweet, resembling the odor 
of powdered licorice root. The odor also resembles that of moroccan chamomile oil (ormenis 
multicaulis) in its verbena-like freshness and the herbaceous, ethereal-sweet, ambra-like 


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undertone. The taste is acrid, burning, somewhat sweet but unpleasantly biting, leaving a 
bitter aftertaste. The author has no experience with this oil in respect to use in flavors. The oil 
becomes darker and more viscous on ageing. 

The oil of Erigeron Canadensis is occasionally used in perfumes where its peculiar and quite 
powerful odor may contribute interesting modifications in various types of colognes, fougeres, 
chypres, aldehydic fantasy bases, etc. The oil blends well with cardamom oil, citrus oils, 
coriander oil, decyl aldehyde, hydroxy-citronellal, linalool, etc. 

Erigeron Oil is occasionally adulterated. This is particularly true about oils which are offered in 
Europe where erigeron oil is frequently “doctored up" with synthetically prepared components 
of the oil: terpinyl acetate, d-limonene, etc. or even with cajuput oil, eucalyptus oil, etc. All 
these additives tend to decrease the characteristic fresh-herbaceous background notes in the 
odor of the natural oil. 

Estragon Oil. 

Also known as Tarragon Oil. In contrast to most other Artemisia oils, the essential oil of 
Artemisia Dracunculus is a sweet-smelling, spicy oil. The plant is a small member of the 
Compositae family, growing wild in many European and Asian countries. It is widely cultivated 
as a culinary herb or household spice for its sweet-anisic, somewhat celery-leaf-like and fresh- 
green flavor for use in vinegar, pickles, seasonings, meat sauces, etc. Distillation of the 
estragon herb is accomplished almost exclusively in. France, although smaller quantities are 
produced in Holland, Hungary and the U. S. A. The whole overground part of the herb is steam 
distilled immediately prior to the inflorescence. Estragon Oil is a colorless or very pale yellow 
to greenish-yellow liquid with a sweet-anisic, green-spicy, slightly celery-like odor, very similar 
to that of the fresh herb. Like anise and basil oils, estragon oil tends to resinify on ageing; it 
becomes dark yellow and sticky, viscous, and loses its fresh green note and pleasant aroma. 
The flavor of the oil is sweet and slightly spicy-aromatic, reminiscent of anise and basil with a 
faint celery-note. A suggested use- level for Estragon Oil would be 0.20 to 0.50 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible about 0.06 to 0.12 mg%. It is interesting to compare the flavor strength 
of this oil with that of synthetic Estragole (= methyl chavicol or para-methoxy allyl benzene). 
Estragole is the main constituent of estragon oil, and it is found in pine oil and in American 
turpentine oil. It is also prepared synthetically. The use level of Estragole is then 0.30 to 0.60 
mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.06 to 0.12 mg%. These figures do not reveal the wide 
difference in flavor type between estragol and estragon oil, but they do show that the natural 
oil with about 65% estragole compares favorably with pure estragole in flavor strength. 
Estragole is not, as we might expect, one-and-one-half times as strong as the essential oil. 

Estragon Oil is useful in trace amounts in chypre, I'Origan types, fougeres, lilac bases, green 
floral bases, etc., where it blends well with galbanum, lavender, isoeugenol, methylionones, 
vanillin, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss products, etc. The oil finds extensive use in flavors where it 
replaces the herb in the canning industry (pickles, etc.) and for certain types of liqueur flavors. 

Estragole (synthetic or isolated from pine oil) presents a serious threat to the unexperienced 
buyer of estragon oil. Fifty percent of estragole can easily be added to a good estragon oil 
(along with small amounts of phellandrene and other terpenes). The adulterated oil will show 


167 


a "shorter life" on a perfume blotter, a too "clean" dryout, a lack of herbaceous undertone. A 
thorough olfactory and organoleptic evaluation will tell the experienced perfumer or flavorist 
whether or not he has a true estragon oil in front of him. Adulteration and "cutting" of this oil 
is extremely common. The annual production of the true oil is barely more than one metric 
ton. 

Eucalyptus Australiana. 

Of the almost 700 known Eucalyptus species, several hundred have been subject to thorough 
investigation, including experimental distillation of their essential oils. But only a small number 
of the species have proved interesting with regard to their oils. This book will deal with about 
one dozen of the eucalyptus oils, and the author hopes that this selection will cover all oils 
which are of interest to those in the fields of perfumery and flavor, and which are produced 
regularly, or made available upon demand. 

The oil of Eucalyptus Australiana exists in several "forms" apart from the so-called "type" tree. 
We shall describe only the "type" and the variety called "B". The two oils are produced in 
sizeable quantities in southern Australia, and the trees have lately been introduced in the 
Union of South Africa. The oils are produced locally by steam-distillation of fresh or semi-dry 
leaf material. Both oils are colorless or pale yellow, mobile liquids. 

1) Eucalyptus Australiana "type" is a Cineole type of oil, slightly different from the 
common "pharmaceutical" eucalyptus oils (see also Eucalyptus Globulus), however, it 
has a peculiar sweet dryout, and has less of the unpleasant "low-aldehydic" topnote, 
characteristic of most of the "pharmaceutical" cineole-type oils. 

2) Eucalyptus Australiana, variety "B" is also called Eucalyptus Phellandra. It is a 
phelland rene-cineole type of oil, not suitable for pharmaceutical purposes, but of 
some interest to perfumery because of its great masking effect and low cost. This oil is 
produced on a large scale in Australia and on a small scale in Belgian Congo. Its odor is 
fresh, very power full peppery-camphoraceous, and it has a pleasant dryout but little 
or no fixative effect. 

These two oils are both produced in large quantities, i.e. from 50 to 200 tons per year, 
particularly the latter which is used in the mining industry and as a solvent or hardener in 
paints and lacquers. It finds some use as a perfume material in the so-called industrial 
perfumes. 

Eucalyptus, Chinese. 

Before World War II, large quantities of fractions from White Camphor Oil (see monographs 
on Camphor Oils) were exported all over the world under the name of Japanese eucalyptus oil. 
A significant amount of this oil came from Formosa. 

After World War II, the distilleries in Formosa seem to have discontinued the production of 
"eucalyptus oil" from the cineole fraction of Camphor Oil, White produced on that island. 
However, the world market has seen substantial quantities of so-called "Chinese Eucalyptus 
Oil" during the late 1950's. As a matter of fact, this eucalyptus oil (which is available at an all- 


168 


time low cost) has made production of true eucalyptus oil uneconomical in a number of other 
countries, including the Belgian Congo and Spain. The latter country still has the advantage of 
being geographically close to the European consumers, and Red China does not sell its oil all 
over the world. 

In China proper, the Yu-Sho ("Oil Camphor Tree") is the predominant "camphor tree", and this 
variety yields an oil that is rich in Cineole (about 50% in the de-camphorized Yu-Sho oil). 

The cineole is isolated from the cineole-terpineol fraction; certain terpenes are added, etc., 
and the oil is brought "up to specifications" on physicochemical properties to be presented as 
a pharmaceutical eucalyptus oil. In view of the number of camphor trees in China (an 
astronomical figure which reminds us of the expression "—all the tea in China" or of the 
number of inhabitants in Red China), it is conceivable that the so-called "Chinese eucalyptus 
oil" will continue to show up on the market in the future. At present, it is not possible to give 
exact data or information on this "artificial" oil. 

Eucalyptus Citriodora. 

Although scarcely yet in the 100-tons-per-year class, the essential oil from the leaves of 
Eucalyptus Citriodora has become one of the most interesting eucalyptus oils. 

Like all other eucalyptus species, the citriodora is originally from Australia. The tree gives a 
very good and useful lumber and is therefore popular in the tropics. Today, it is cultivated— 
and also grows wild from old plantings—in Brazil, Belgian Congo, the Seychelles, the Union of 
South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, Tanganyika, Indonesia, Morocco, the U.S.S.R. and Guatemala. 
The aforementioned countries are listed approximately in order of importance as producers of 
the oil. Brazil has produced 50 to 80 metric tons per year lately, while Belgian Congo turns out 
10 to 15 tons. However, the all-time low in citronella oil prices during 1958—1959 has been 
quite detrimental to the further development of citriodora distillation in the Belgian Congo and 
other areas. Brazil is a large country with sizeable needs for perfumery materials, and they can 
probably maintain their production for local consumption in perfumes and menthol-syntheses. 

Steam distilled on local, but often quite modern stills, the oil is a colorless to pale yellow, 
mobile liquid which has a strong and very fresh, rosy- citronella-like odor and a sweet, 
balsamic-floral dryout note. As a source of natural citronellal, it is unsurpassed. The very high 
content of this oil in the best of the Belgian Congo oils (up to 82% in natural oils), and the fact 
that the balance consists of foreruns of a pleasant odor (light monoterpenes) and short tail 
fractions of geranyl acetate, etc. makes isolation of a high-grade citronellal from this oil a very 
attractive operation. 

During the shortage of Fareastern citronella oils in the early 1950's, citriodora came into the 
limelight and its production increased tremendously. A large European company based their 
entire Brazilian menthol production upon locally distilled citriodora oil. By itself, eucalyptus 
citriodora oil is not much used in perfumery although it offers very attractive notes for low- 
cost soap perfumes, soap flakes, detergents, sprays, etc. This can be due to several facts: 

1) the oil was "reserved" for many years for the menthol producers; 2) citronellal is not very 
stable in soaps or alkaline medium; 3) the really large soap manufacturers might hesitate to 


169 


introduce this oil in their perfumes for detergents or soap flakes because they might be unable 
to get sufficient quantities of the oil (if it forms a major part of the fragrance, by weight). 
Furthermore, they generally try to avoid using large quantities of raw materials from countries 
over whose future development they have little or no "control"; 4) citriodora oil will, in many 
other cases, be only a minor ingredient in a soap perfume as a freshener, "lifter", etc. 

Eucalyptus Citriodora Oil also serves as a starting material for the production of certain 
acetone-condensation products; the isolated citronellal is further processed to an excellent 
grade of hydroxycitronellal. The citronellal can be reduced with hydrogen in the presence of a 
catalyst. Various "special rose-alcohols" are produced by similar methods. 

The 1960's will tell us about the future of citriodora oil, but it is obvious that Congo and Brazil 
producers are uninterested in producing, let alone exporting, this oil at the same price as 
Formosa citronella oil (1959 price fell below 8/— sh. engl. per kilo for oils of less than 45% 
aldehyde content!). This kind of competition is not exactly conducive towards improving the 
level of living among the native producers or the settlers in the growing areas. At the present 
price level, it is hardly possible to adulterate the essential oil of Eucalyptus Citriodora at all. 
Even "synthetic" citronellal (from American turpentine) would be too expensive to use as a 
"cutting" agent. Belgian Congo citriodora oils have usually shown the highest citronellal 
content (over 80% in oils from the Ituri district) and superior overall quality. 

Eucalyptus Dives. 

Of this species, we must mention three varieties: 

1) Eucalyptus Dives, var. "C" which is the "pharmaceutical" type whose composition is almost 
identical to that of Eucalyptus Australiana "type" (see monograph). The oil is produced in 
sizeable quantities in southeastern Australia, and the tree has been introduced in South Africa. 
The oil from Australia is usually sold as "eucalyptus oil" and not as "dives" variety since it is 
marketed as a pharmaceutical eucalyptus oil. It is a colorless or pale yellow liquid whose odor 
is almost indistinguishable from that of the Eucalyptus Australiana "type" oil. 

However, what is usually marketed under the name of Eucalyptus Dives oil is the essential oil, 
steam distilled from the leaves of 2) Eucalyptus Dives, var. "A", or from the leaves of 3) 
Eucalyptus Dives "type". The latter has captured the most interest during the late 1940's and 
early 1950's when synthetic menthol saw a rapidly increasing market all over the world. This 
oil (3) contains a large amount of laevo-Piperitone which can be converted into menthol. The 
balance of the oil will yield Phellandrene, another useful material in perfumery and in the 
reproduction of essential oils. laevo-Piperitone forms the starting material for the production 
of synthetic Menthol in a very large Australian factory. 

Eucalyptus Dives var. "A" (2) contains less laevo-Piperitone and more Phellandrene, and is 
mainly used as a solvent and for technical perfumes, insecticides, etc. 

All three types are produced on a large scale in Australia, and the oils 1) and 3) will probably 
soon be distilled in the Union of South Africa, possibly later on in Brazil. 

See also Evoulimba Oil. 


170 


Eucalyptus Globulus. 


Some decades ago, a pharmacist wouldn't think of buying a eucalyptus oil unless it was a 
genuine Eucalyptus Globulus oil. And this surname has remained in many price lists of today, 
even in cases where the Globulus has long since been replaced with other oils of very similar 
constitution. Pharmaceutically, it is the most important (type) of all the eucalyptus oils, and if 
we consider all the Cineole-types of eucalyptus oil as one big "pharmaceutical eucalyptus oil", 
this will be the largest in quantity by far. Various producers actually speak of Eucapharma Oils 
when they market oils of high-Cineole type. 

The essential oil of Eucalyptus Globulus is scarcely produced in its homeland at present. The 
tree originated in Tasmania, but no oil has been exported from Australia or from its small 
neighbor island for many years. 

However, the Globulus tree is planted practically all over the world in temperate and semi- 
tropical regions and in tropical highlands or swamps. The tree is found in France, Spain, 
Portugal, Algeria (and North Africa in general), Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and India. There are 
more eucalyptus trees in Brazil than in any other country outside of Australia. To a minor 
extent, it is planted in California and in numerous African and European countries. In the 
Belgian Congo, the Globulus tree has now been replaced with Eucalyptus Smithii (see this 
monograph). 

Eucalyptus Globulus oil is steam distilled from the fresh or partly dried, long and narrow leaves 
of this large beautiful tree. Distillation is carried out locally. In Algeria and a few other 
countries, the leaves are also dried completely and sold to drug houses, but these leaves are 
not distilled. They would yield little and poor oil. The oil is colorless and quite mobile when 
rectified. It is pale to dark yellow when old or poorly stored. Rectification or "redistillation" is 
often carried out on the spot since this operation improves the keeping qualities of the oil. 
Lower aliphatic aldehydes in the foreruns are partly removed, together with resinified 
terpenes in the tail fractions; the oil becomes a "Codex" or Pharmacopoeia-quality with a 
higher Cineole content, and thus easier to export. Incidentally, the lower aldehydes are usually 
held responsible for a cough-provoking effect which is not exactly wanted in the eucalyptus oil 
used in cough-drops, etc.! 

The total annual production of Eucalyptus Globulus and other Cineole-type oils ("Eucapharma 
Oils") is in excess of 1000 metric ton, thus placing the Eucapharma Oils among the "upper ten" 
in quantity. The approximate distribution of the production is: 

Australia: 60% of world production (mainly Polybractea, Smithii and Leucoxylon oils) 

Brazil: 15% of world production (mainly Globulus) 

Spain: 10% of world production (mainly Globulus) 

Belgian Congo: 8% of world production (mainly Smithii) 

Portugal: 2% of world production (mainly Globulus) 

Other countries: 5% of world production. 


171 


The main use for Eucalyptus Globulus oil is in the pharmaceutical preparations, flavoring of 
cough drops, vaporizers, mouth-gargles, toothpaste, etc., as well as a rubefacient and general 
germicide. The germicidal effect is not very outstanding. In perfumery, the oil enters numerous 
formulas for low-cost perfumes, industrial perfumes, in the masking of various odors, and as a 
replacement for other essential oils. It is comparatively stable in soap and it has a powerful 
radiation or "lifting" effect upon the other ingredients in the soap perfume. 

Fractions from the rectification of eucalyptus globulus oil are frequently used in the unethical 
"art" of "cutting" essential oils such as rosemary, spike lavender, thyme, Spanish sage, etc. 
More artistically, certain fractions can be used as perfume ingredients of special effect. The 
literature gives full information of such isolates from various types of crude eucalyptus oils. 
Eucalyptus Globulus Oil is no longer the most common of the pharmaceutical eucalyptus oils, 
but it remains the largest of those grown and distilled in Europe. See also Eucalyptus 
Australiana, E. Leucoxylon, E. Polybractea, E. Sideroxylon and E. Smithii which are the "large" 
sources of the Eucapharma oils of today. 

Eucalyptus Leucoxylon. 

Although the oil which is distilled from the leaves of this tree is hardly ever encountered 
outside Australia under the above name, t is very likely that significant quantities of this oil are 
actually sold elsewhere under various names as a pharmaceutical eucalyptus oil. 

It belongs to one of the larger "Eucapharma" oils (see Eucalyptus Globulus, E. Polybractea, E. 
Smithii, etc.), and consists mainly of Cineole. In appearance, odor and flavor, it is quite similar 
to the Globulus oil. It has furthermore been claimed that the oil of Eucalyptus Leucoxylon is 
never produced in a "pure" state since the tree grows along with two other quite similar 
species (E. elaeophora and E. sideroxylon). The leaves of these two trees also yield a 
Eucapharma oil, or the three oils are frequently distilled as one from a mixture of all three 
sorts of leaves. With this possibility kept in mind, the mixed oil can be considered as being the 
largest eucalyptus oil in Australia, amounting to about 50% of all the Eucapharma oils of 
Australia. 

Distillation takes place in eastern Australia only (Victoria province). The oil (or the oil mixture) 
is a pale yellow liquid, having a somewhat harsh topnote and a prolonged, sweetterpeney 
dryout. As described above, the Cineole body-note of this oil is similar to that of other 
eucapharma oils. 

See also Eucalyptus Sideroxylon. 

Eucalyptus Macarthuri. 

Among the comparatively few eucalyptus oils which have found use exclusively in perfumery, 
we find the steam distilled oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus Macarthuri, a native of 
southeastern Australia. The tree is cultivated in that area, and was introduced in the 1950's 
into the Iswete and east Transvaal provinces of the Union of South Africa. Earlier, it had been 
introduced into Brazil and Belgian Congo where the oil was experimentally distilled in the 
1940's. 


172 


The yield of essential oil from these leaves is very small, usually far less than one percent. This 
fact, among others, is responsible for the farmer's reluctance and failing interest in the 
distillation of this oil. 

Oil of Eucalyptus Macarthuri is a yellowish to pale orange colored oil with an intensely fresh, 
fruity-rosy initial odor, sweet-rosy and fruity- woody body notes and a pleasant, sweet, faint- 
woody dryout. There is considerable difference in odor characteristics between a crude 
(natural) oil, and a rectified oil. Like many other eucalyptus oils, the Macarthuri oil too 
contains lower aliphatic aldehydes in the "foreruns" of the redistillation. The foreruns are 
usually removed prior to use of the oil in perfumery. A rectified oil may contain as much as 70 
to 80% natural geranyl acetate. 

The main constituent being such a well-known perfume "chemical", oil of Eucalyptus 
Macarthuri has nothing in particular to offer the perfumer beyond the fact that it is Nature's 
best source of natural geranyl acetate. Instrumental investigations of essential oils of recent 
years have also affected this oil. There are alcohols other than geraniol in this oil, too. Pure 
geraniol (i.e. unaccompanied by other "rose" alcohols) seems to be extremely rare in steam 
distilled essential oils. 

Still produced, although on a limited scale only, the oil of Eucalyptus Macarthuri may slowly 
disappear from the market. 

Eucalyptus Numerosa, "Type". 

For purely industrial purposes, various varieties of the above tree serve as raw material in the 
production of essential oils. Of the two best known oils, Eucalyptus Numerosa "Type" and 
Eucalyptus Numerosa, var. "A", we shall discuss only the former. The latter is almost identical 
to the oil of Eucalyptus Dives "Type" (see monograph). 

Oil of Eucalyptus Numerosa "Type" is steam distilled from the leaves of this Australian tree in 
the southeastern parts of the continent. The yield of oil is very good, but the oil itself is of no 
particular interest to perfumers or flavorists. Recently, the tree has been introduced in the 
Iswete and east Transvaal provinces of the Union of South Africa where the mining industry 
can absorb significant quantities of the oil for flotation (i.e. screening of the particles of 
powdered ore in a foaming mixture of light oil, water and fine air bubbles). 

Occasionally, the laevo-Phellandrene is isolated from this oil. This monoterpene finds some 
use in the "reconstruction" of essential oils (the "art" or rather science of composing artificial 
oils from their known and identified constituents). 

Oil of Eucalyptus Numerosa "Type" is a colorless to pale yellow mobile liquid, possessing a 
fresh- peppery, spicy and minty odor with a bitterterpeney, rather unpleasant undertone. 
There is little or no dryout note. The oil is readily available, but it is rarely offered to the 
perfume industry. Local (Australian) factories produce various isolates from these oils, and 
these isolates are made available to the perfume industry. 

See also Evoulimba Oil. 


173 


Eucalyptus Phellandra. 

This essential oil is also known under the name of Eucalyptus Australiana, var. "B", under 
which name it has already been discussed in this book. Being a Cineole-Phellandrene type of 
oil, it holds a more important place for the solvent and mining industry. See monograph on E. 

Australiana, var. "B". 

Eucalyptus Polybractea. 

The leaves of this tree give a very good yield of an essential oil which contains up to 92% 
Cineole. Thus, the oil is of the pharmaceutical type (here named Eucapharma oils). It is the 
most important of all the exported Australian eucalyptus oils. It is furthermore distinguished 
by the fact that it does not contain the unpleasantly smelling lower aldehydes found in 
Globulus and other Eucapharma oils; thus, a well distilled Polybractea oil may not require 
redistillation. 

Distillation is undertaken only in southeastern Australia. Oil of Eucalyptus Polybractea is a 
colorless to pale yellow mobile liquid of strong but somewhat sweet-camphoraceous and 
fresh- cooling odor, and it has a similar taste. Its dryout on a perfume blotter is distinctly 
different from that of a Globulus or similar oil: it is not woody- sweet or heavy, "paint"-like; as 
a matter of fact, there is hardly any dryout note at all, but just a clean fadeout. 

The main use of this oil is in pharmaceutical preparations, cough-drops, gargles, mouth¬ 
washes, toothpaste, etc. as is the case with all the other eucapharma oils. 

Oil of Eucalyptus Polybractea is readily available in large quantities, but since it is produced in 
Australia only, there may be a considerable shipping delay for certain customers. 

This oil is an excellent starting material for the isolation of Cineole, also called eucalyptol. This 
material is simply frozen out of the oil (cineole congeals at about + 1° C.). 

Eucalyptus Sideroxylon. 

See also Eucalyptus Leucoxylon. Together with this and the oil of E. Elaeophora, a 
pharmaceutical eucalyptus oil is produced from a mixture of leaves of all three trees in the 
eastern and south eastern parts of Australia. 

However, the E. Sideroxylon is mentioned here because significant plantings of this tree have 
been under cultivation in the Dundee-Carolina provinces of the Union of South Africa for 
several years. Eucalyptus oil is also distilled in these plantations. Australia is the main supplier 
of the mixed oil. 

As for the oil itself, it is of little interest to the perfumer or the flavorist. The oil is quite similar 
to the earlier mentioned oils of Eucalyptus Globulus and E. Smithii, (next monograph). A 
number of other eucalyptus species are also distilled in Australia and yield similar Eucapharma 
oils, but these oils are either used locally or exported as pharmaceutical eucalyptus oils, or 
even as Eucalyptus "Globulus", a designation still demanded by many customers. 


174 


See also monographs: 

Eucalyptus Australiana 
Eucalyptus Dives, var. "C" 

Eucalyptus Globulus 
Eucalyptus Leucoxylon 
Eucalyptus Polybractea 
Eucalyptus Smithii 

Eucalyptus Smithii. 

For several and weighty reasons, this tree has become more popular than the Globulus among 
the planters and distillers. The Smithii grows faster and its leaves yield more oil on steam 
distillation. The oil contains as much—or more— Cineole as does the oil of E. Globulus. 

Plantations of E. Smithii are found in the Belgian Congo, Nyasaland, Rhodesia, Union of South 
Africa (Tswete and east Transvaal provinces), Uruguay, Argentina, etc. This oil is the most 
important eucalyptus oil of the Belgian Congo. Since the 1958/1959 appearance on the market 
of the so-called Chinese eucalyptus oil, however, the competition has been so fierce that the 
future prospects for Eucalyptus Smithii in the Belgian Congo are debatable. Production there 
has been near 100 tons per year in good years. 

The oil is either rectified on the plantation or sent to nearby Goma, center of the essential-oil 
producing eastern Belgian Congo, and rectified there in modern stills by Belgian specialists. All 
essential oils in the Belgian Congo are produced by Belgians (till now, 1960). 

Oil of Eucalyptus Smithii a colorless or very pale yellow, mobile liquid with a fresh Cineole type 
of odor, quite similar to the odor of other Eucapharma oils. Its use is similar to that of other 
cineole-types of eucalyptus oils as described under the E. Globulus. 

Eucaluptus Staigeriana. 

From the leaves of this tree, an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation and sold under 
the above name. This oil is one of the few eucalyptus oils produced exclusively outside 
Australia, although the tree originates in this "home of all eucalyptuses". Distillation is 
undertaken on plantations in Brazil, in the Union of South Africa (Dundee and Carolina 
provinces), the Seychelles and in Guatemala. The yield is excellent, far better than the yield 
from E. Citriodora which is an even cheaper oil. 

Oil of Eucalyptus Staigeriana is (according to age and resinification) a pale yellow to dark 
yellow, somewhat oily liquid of sweet and fresh, fruity- lemony odor. The particular odor of 
this oil makes it immediately interesting for use in fresh- rosy types of soap perfumes, 
detergent fragrances, etc. But its stability in soap is not very good. The main constituents, 

Citral and geranyl acetate are not exactly noteworthy for stability in soaps unless very skillfully 
fixed. By various means of chemical stabilization, e.g. partial reduction, condensation with 
acetone, etc., this oil can be transformed into more generally useful soap perfume materials in 
the same way as described under citronella oil, eucalyptus citriodora oil, etc. As a source of 


175 


isolated Citral, the staigeriana is of little or no interest: the content is too low (35 to 45 
percent), and citral is now produced synthetically in a beautiful quality at an attractive price. 

Oil of Eucalyptus Staigeriana is presently produced in quantities of 15 to 35 metric tons per 
year, but the production may slowly diminish in the future in view of the above competition. 
There are only few actual producers of this oil, and they are all earnest settlers, growers and 
distillers. Adulteration is practically out of the question. 

Eugenia Jambolana. 

The oil of Eugenia Jambolana is hardly known outside India. It is steam distilled from the 
leaves of the above tree of the genus Myrtaceae. Distillation is carried out in various places all 
over India where the tree is known as Jamun. 

Eugenia jambolana oil is a yellowish to greenish- olive, blue-olive or brownish, fairly viscous 
liquid. Its odor is dry, woody, strong and spicy-earthy like a very poor patchouli oil (cade-like 
topnote). There is an undertone with some similarity to clove leaf oil, but a strong and heavy 
terpene note covers the sweet spicy odor. The dryout is terpinolene-like, somewhat spicy- 
woody, rather dry. There is a peculiar "bitterness" through all the stages of evaporation of this 
oil. 

Eugenia Jambolana oil is used locally in India as a mild antiseptic and as a perfume material in 
low-cost soap perfumes, etc. It blends well with cedarwood, citronella, safrole, rosemary, 
thyme, isoeugenol, amylsalicylate, etc. 

The author has but little information in respect to the annual production of this oil. It is not 
conceivable that the oil will become a "steady" item on the perfumer's shelf in other parts of 
the world. 

Everlasting Absolute. 

Widely known in southern Europe as "Immortelle", "Everlasting" or "St. John's Herb" is the 
small plant Helichrysum Angustifolium. The plant has attracted perfumers for quite some 
time. It should not be confused with "St. John's Wort" which is an entirely different plant 
(hypericum perforatum) of no use in perfumery and little use in cosmetic preparations. 

Many attempts have been made to produce an essential oil by steam distillation of the entire 
overground plant or of the flowers alone. All efforts have either failed or shown an extremely 
small yield. For those who have seen the plant, this cannot come as a surprise: it is hardly 
possible to visualize anything drier than the mature plant. It appears to be simply dehydrated 
or ovendried, but the flowers still keep their beautiful colors, hence the name— Everlasting. 
However, an essential oil is produced in Yugoslavia and France from various species of 
Helichrysum, particularly from Helichrysum Orientale, which is originated in Asia Minor and 
the neighboring Mediterranean countries and islands. The essential oil is listed in this work 
under Helichrysum Oil. It was not until extraction began to be practiced on a large scale in 
Grasse and other perfume centers that this flower became available for the perfumers in the 
form of concretes and absolutes. 


176 


Concrete of Immortelle is prepared from the flowers by extraction with benzene, gasoline or 
petroleum ether. The concrete is an olive-green (benzene-extracted) to dark brown, semi-solid 
mass of waxy consistency. Its odor is entirely different from that of the essential oil, although 
there are certain mutual features: it is intensely sweetherbaceous, coumarinic, honeylike, 
slightly woody- floral with a peculiar licorice-like undertone. The heavy and fruity sweetness is 
sometimes compared to that of blackcurrant preserve and to the odor of elderflowers. The 
concrete usually carries some odor of the solvent. 

Absolute of Immortelle is a semi-liquid oil or a very viscous liquid, olive-green to dark brown in 
color. The odor is as above described, but less waxy than the odor of the concrete, more 
refined- sweet and extremely tenacious. The yield of absolute from the concrete is very good, 
and this fact makes the material even more interesting from the economic aspect. As a 
peculiarity, it should be mentioned that Absolute of Immortelle usually contains significant 
amounts of tannin, a material rarely found in flower extracts. Tannin is liable to discolor in 
contact with iron and other metals which are present in trace amounts in many essential oils, 
etc. (e.g. copaiba, patchouli, vetiver). 

Everlasting Absolute is used in perfumery for its deep-sweet, honeylike, tobacco-like notes, 
and for its great fixative effect. Although it cannot possibly exert a true physical fixation at the 
normal use concentration (fractions of one percent in the perfume oil), the absolute has an 
extraordinary ability of rounding off and "bouquetting' a fragrance which may need life and 
naturalness. It blends well with coumarin, flouve, lavender, lavandin, sage clary, citrus oils, 
linalool, rose bases, phenylethyl alcohol, Peru balsam oil, clove bud oil, etc. Its effect in rose 
bases and heavy-floral Oriental fragrances can be quite unique and successful. It is used in 
certain fruit flavors and tobacco flavors. 

Everlasting Absolute is produced in France. Italy, Yugoslavia and Spain. The three former 
countries often extract two or more species of helichrysum, while Spain mainly extracts the 
Helichrysum Stoechas which gives a sharper, more fruity-rosy smelling absolute, probably due 
to the presence of nonyl acetate. The annual world production of Everlasting Absolute is about 
100 to 150 kilos. 

See also Helichrysum Kilimandjarum and Helichrysum Oil. 

Evoulimba Oil. 

For those who are familiar with the Swahili language, it can hardly be a secret that this oil must 
be produced somewhere in an area where eucalyptus trees grow ("evoulimba" eucalyptus 
tree) and where the Swahili is spoken. This kind of detective work leaves us with only two 
possibilities: 

Eucalyptus Numerosa "Type" and Eucalyptus Dives "Type". The two oils are almost identical 
in chemical composition and they present great odor similarity. 

Evoulimba Oil is steam distilled from the leaves of Eucalyptus Dives "Type" in the eastern 
Belgian Congo. The oil was once used as a topnote ingredient in a comparatively fashionable 
perfume. Consequently, a number of competitive perfume houses started an investigation in 
order to identify the "new and unknown" material which gave such an unusual effect in this 


177 


perfume. The French supply house managed to keep the origin and the identity of the material 
quite secret for many years, although it should seem quite tempting to draw conclusions from 
the "native" name of the oil. 

Evoulimba Oil is a pale yellow, mobile liquid of strong peppery-terpeney odor, reminiscent of 
dillweed and elemi, and with a camphoraceous phellandrene-like dryout note, not exactly 
pleasant. The odor bears some resemblance to that of Balsamite. To the author's knowledge, 
eucalyptus dives "type" oil is no more distilled in Belgian Congo. However, the Numerosa oil is 
available from the Union of South Africa. A production of Dives oil can be recommenced in 
Belgian Congo with short notice. 

In view of its peculiar odor, the oil of Evoulimba may not ever become a common perfume 
material. 

See monograph on Eucalyptus Dives. 


F 

Fennel Oil, Bitter. 

The Fennel Oils can be classified in two groups: 

a) The oils from Bitter Fennel and 

b) The oil from Sweet Fennel. 

Bitter fennel can be derived from the cultivated herb or from the wild growing herb. The fruits 
of the two herbs will yield essential oils of different composition. 

1) The Bitter Fennel Oil from wildgrowing herb is steam distilled from the upper part of the 
plant when the fruits just begin to ripen (compare with dill weed oil). Distillation takes place 
only in the areas where the bitter fennel grows wild: France, Spain, Portugal and North Africa, 
particularly in Morocco. This oil is not the bitter fennel oil as it is known commercially (see 
below). The total annual production hardly exceeds 10 metric tons. 

Bitter Fennel Oil from wildgrowing fennel herb is a yellowish to pale orange-brown, mobile 
liquid which has a sharp peppery-camphoraceous odor and a spicy, faintly sweetish dryout 
note. The oil finds some use in the flavoring of pickles, etc., but it is mostly used in the 
perfuming of industrial products, so-called technical perfumes, etc. because of its excellent 
masking effect and great odor power. 

Bitter Fennel Herb Oil (1) is occasionally contaminated (rather than adulterated) with the oil 
from "harvest fennel", a smaller umbellifer which grows wild and abundantly in Morocco and 
the Mediterranean countries and is found in the fennel fields, too. 

2) Bitter Fennel Oil from Cultivated bitter fennel is the bitter fennel oil commercially offered. 

It is steam distilled from the crushed seed (fruit) of the cultivated Foeniculum Vulgare (and the 
variety vulgare of the subspecies capillaceum). The plant is identical to the above mentioned 
plant which grows wild. 


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Bitter Fennel is cultivated in Argentina, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, 
India, Italy, Japan, Roumania, Spain, U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and, on a limited (domestic) scale, in a 
great number of other countries. Distillation takes place mainly in France, Germany, Hungary, 
Italy and India. 

Bitter fennel oil (from fruits of the cultivated plant) is a pale yellow or almost colorless liquid of 
a somewhat sharp and warm-camphoraceous odor, initially earthy, but later on sweet, anisic 
and spicy. Its flavor is distinctly bitter, slightly burning, but it tones out in a sweet aftertaste, 
still carrying, however, a warm-camphoraceous or earthy note. This is typical of its difference 
from the flavor of Sweet Fennel Oil (so-called "Roman" fennel oil, se following monograph). 

Bitter Fennel Oil has become particularly popular in Germany and other central European 
countries where the bitter fennel herb has been known and used for many centuries: in 
medicine, cooking, and last but not least, in the flavoring of liqueurs. The essential oil has 
largely replaced the herb for this purpose. The oil is used in minute amounts in a number of 
fruit flavors, but the bitter note and the camphoraceous-earthy taste prohibits its extensive 
use in fine flavoring. The suggested use level is 1.00 to 5.00 mg%, and the Minimum 
Perceptible is about 0.2 to 0.4 mg%. The oil is frequently used as a masking agent, as a 
perfume ingredient in technical preparations, room-sprays, insecticides, etc. It is perhaps the 
largest in quantity of the fennel oils. The annual world production fluctuates between 25 and 
75 metric tons. However, fennel belongs to those aromatic seeds which have already seen 
their best years. Its popularity reached its peak hundreds of years ago, and fennel is slowly but 
steadily on the downgrade. 

Bitter Fennel Fruit Oil (2) is frequently adulterated with synthetic anethole, synthetic or 
isolated estragole, fenchone, phellandrene and other monoterpenes. It can be quite difficult to 
distinguish between a natural and an artificial oil, but if an organoleptic examination is in favor 
of the sample, there is little reason for not preferring the oil whatever the origin (see chapter 
on Adulteration, Part One of this book). Synthetic anethole may contain the toxic isomer cis- 
Anethole, see monograph on Star Anise Oil, and care should be taken that such material is not 
used in the composing of artificial fennel oils. 

Fennel Oil, Sweet. 

Of little importance—and steadily decreasing in interest—is the essential oil that is steam 
distilled from the crushed fruits of cultivated Sweet Fennel, also known as "Roman Fennel", 
Foeniculum Vulgare, varietas dulce. 

The plant exists only cultivated, and is grown in France, Italy and Greece (Macedonia). The 
plant was probably originally from the island of Malta where—in turn—it might have been 
introduced by monks or crusaders nearly a thousand years ago. 

Distillation takes place in many countries-where the oil is used-from imported or locally grown 
seed. France and Italy are main producers, but the oil lost its importance during the same 
period when anise (seed) oil almost disappeared from the market. 

Synthetic anethole is now produced in such a pure and organoleptically acceptable quality that 
the anethole-carrying essential oils have little to offer in the countries where synthetic 


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anethole is produced or readily available. In rough terms, Sweet Fennel Oil is hardly more than 
an anethole, modified with limonene, phellandrene and trace amounts of other components 
which exercise surprisingly little influence upon the odor and flavor of the oil. Synthetic 
anethole is known to have contained a significant amount of cis-anethole, a toxic isomer of 
anethole. Natural anethole is trans-anethole. This fact is known by all producers of synthetic 
anethole, and it is conceivable that future batches of synthetic anethole will contain little or no 
cis-anethole. See also Star Anise Oil. 

Sweet Fennel Oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a very sweet, but slightly earthy or 
peppery-spicy odor and a clean, sweet-aromatic dryout. There is a hint of a fruity-fresh 
topnote in fresh oils. The flavor is warm-spicy, aromatic, then sweet and only faintly burning. 

The oil is still used in some perfume types, e.g. chypre, fougere, etc., but it is used more 
extensively in flavor work, e.g. liqueurs, licorice candy, cough drops, lozenges, etc. The annual 
production in France has been as high as 500 tons, according to information from suppliers to 
the French "anisette" brandy industry. 

Sweet Fennel Oil is the pharmaceutical ("Codex") fennel oil. It is frequently adulterated—or it 
may be entirely artificial— in the same way as is the oil of bitter fennel fruit (see previous 
monograph). 

Fenugreek. 

From a far Eastern bean comes a seed which has attracted the attention of perfumers and 
flavorists increasingly during the past three decades. Trigonella Foenum Graecum is a sizeable 
herb, probably originated in Iran or India, now widely cultivated in Arabia, China (Kwangsi and 
Yunnan), Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Morocco, and Tunisia. 

The uncrushed seed emits only a very faint odor. Flowever, the comminuted seed releases an 
intensely sweet, spicy, protein like, "soup-like" and caramellic odor. Steam distillation of the 
seeds has been tried although with very poor yields of oil. Extraction with volatile hydrocarbon 
solvents or with weak alcohol will yield products of various appearance, odor and flavor. The 
hydro alcoholic extract is very dark and resinous in appearance; it has an intensely sweet, 
rootlike odor. The petroleum ether extract of the crushed seeds is lighter of color but less 
sweet of odor. The characteristic odor of Fenugreek Extract is a celery-like spicyness, a 
coumarinic-balsamic sweetness and an intense, almost sickening and strong, lovage-like or 
opopanax-like note of extreme tenacity. The diffusive power of the odor of this material is 
usually underestimated by far. Traces of fenugreek extract can ruin a perfume or a flavor if the 
extract is used in "wrong" combinations; but equally minute concentrations of fenugreek 
extract can do wonders in certain compositions: Oriental bases, aldehydic-herbaceous 
topnotes, chypres, fougeres, lavender compositions, new mown hay bases, etc. 

Fenugreek Extract is very useful in flavors such as maple (for maple syrup, "burnt sugar", 
caramel notes, etc.), vanilla compositions, butterscotch, rum (excellent fixative for the low- 
boiling esters), licorice, pickles, cheese, seasonings, etc. The extract blends excellently with 
cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one), heptalactone, maraniol (4-methyl-7- 
ethoxy-coumarin), anethole, safrole, undecanolide, etc. and with celery seed oleoresin, lovage 


180 


oil or oleoresin, licorice extract, etc. The crushed Fenugreek Seed is used in certain types of 
the so-called Indian curry powder, see Curcuma Oleoresin. 

The annual world production of Fenugreek Seed runs into thousands of tons but only a 
fraction hereof ends up in perfumes and flavors. The seed serves as a cattle feed on account of 
its content of proteins and vegetable (fatty, fixed) oil. The seed can be deodorized for this 
purpose. If cows are fed with fenugreek seed which has not been deodorized, the cows' milk 
will smell and taste of fenugreek. 

The suggested use-level of a hydro-alcoholic Fenugreek Extract in flavors is 0.20 to 1.00 mg%. 
For straight "maple" flavoring the figure will be somewhat higher. The Minimum Perceptible 
of this type of extract is about 0.10 mg%. 

Fern. 

Fern Extract is used very rarely, if used at all, in perfumery although the material is well known 
and available as a pharmaceutical drug. True fern absolutes do exist but they have been 
replaced by complex perfume bases ("fougeres") in which oakmoss (see this monograph) and 
certain salicylates play a major role in respect to odor type. 

The foliage of certain ferns is fragrant, but the commercially available extract is produced from 
the rhizomes of the "male fern", Dryopteris Filix-Mas, also known as Aspidium. The most 
commonly available extract is an oleoresin which is used in medicines as a teniafuge. It is a 
poison and should only be used as part of a complex cure, as prescribed by a physician. 

Oleoresin of Aspidium is a dark green, viscous liquid which on standing deposits a crystalline 
substance. The oleoresin is soluble in alcohol and perfume oils and it can be used in perfume 
compositions if so wished. The odor of true Fern Extract (oleoresin of aspidium) is sweet- 
woody, somewhat earthy, very rich and tenacious but of comparatively poor strength (low 
odor yield) in perfume compositions. The inevitable solvent note is distinctly perceptible and 
often ruins the impression of the light, green-bark-like or cambial like notes which are so 
characteristic of true, freshly prepared Fern Extract (or fresh, broken rhizomes). The plant 
from which the rhizome is obtained is known widely in Europe; other varieties are found all 
over the world. In a few remote islands one can find "leftovers" of prehistoric fern-trees of an 
appearance which is presumably unchanges through millions of years. Reunion Island, now a 
famous perfume island, is one place where you can still find fern trees 10 to 12 metres high 
and with a trunk measuring up to 40 cms. in diameter. Sections of these trunks are hollowed 
out and made into flower-pots in which the islanders plant orchids without any soil. The orchid 
can extract nutrition from the coarse fibres of the pot for more than a year until the pot is 
literally "digested" by the orchid. 

In view of the fact that methyl salicylate was recommended for use in Fougere perfume bases 
many decades ago, it is interesting to note that this ester has been identified as a natural 
constituent of the stems of various ferns. Methyl salicylate is present as such, not glycosidically 
combined (in contradistinction to wintergreen and other plants). 

A description of the classical perfume complex which is known by the name of Fougere falls 


181 


beyond the scope of this work. Some of the materials which are frequently used in Fougere 
perfume compositions are: amyl salicylate, bergamot oil, coumarin and coumarin derivatives, 
heliotropine, ionones and methyl ionones, isobornylacetate, iso cyclo citral, isoeugenol, flouve 
oil, geranium oil, labdanum products, lavender or lavandin oils, nitromusks and other synthetic 
musks, methyl salicylate (traces) or benzyl salicylate, isobutyl salicylate, etc., rose de mai 
absolute, rosemary oil, sandalwood oil, sage clary oil, oakmoss products, patchouli oil, vanillin 
and derivatives, vetiver oil, ylang-ylang oil, etc. Characteristic of the Fougere perfume type is 
it, that the basic "fougere" note is obtained by two or three items alone: Oakmoss, coumarin, 
amyl salicylate—or: oakmoss + amyl salicylate. 

Fig Leaf Absolute. 

This comparatively rare perfume material has attained some interest among perfumers during 
the past decades. A few of the Grasse factories specialize in extraction of botanical drugs, etc. 
and some of these factories are more research- minded than others. Thus, there is hardly any 
botanical raw material within reach of the extraction factory which has not been subject to a 
thorough investigation. Fig leaves is one example. 

The leaves derive from Ficus Carica, one of the oldest of all the cultivated plants in the 
Mediterranean area. Growing wild as a shrub it is cultivated as a small tree in most of the 
countries around the "blue sea". This cultivation is, however, mainly conducted for the 
purpose of producing the edible "fruits" (swollen receptacles) which we call Figs. 

Algeria, Greece, Turkey and Spain are main producers of sun-dried figs but the tree is also 
cultivated in the south of France for local, partly private consumption. Accordingly, there is leaf 
material available for the present small-scale production of Fig Leaf Absolute in Grasse. The 
leaves are extracted with petroleum ether and the resulting concrete is washed with alcohol to 
produce the absolute (see Absolute, Part One of this book). 

Fig Leaf Absolute is a dark green to brownish green, semi-solid mass or a heavy, viscous liquid 
of a delicately sweet-green, herbaceous and somewhat woody odor with a mossy undertone. 
The absolute is used in various perfume creations, mostly those of the fougere, moss, chypre 
or meadow-type. It is also an interesting modifier in green-leafy "foliage" bases, etc. 

The annual production of Fig Leaf Absolute is probably less than 200 kilos but it could easily be 
adjusted to a higher figure in case of increased interest. 

Fir Needle Absolute. 

A fairly recent addition to the materials on the perfumer's shelf is the extract of one or more 
kinds of pine needle, spruce needle, etc. Concretes as well as absolutes are available, and the 
botanical raw material varies from one supplier to another. In France, the main source is Abies 
Alba, a silver fir, while in the U.S.A., Abies Balsamea, the balsam fir, or Tsuga Canadensis, the 
eastern hemlock spruce, are the main suppliers of needles and twigs for the extraction. 

The materials are extracted with benzene, ethyl ether, acetone or petroleum ether, and a 
concrete is produced. The concrete is sometimes called Oleoresin of Balsam Fir Needles. It is 
not a true oleoresin, and it is rarely extracted exclusively from one botanical species. The 


182 


concrete is a very dark green paste, often grainy, and after standing, it displays white, 
needleshaped crystals of an intensely sweet odor, reminiscent of the odor of strawberry jam 
and caramellized sugar. 

The concrete can be used as such in soap perfumes as it is soluble in most perfume oils. The 
intense green color is a drawback and prohibits the use of this concrete in perfumes for white 
soaps, even at the low concentration in which the concrete is used in soap perfumes (often 
less than one percent in the perfume). Its odor power is easily underestimated, and the 
apparent suave sweetness has a tremendous penetration in most fragrances. Obviously, this 
material is particularly useful in pine and spruce fragrances, "Christmas tree"-odors, etc., but 
the real pleasure of such a material is primarily obtained when it is used in the more unusual 
places, e.g. chypre, fougere, muguet (!), cologne bases, violet bases, opopanax, hyacinth, 
carnation, etc. 

Fir needle concrete is further treated with alcohol to produce an Absolute of Fir Needles 
which when it comes from American suppliers is a dark green, semi-liquid or syrupy mass of 
sweet-coumarinic, somewhat fruity and intensely balsamic odor; briefly, it is very true to 
nature. The absolute of fir needles from French suppliers is usually a syrupy, amber-brown, 
clear liquid which has an odor more balsamic and sweet than pinelike and of great tenacity. It 
is conceivable that the French extracts are made from dry or partly dried material which would 
not produce a green color in the extract. 

Attempts to produce a decolorized fir needle absolute have so far failed or resulted in only a 
slight color change from deep green to brownish green. Molecular distillates of fir needle 
concrete with high-boiling, co-distilling solvents have been produced experimentally. These 
products are almost colorless, viscous liquids, but their odor is significantly different from that 
of the green extract of fir needles (or spruce needles). 

The alcohol-soluble Fir Needle Absolute is obviously stronger in odor than the concrete (it is 
free from resins and waxes), and it should be used with utmost care, particularly in perfumes 
other than the pine types. Additions far below one percent in the perfume oil are often 
sufficient to introduce the wanted "naturalness" to a pine fragrance, and much smaller 
concentrations can be used to obtain warm and "special effects" in many other perfume types. 
The absolute blends well with amyl salicylate, bergamot oil, coumarin, cypress oil, labdanum, 
lavandin oil, linalool, linalyl acetate, nerol, oakmoss products, rosemary oil, sage clary oil, 
thyme oil, etc. 

There is a great difference between the odor and effect of the extracts from various suppliers. 
The French extracts reproduce the fragrance of the fallen needles in a forest of conifers, e.g. 
on a hot and dry summer day. The American extracts resemble in odor the refreshing scent of 
young spruces and firs in a plantation after a heavy rainfall. Their odor is more "juicy" and it 
also reminds of the fragrance from recently felled conifers, Christmas trees, etc. A general 
description of Fir Needle Absolute as such is well-nigh impossible. 

At present, these materials are produced regularly, but larger quantities are available only 
upon request and a reasonable notice. An estimated 1000 kilos are produced annually in the 
United States, and somewhat less in France. The absolute is from 4 to 8 times as expensive as 


183 



the essential oil from same botanical source. An increased interest may bring this ratio down, 
and make the use of these highly interesting perfume materials even more popular in the 
future. 

"Fir" Needle Oil. 

Before entering on a brief discussion of the various "fir" and pine needle oils, it may be 
practical to give a brief summary of the oils which generally are offered under one or the other 
label: 

1. Siberian Fir Needle Oil, in the United States called Siberian Pine needle oil is derived 
from the leaves (needles) of a true fir, Abies Sibirica, see monograph on Fir Needle Oil, 
Siberian following this monograph. 

2. Japanese Fir Needle Oil, also called pine needle oil, is derived from the leaves and 
twigs of Abies Mayriana and Abies Sachalinensis, see monograph: Abies sp. in this 
book. 

3. Silver Fir Needle Oil, is derived from the leaves and twigs of the European Abies Alba, 
known in Germany and Austria as "Edeltanne" and "Weisstanne". See monograph on 

Abies Alba under which also the oils of Abies Excelsa, Abies Picea and Abies Pectinata 

are mentioned. 

4. Balsam Fir Needle Oil is derived from the leaves and twigs of the Canadian and 
northeast American "balsam fir", Abies Balsamea, (see monograph). 

5. Scandinavian Fir Needle Oil is best known as oil of Pinus Sylvestris (see monograph). 
Botanically, it is truly a Pine Needle Oil. See also 10). 

6. Picea Excelsa— see monograph under this heading. 

7. Spruce Oils— see Spruce (including Tsuga Canadensis and other species distilled with it 
to yield Spruce Oil). 

8. Canadian or White Pine, see Pinus Strobus (monograph). See also Pinus — oils. 

Oils that are steam distilled from leaves and twigs of various Abies-, Larix-, Picea-, and Pinus 
species are sold under the name of Fir Needle Oil (translated from various European 
languages). 

9. Canadian Black Pine is a spruce, Picea Nigra which yields a needle oil of up to 50% 
bornyl acetate, the highest of all pine needle oils. This oil is not produced commercially 
but the tree is lumbered, and there is a huge amount of leaves and twigs available for 
distillation in case of any interest in this oil. 

10. Dwarf Pine Needle Oil, which is steam distilled from the needles of Pinus Pumilio (see 
monograph). This tree is also known as Pinus Montana, and, in Yugoslavia, the dwarf 
pine needle oil is marketed as Pinus Montana Oil. 

Fir Needle Oil, Siberian. 

Commercial name: Siberian pine needle oil (truly a Fir). This essential oil is steam distilled from 
the twigs and leaves (needles) of Abies Sibirica, a tree that grows abundantly in the 
northeastern parts of the U.S.S.R., Mongolia, and has been introduced into various European 


184 


countries, particularly Finland. Smaller amounts of the oil are produced in Tyrol (Austria), 
Germany, Poland, Sweden and, occasionally, in Norway. 

Siberian Fir Needle Oil is undoubtedly the most popular type of "fir" needle oil in Europe, and 
one of the most popular in the U. S. A. also. It is a colorless to very pale yellow or pale olive- 
yellow, oily liquid, occasionally turbid or opalescent. Its odor is refreshingly balsamic, slightly 
fatty or oily with a powerful pine-forest odor, and a peculiar fruity-balsamic undertone. 

The oil is probably produced in quantities of several hundred metric tons annually, but the 
amount of adulterated and out-and-out artificial oils sold under the same name is 
overwhelming. Furthermore, the majority of all genuine lots of this oil derive from the U.S.S.R., 
and these factors make it difficult to give more than an approximation of the actual production 
figures. Apart from the high amount of bornyl acetate (about 40%), the oil contains a number 
of terpenes. It is conceivable that camphene, myrcene and phellandrene play a more 
important role in the particular fragrance of this oil than does the pinene which was once 
considered its main monoterpenic constituent. Bisabolene, a sesquiterpene, may also 
contribute to the tenacious, balsamic sweet dryout notes in this oil on a perfume blotter. Trace 
amounts of certain aliphatic aldehydes (dodecanal, etc.) may be responsible for the freshness 
of this odor, and possibly one or more compounds related to larixinic acid (commercially 
known under the brand name of "palatone", etc.) contribute to the balsamic and "jam"-like, 
fruity sweetness of the odor of this oil. The latter material has been identified in the bark from 
this tree and from other conifers. The presence of dodecanal is perhaps more surprising, but it 
is certainly characteristic of the odor of Siberian Pine Needle Oil. 

The oil blends well with other pine or "fir needle oils, amylsalicylate, coumarin, oakmoss 
products, nitromusks, diphenyl oxide, citrus oils, rosemary oil, juniper berry oil, labdanum 
extracts, patchouli oil, lavandin oil, etc. The particular odor and aldehydic topnote of this oil 
makes it an interesting material for use in "unconventional perfumery. 

Flouve Absolute. 

From the flowering tops of a grass which is known in France as Flouve Odorante, various 
perfume and flavor materials are produced. It is conceivable, but not known to the author 
from his own experience, that the botanical material is the withering tops including the ripe 
grass seed, and that this material is dried, perhaps slightly fermented, prior to distillation or 
extraction. The plant is related to the grass which is used as cattle feed when dried, also called 
Hay. See also Hay Absolute and Hay Oil. 

Flouve Absolute was for many years produced by only one house in Grasse, France. They 
originally produced an essential oil, Flouve Oil (see following monograph). 

The product sold today under the name of Flouve Absolute is very dependent upon this single 
producer and supplier. Since it is such a highly interesting and quite unique item, several other 
producers recently have put a similar material on the market under the same label. 

Flouve Absolute is a viscous, greenish-amber to brownish-yellow liquid, having a very sweet, 
herbaceous, tobacco-like and coumarinic odor. The odor is so rich and so complex that one can 
keep on finding notes in it. However, the overall fragrance is a sweet, licorice-like, root-like, 


185 


somewhat mossy-herbaceous like wet underforest and meadows, of exceptional tenacity and 
high penetrating power. The author has heard some quite interesting comments on the odor 
of the absolute or the oil from people when they smell these materials for the first time. The 
odor is described as being "like the steam from a pot of hot cereal (porridge)",—"bread",—"a 
beer breery",—"an emptied beer glass", etc. 

The flavor is similar: very sweet, reminiscent of tobacco, i.e. the flavored shag tobacco or 
cigarette tobacco. This description may not be a very good one because the absolute (and the 
oil) is actually used in certain tobacco flavors. Furthermore, Flouve Absolute is a fine modifier 
in maple, licorice, root-beer, licorice-anise, caramel, hazelnut and numerous other flavor types. 
However, it must be kept in mind that the power of this absolute is very easily 
underestimated. The Minimum Perceptible in a 9% sugar water at 10°C. is about 0.03 to 0.05 
mg%. The essential oil (see next monograph) has an even greater flavor power. The absolute 
has flavor effects in common with Cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2- cyclopenten-l-one) and 
6-methyl coumarin, but none of these synthetic materials can offer such a rich body and 
naturalness as that obtained from Flouve. 

In perfumes, Flouve Absolute is useful in chypre, fougere, pine, Oriental bases, and in traces as 
a sweetener for dry-woody notes which can be modified in a very pleasant way with flouve 
absolute. It blends excellently with oakmoss products, labdanum extracts, pine needle oils or 
fir needle absolute, chamomile oils, cypress oil, lavandin and lavender oils, petitgrain oils (the 
terpeneless in particular!), etc. The usual concentration of Flouve Absolute in a perfume base 
should be well below one percent, and effects are often perceptible below the concentration 
of 0.1% in the perfume oil. Thus, cost is no serious drawback although Flouve belongs to the 
"medium" priced raw materials (about three to four times the cost of geranium oil). 

The annual production of flouve absolute fluctuates according to immediate demand, but is 
usually estimated at less than 200 kilos. The botanical raw material exists in fairly large 
quantities, and the absolute could be available in larger amounts if needed. Since it is a kind of 
a "specialty", there is little reason to discuss adulteration. The author is not convinced, 
however, that this product is derived exclusively from the extraction of one botanical material 
with no addition whatsoever. Still, it must be noted that Flouve Absolute (and Flouve Oil) is 
unquestionably one of the most interesting "natural" perfumery materials which have come 
up during the past decades. 

Flouve Oil. 

From the dried upper part of the grass, Flouve Odorante, harvested during or after the 
inflorescence, an essential oil can be produced by steam distillation under certain 
circumstances. Originally produced by only one company in Grasse, little is known of the 
details of production for this oil. It is conceivable, however, that an ordinary steam distillation 
is insufficient to produce an oil of appearance and composition like the Flouve Oil. One 
peculiarity of the oil is its abnormally high specific gravity. But whatever the physico-chemical 
properties are, this oil can offer quite unique effects in perfumes and flavors. 

Flouve Oil is a light amber colored or pale orange-yellow, viscous oil of intensely sweet, 
coumarinic-haylike and heavy herbaceous odor. In contrast to the absolute (see previous 


186 


monograph) the oil has no mossy notes, but it has a certain fatty-rootlike undertone 
reminiscent of elecampane and mimosa. It is not floral, however, but it presents part of the 
fragrance of a meadow with flowering herbs and grasses. 

The flavor is also sweet: somewhat licorice-like, tobacco-like, slightly malty-herbaceous, 
reminiscent of beerwort, roots and sweet wood, and it is extremely powerful. The suggested 
use level is about 0.08 to 0.20 mg%, while the Minimum Perceptible is 0.01 to 0.03 mg%. It is 
even superior to Cyclotene (see previous monograph) in respect to threshold flavor 
perception. Cyclotene is probably the closest approach among the synthetic materials to the 
odor-flavor type of Flouve Oil. 

The oil has been used for the flavoring of a famous brand of cigarette tobacco, and it finds 
extensive use in the flavoring of candy, carbonated waters (root-beer types), chocolates, 
caramels, etc., where it acts as an intensifier and modifier of vanillin, anethole, palatone, 
fenugreek extracts, cyclotene, maraniol, etc. It has an outstanding masking effect to cover 
unpleasant flavors and odors. The oil blends well with amylsalicylate, acetanisole, 
anisaldehyde, cassie, lavender, lavandin, oakmoss products, linalool, sage clary, nerol, alpha- 
terpineol, mimosa, costus, etc. It is used in perfumery in fougeres, chypres, new mown hay 
bases, Oriental bases, ambres, etc.—although always at a very low concentration. It often 
accompanies chamomile, tansy, artemisia oils, galbanum and other essential oils in trace 
amounts to produce "special effects", topnotes, etc. The oil is thus almost generally applicable. 

The annual production of Flouve Oil is limited to a few hundred kilos, but could possibly be 
increased upon demand at a fair notice. The oil is presumably composed of several items of 
which the distillate of the grass forms the major part. 

See also Flouve Absolute (previous monograph). 


G 

Galanga Oil. 

Also known as "Galangal Oil" or "False Ginger Oil". The oil is steam-distilled from the 
comminuted rhizome of Alpinia Officinarum, a relative to ginger and cardamom. The plant is a 
native of Hainan, southeast Chinese island, and of the peninsulas Pak-Hoi and Lei-Tchou 
where it is widely cultivated. Galanga is also cultivated in Indonesia, Siam, and Japan where 
many varieties of Alpinia have been cultivated experimentally. The above plant, however, 
gives the highest yield of essential oil by far, and the most interesting oil, too. The above 
Galanga Oil should not be confused with the essential oil of Kaempferia Galanga (see 
monograph). It should also be kept in mind, that in the beginning of the 20th century, Galanga 
rhizomes were derived from a different plant which was cultivated in China and east India: 
Alpinia Galanga. The essential oil from the rhizomes of this plant is substantially different from 
the galanga oil of today. It seems however, that Alpinia Officinarum is the only plant whose 
rhizomes are used in the production of galanga oil today. 


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Galanga Oil is a yellowish to olive-brown, occasionally pale olive or pale yellow liquid of fresh- 
camphoraceous and spicy-woody odor reminiscent of laurel leaf oil, cardamom oil, ginger oil, 
etc., with a distinct cineole-like topnote and a warm undertone of rich and spicy body. The 
flavor is somewhat bitter at high concentration, but warm and spicy, leaving a faintly cool 
aftertaste. The suggested use level is about 2.00 to 4.00 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 
0.50 to 1.00 mg%. In respect to flavor power, it is inferior to all the common spice oils. 

Galanga Oil is used in flavor work as a trace additive in spice compounds where it acts as a 
modifier for cardamom, ginger, nutmeg, etc. It blends well with Moroccan chamomile, 
Dalmatian sage, cinnamon, allspice, etc. in flavors for baked goods, meat sauces, etc. It finds 
some use as a modifier in flavors for soft drinks, e.g. ginger ale and root beer types, and in 
certain types of candy flavors. The galanga rhizome itself is occasionally used in Indian curry 
powder blends. See also Galanga Oleoresin, next monograph. 

Galanga oil is rarely used in perfumery, but it could introduce interesting notes in Oriental 
bases, woody fragrances, spicy perfumes, etc. It blends well with lavandin, pine needle oils, 
citrus oils, rosemary oils, patchouli oil, myrtle oil, opopanax oil, etc. 

The oil is produced in very limited quantities mainly in Europe and the U.S.A. from imported 
rhizomes. Recently, China has started production of the essential oil from locally grown 
material. The oil is not regularly available yet. 

Galanga Oleoresin. 

Galanga Oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin. With the definitions of this book it is either a 
concrete or a resin absolute (concentrated tincture). It is very rarely offered from the usual 
suppliers of perfume or flavor materials but it is occasionally prepared by the flavor houses for 
their own use, or it is produced upon demand by one of the extraction specialists in Grasse or 
elsewhere (England or Holland). 

Galanga "Oleoresin" is produced from the comminuted rhizomes of Alpinia Officinarum, see 
Galanga Oil. The solvent is either acetone, benzene, petroleum ether or, in certain cases, ethyl 
alcohol. Benzene is avoided when the product is intended for use in flavors. Ethyl alcohol 
produces a very dark but easily soluble extract. The resinoid varies in color and consistency 
according to the solvent used. The color is orange-red to dark, red-brown and the resinoid is 
usually a viscous, non-pourable mass of a spicy-balsamic, warm, yet fresh odor and a warm, 
somewhat biting, spicy-woody flavor with a characteristic, faintly cooling aftertaste. The flavor 
bears some resemblance to that of curcurma or ginger. 

Galanga Oleoresin finds now and then use in flavors as a modifier for ginger, cardamom, 
allspice, nutmeg, etc. with which it blends favorably. The "oleoresin" represents the closest 
approach to the odor and flavor of the rhizome itself and it offers obvious advantages over the 
old-fashioned tincture in this respect. The "oleoresin" remains, however, a rarity and a 
specialty which is hardly ever offered from the regular supply houses. 

Galanga rhizomes have since long been used as a non-pungent additive in the production of 
Chinese "preserved stem ginger" which is exported in the very decorative "bojans" (artistically 
hand- painted and ornamented clay or china jars). 


188 


See also Ginger Absolute, Ginger Oil, Ginger Oleoresin. 


Galbanum. 

Galbanum is a natural oleo-gum-resin (see definitions in Part One of this work). Speaking 
strictly in accordance with our definitions, galbanum should be listed as a natural oleo-resin 
since the perfumery grade of galbanum contains very little gum. 

Galbanum is one of the typical examples of a botanical which has "changed" appearance, 
composition and odor during the past five decades. This is apparent when we look into 
literature from 1939, 1936,1926 or even further back: the description of galbanum in these 
works is outdated. A few, more modern authors suggest that more rapid transportation to the 
user is the main reason for the significant change, but it seems inconceivable that this should 
be the only reason. The author of this book has seen various African and Middle-eastern 
"gums" arrive at the original shipping stations after harvesting, and it appears that the time 
which elapses between harvesting and the arrival of the merchandise on board ship in the 
nearest export harbor, has not changed significantly. Only the transportation from the port of 
origin (departure) to the destination (user) has been slightly shortened. 

Galbanum is collected from not one, but several different species of Ferula (big umbellifer 
plants). These grow wild in Iran and in the countries toward Asia Minor, e.g. Lebanon. There 
are still—as the literature correctly says—two types: a hard and a soft galbanum offered 
commercially. For perfumery, only the soft variety has interest. The hard galbanum is used in 
pharmacy and for various industrial purposes. 

Soft Galbanum is a dark amber-colored to yellowish-brown or grayish-green, olive-brown, very 
viscous liquid whose consistency is like fresh honey. It is usually contaminated with wood 
splinters, sand, gravel, plant fibres, insects, etc., and it will separate a "foot" of a grayish mass 
on the bottom of its container. This precipitate contains water, sand, some dissolved gum, etc., 
and it has no perfumery value. It is often possible to eliminate it when emptying a container, 
since the precipitate is not pourable, while the useful galbanum is just pourable at room 
temperature (over 20° C.). 

The odor of crude galbanum (soft type) is powerful, green-woody, almost balsamic-resinous, 
reminiscent of oleoresins from conifers. The leafy- earthy, green note is often referred to in 
terms, such as: "like green peppers" or "tossed green salad", etc. There is a distinct 
resemblance to the odor of hyacinth leaves. For a further odor description, see Galbanum 
Resinoid. 

The "hard" galbanum will be discussed here only with respect to its physical description: it is a 
dry, solid, gravel-like material with a faint odor and variable color; it consists of yellow, orange, 
red tears or drops, and it is somewhat less hard and brittle than olibanum which it resembles 
to a certain degree. This type of galbanum is known as Persian Galbanum. 

Soft Galbanum or Levant Galbanum is collected in very large quantities, and tens of tons are 
used by the perfume industry, in contradiction to various statements that "galbanum is used 
to a limited extent in certain perfume types". It is true that its application is limited to a 
comparatively small number of perfume types, but some of these types are very common in 


189 


use. The Soft Galbanum also serves as a starting material for the distillation of Galbanum Oil 
(see monograph) which is abundantly present in this type of galbanum. 

Being an exudation of a physiological (naturally formed) product, Galbanum does not require 
much work beyond its actual collection. It is conceivable that the perfumery type of galbanum 
is mainly derived from those species of Ferula in which the exudation appears at the umbel 
itself. This exudation contains more essential oil, and is softer than the exudations from stalks, 
etc. from other species of Ferula. 

See monographs on Galbanum Oil and Galbanum Resinoid. 

Galbanum Oil. 

Galbanum oil is steam distilled or steam-and- water distilled from Galbanum (see previous 
monograph). The "soft" or "Levant" type of galbanum is preferred since it contains far more 
essential oil. The yield of Galbanum Oil by steam/water distillation is usually in excess of 15%, 
often around 22%, calculated upon the weight of the crude botanical material. The author has 
obtained yields of 26% of galbanum oil from good qualities of galbanum. Distillation is 
undertaken far away from the origin of Galbanum; usually the oil is distilled in France, 
Germany, England or in the U.S.A., and it is quite customary for perfume houses to distil their 
own galbanum oil. As a rule, certain fractions of the distillate are eliminated prior to bulking of 
the essential oil. Sulfide odors in the light fractions (heads) and strong paintyterpeney notes in 
the tail fractions (and in the medium-light fractions), particularly those rich in alpha- and beta- 
pinene, are usually left out. A partially deterpenized (monoterpene-free) oil is known as 
Galbanol. There is no actual standard as to the composition of galbanum oil or galbanol, and 
the selection of fractions is primarily a matter of esthetics. 

Galbanum Oil is a colorless to pale yellow or pale olive-yellow, mobile liquid which possesses 
an intensely green, fresh-leafy odor with a dry- woody undertone of balsamic, bark like 
character. A very striking description often heard is "like green peppers or tossed green salad". 
The oil has a pine-like topnote which is less pronounced in the odor of the resinoid. The latter, 
in turn, has a more woody-balsamic, conifer-resinous character. The pine-like topnote can be 
removed by fractional distillation of the oil. The woody-balsamic, soft- green and tenacious 
undertone can be isolated in the high-boiling fractions. Galbanol is a trade name for the latter 
type of galbanum oil fractions. 

Galbanum oil finds extensive use, although always in very modest concentrations, in 
compositions of chypre, fougere, pine, forest, moss, etc., and it will introduce interesting notes 
in many florals where its leafy character is necessary in the completion of a true naturalness: 
hyacinth, violet, narcissus, lavender, gardenia, etc. It blends well with cinnamic alcohol, 
coumarin, cuminaldehyde, dimethyl benzyl carbinol, geraniol, geranium oil, cyclamal, 
isoeugenol, linalool, oakmoss products, pine needle oils, fir needle absolute, methyl phenyl 
carbinyl propionate, styrax resinoid or styrax oil, etc., and it can actually find use in countless 
perfume types and bases. 

The annual production of galbanum oil fluctuates to quite a degree, but it is steadily 
increasing, possibly exceeding 10 metric tons. Adulteration is not uncommon, usually by 


190 


means of simple dilution with pinene, foreruns from "galbanol" (see above), camphene, etc. 
These additions will easily be detected by the experienced perfumer during an olfactory 
examination of the oil. 

Galbanum Resinoid. 

Galbanum resinoid is prepared from the crude galbanum (see monograph). Years ago, when 
galbanum was a hard, grainy mass or lumps, the resinoid was prepared in the conventional 
way, i.e. by extraction with a hydrocarbon solvent and subsequent removal of the solvent after 
filtration. Because of the significant water content in the lower grades of galbanum, it was 
necessary to use solvents which are not miscible with water. Acetone and ethyl alcohol could 
not be used. 

During the 1950's, it became more and more "conventional" to prepare resinoids in such a 
way, that they would be pourable, regardless of the starting material from which they were 
derived. This was done by the simple addition of a solvent to the evaporation residue (which is 
the pure, "100%" resinoid). The customer had the advantage of getting a more handy material; 
weighing and mixing was easier, etc. This dilution idea was further developed into more 
practical extraction methods: an odorless, colorless, high- boiling solvent (or "plasticizer") was 
added during the evaporation, and it was left in the finished product which was just pourable 
at room temperature. Various botanical raw materials called for different amounts of solvent 
to be added according to the viscosity of the "100%" (i.e. solvent-free) resinoid. The content of 
essential oil in the resinoid determines the viscosity of the solvent-free resinoid. In exceptional 
cases, where the content of essential oil is so high that the botanical material is almost liquid 
(a so-called "balsam"), the above method can be revised to a simple addition of a non- 
distillable solvent to the crude botanical material. This mixture can be filtered or strained and 
the "resinoid" is ready for use. 

Crude Galbanum can be mixed with a certain amount of diethyl phthalate, isopropylmyristate, 
isopropylpalmitate, diethyl sebacate or similar solvent under gentle heating. Water and dirt 
will rise to the surface, respectively fall to the bottom of the mixture. After filtration or 
straining, the dregs, etc. are usually extracted with a volatile solvent. The extract is filtered and 
evaporated. The residue is added to the above prepared solution of galbanum in an odorless 
solvent. Benzyl benzoate was used some years ago, but it contributes to the odor in an 
unwanted way. The plasticized resinoid is left aside for several weeks or months during which 
period a certain amount of precipitate will settle. Small amounts of water may also separate. 
The finished product is now soluble in all types of perfume materials, but not clearly soluble in 
diluted alcohol, propylene glycol or similar hydrophilic solvent types. The product should be 
labelled with clear information on the amount of solvent added, e. g.: "Galbanum Resinoid 
67%, in D.E.P." or the like. 

However, the "prepared" resinoids are usually sold under various trade names or they may 
often be used exclusively by the producer. The method obviously carries a certain hazard: The 
customer can no longer rely upon the viscosity of the material to evaluate the approximate 
content of essential oil. The oil can be partially removed— and it is so in many cases—or it can 
be replaced by other materials. The solvent acts as an odor- depressant, and it is difficult to 


191 


evaluate the above "galbanum-solution" in comparison to a true resinoid (solvent-free), even if 
the supplier is willing to mention the exact percentage of resinoid and solvent in his product. 

Solvent-free galbanum resinoid is a semi-liquid, dark amber or brownish-golden material, 
almost pourable at room temperature. The odor is intensely rich-green, woody-balsamic, yet 
with a dry undertone, and it has the typical "green peppers" foliage-like note which is so 
pronounced in the essential oil (see monograph). The resinous, conifer-balsamic notes are very 
pronounced in the resinoid and in the prepared solutions. The resinoid is usually not clearly 
soluble in alcohol. Extracts of galbanum, prepared with ethyl alcohol as a solvent, are available. 
These "resin absolutes" are almost clearly soluble in alcohol. They are more or less 
"terpeneless" products of entirely different odor type: less green-sharp, more softbalsamic, 
rich, woody and very tenacious in odor. 

Galbanum Resinoid is an extremely interesting fixative with an odor of its own. It is useful in 
lavender, fougere, Oriental bases, chypres, pine fragrances, woody bases, moss odors, and in 
certain floral types. Its use in hyacinth is almost classic. Galbanum resinoid has the definite 
advantage over many synthetic "green-odor" materials in the fact that it mellows in almost 
immediately: it is possible to evaluate the result and the effect during the creation of the 
fragrance. Synthetic materials in this odor group often "grow" or "fade" in the perfume with a 
perceptible change in the odor of the perfume within a few weeks. 

The annual world production of Galbanum Resinoid is adjusted to the demand which has 
increased enormously during the past decade (1950's). So far, there has been no shortage of 
this material. 

Gardenia. 

The gardenia shrub, Gardenia Grandiflora (and other gardenias), is quite common as an 
ornamental plant in subtropical and warm-temperate zones of the world. The flowers of this 
plant have been known and admired for their outstanding fragrance for thousands of years. 
However, these flowers are rarely submitted to extraction for the isolation of essential oil, 
concrete or absolute. One reason is the very small yield (about 1 kilo of absolute from 5000 
kilos of flowers). Another reason is the limited use of the gardenia type of fragrance in 
perfumery. Finally, this type of fragrance has been comparatively easy to copy, although a 
good artificial gardenia base is more rare than for example a good artificial muguet base (lily- 
of-the-valley). Incidentally, a close resemblance to the natural product is not synonymous with 
unexcelled performance in a perfume. 

A concrete of Gardenia flowers was produced many years ago in the Indian Ocean island of La 
Reunion when the French extraction expert, Charles Gamier established himself with his 
world-famous equipment on that island. Production in La Reunion has been abandoned long 
ago. Various sorts of Gardenia Absolutes are occasionally offered on the market today. Some 
of these may actually derive from Grasse factories, but quite recently, Chinese and Formosan 
producers have offered Gardenia Concrete in Europe and India. 

The Chinese gardenia concrete is presumably derived from the flowers of Gardenia Florida 
which is a native of southeastern China. Gardenia Grandiflora is grown in China for its fruits 


192 


which yield Wong-Shi, a yellow colorant. Other varieties grow in Japan, in the Philippines, 
Indonesia, India, the West Indies, etc., but they are rarely utilized for perfume extraction. 

It serves no purpose to describe here outdated samples of true gardenia absolute when this 
material is no more in regular production. Samples of Chinese and Formosan gardenia 
concrete submitted to the author were of comparatively weak perfume effect. They were pale 
orange or amber colored, waxy masses of fatty-floral, somewhat fresh-green odor with a 
tuberose-like, sweet undertone, faintly reminiscent of the fragrance of the gardenia flower, 
but with heavy emphasis on the leafy-green notes. 

Gardenia Absolute was used for its intense and rich, floral effect and its peculiar sweet-green 
note. However, artificial gardenia perfume bases have now replaced the true and very 
expensive absolute from the flowers. 

Garlic Oil. 

If the users of this oil were aware of the sort of sufferings the operators in the still-room 
undergo when Garlic Oil is produced, the flavorists would probably appreciate the oil even 
more, and not complain about its high price. 

Garlic Oil is produced by steam distillation of the crushed garlic, the bulbs of Allium Sativum 
which is grown all over the world in temperate areas. The oil is distilled in Bulgaria, China, 
Egypt, France, Germany, and Japan. Egypt has been a major producer during the past two 
decades. Fresh bulbs are preferred for distillation. 

Garlic Oil is a colorless to pale yellow mobile liquid, and it has an extremely intense obnoxious 
odor, to a certain degree reminiscent of garlic, but with a predominant mercaptane-like note 
which masks the delicate, although strong and highly diffusive garlic odor. It is not 
lachrymatory, but simply so obnoxious that it scares even garlic-enthousiasts. 

An amino-acid called Alliin is found in certain cells of the bulb. Alliin is nearly odorless; 
however, in separate cells in the undamaged bulb, we find an enzyme which can convert the 
Alliin to the sulfide Allicin, a substance which has the typical garlic odor. However, during the 
steam distillation, the latter material is further converted into other sulfides which we smell in 
garlic oil, although not in crushed garlic. Thus, garlic oil is not representative of the flavor effect 
of fresh crushed garlic. The oil is, however, used to a great extent as a replacement for garlic in 
the same way that spice oils replace botanical spices. Dehydrated garlic is now available as a 
fine powder. It yields a more true-to-nature aroma than does the essential oil. The aroma of 
the powder appears immediately upon contact with the slightest amount of moisture. The 
odor principles of garlic and of garlic oil have been produced synthetically. 

Garlic Oil has obtained great popularity during the past 20 years, not only in terms of the 
increasing popularity of garlic itself, but also because of its therapeutic value in pharmaceutical 
preparations. The annual production of garlic oil is limited to a few hundred kilos, mainly 
because of the very low yield by distillation. The oil is occasionally distilled from dry bulbs in 
countries other than those who cultivate the garlic. 

See also Onion Oil and Onion Oleoresin. 


193 


Geranium (summary). 

Before going into the description of the individual types of geranium and geranium products, it 
would serve a practical purpose to list briefly the types which are available today: 

Geranium Absolute and Geranium Concrete: 

The main producer of geranium concrete is Morocco. No concrete is produced in Reunion, 
Algeria or the Congo. Certain quantities of geranium concrete are processed in France to 
Geranium Absolute. Small quantities of geranium concrete and geranium absolute are 
produced in Italy from locally cultivated plants. 

Geranium Oils: 

1. The original oil, French Geranium Oil, whose production is at an all-time low, and is 
still decreasing. 

2. The most important of today: Reunion Geranium Oil, amounting to more than 50% of 
the total world production of geranium oils. 

3. The very popular but scarce oil, Algerian Geranium Oil, earlier known as African 
Geranium, and once the largest of all geranium oils. The production reached its peak 
in the late 1920's and early 1930's with annual outputs of about 150 metric tons of oil. 
Figures for the late 1950's fluctuate between 6 and 15 tons. 

4. The recent and increasingly popular Moroccan Geranium Oil, produced in modern 
installations and in sizeable quantities. 

5. The Congo Geranium Oil, produced in the Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika, Angola, 
etc. in small, but increasing quantities. 

6. Central American geranium, produced in El Salvador on French financing. The oil has 
successfully passed the experimental stage. 

7. Various geranium oils, produced in annual lots of one to two metric tons, and often 
used locally: Haiti, Corsica, Italy, Lebanon, India, Japan. 

8. Russian Geranium Oil, produced in large quantities in the Crimean area and Caucasus, 
but entirely for domestic use. The present annual production (1959) is estimated at 50 
to 55 metric tons. 

9. Mawah Oil— see this heading. 

10. Zdravetz Oil, see this monograph. 

Geranium Absolute. 

This comparatively recent addition to the perfumer's shelf is produced from Geranium 
Concrete (see monograph) by the conventional method (see Absolutes, Part One of this work). 
By far, the largest part of all concrete comes from Morocco where part of the production is 
also processed further into Geranium Absolute in very modern installations, particularly in the 
region around Khemisset, Maaziz and Tiflet in northwestern Morocco, inland from the Atlantic 
coast near Rabat. 

Geranium Absolute can vary considerably in appearance and odor type depending on the type 
of solvent used in the extraction of the plant material. It seems that the petroleum ether 


194 


concrete is becoming more popular, and it yields an absolute of lighter color than do most 
other concretes. Geranium absolute is usually a green or dark green liquid with an intense and 
very powerful, somewhat leafy-earthy, but soft and pleasant odor. The leafy-green notes are 
quite pronounced, but the rich, rosy-minty undertone remains on a blotter throughout the 
evaporation of the oil. The odor of the absolute is less sharp and more tenacious than that of 
the essential oil. 

Since the yield of absolute from geranium is slightly higher than the yield of essential oil from 
the same plant material (in Morocco), there is reason to believe that Moroccan geranium 
absolute will be of increasing interest in perfumery. 

Geranium Water Absolute is produced by benzene- or petroleum ether extraction of the 
distillation waters from geranium oil production. 

This "water absolute" is rich in "rhodinol" but poor in terpenes, esters and ketones. Thus, it is a 
comparatively weak perfume material but nevertheless quite valuable for its rhodinol content. 
Geranium water absolute is produced in Morocco only. 

Since the geranium oil from Reunion ("geranium Bourbon") seems to decide the price of all 
other geranium oils, these products, including the absolute, are frequently adulterated. Only 
an olfactory examination in connection with an experienced instrumental analysis (vapor 
phase chromatography, infra-red, etc.), can establish a clever adulteration since all the main 
components and many of the trace constituents of geranium oil and geranium absolute are 
well known and synthetically produced. 

Geranium Absolute is used in perfumery, particularly in high-class rose bases, chypres, fantasy 
perfumes, etc. The concrete (see following monograph) offers certain advantages over the 
absolute in soap perfumes. 


Geranium Concrete. 

Geranium concrete is produced from the same plant material, i.e. leaves and branchlets of 
Pelargonium Graveolens, from which the essential oil is distilled. Extraction is carried out in 
Morocco, Italy, and France, Morocco being the most important producer by far. Various 
solvents have been used: first benzene which, however, is difficult to remove entirely from the 
evaporation residue (= the concrete); later on, petroleum ether became more popular as a 
solvent. It produces a concrete of less green color although the yield is slightly smaller than the 
yield from benzene-extraction. In both cases, the yields are slightly higher than the yield of 
essential oil by steam distillation. 

Geranium Concrete is a dark green or brownish- green, waxy mass; it has an intensely earthy 
herbaceous, somewhat sharp-rosy, foliage-green odor and great tenacity. It is soluble in 
perfume oils to a modest degree, and can thus be used with advantage in soap perfumes 
where its effect is quite inimitable. It lends a beautiful rich body to rose perfumes, and blends 
well with the conventional woody or spicy additives in rose soap perfumes, Oriental rose 
bases, chypre soap perfumes, etc. A great part of the Moroccan geranium concrete is further 
treated to yield geranium absolute (see previous monograph). 


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Geranium Concrete is occasionally offered as a mobile liquid of green or olive-green color. 

Such products are not always true concretes. However, extraction of geranium leaves with 
selective solvents which exhaust the plant material of odorous principles, but which do not 
extract waxes, coloring matter, etc., may lead to "liquid concretes". 

Decolorized Geranium Concrete is produced from the plant material directly with selective 
solvents or by treatment of the dark concrete with other solvents, occasionally followed by 
treatment with activated carbon and filtration. The finished product is often dark olive-green 
or brownish, but white concretes have also been offered. The latter type are presumably 
artificial concretes made from myristic acid, or waxes with the addition of true or artificial 
geranium oil and various synthetic additives. 

Geranium Concrete is produced in increasing amounts and is available from Morocco with no 
difficulty. The annual production may soon exceed 5 metric tons. 

Geranium Oil. 

One of the most important and irreplaceable essential oils in perfumery is Geranium Oil. It 
does not range among the first 20 oils in quantity annually produced if we include all types of 
essential oils (industrial oils, flavor oils, perfume oils). But considering its value, we will find 
Geranium Oils very high on the list of all the perfumery oils, if not at the very top of the list. 

The annual world production of all types of geranium oils can be estimated at not less than 200 
metric tons, and the value at approximately six to ten million U.S. dollars. 

About half the world production comes from the small island of La Reunion, 500 miles east of 
Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Next (in quantity produced) comes the U.S.S.R., Morocco. 
Algeria (once the world's leading producer), Colombia, El Salvador, East Africa (including the 
Belgian Congo) while West Africa, Japan, Italy, Spain, France and various other areas each 
produce less than two metric tons annually. 

Geranium Oil is steam distilled from the leaves and branches of Pelargonium Graveolens and 
other species of Pelargonium. This comparatively small plant is a hybrid from other 
pelargonium species, all of which originally came from South Africa. The funny part of the 
geranium story is that practically all perfumery geraniums have taken the same trip: to Europe 
first, and then back to some overseas region where they have been cultivated for the purpose 
of producing essential oil. The author knows of only one pelargonium that did not take the 
trouble of emigrating from South Africa to Europe and back again: the Kenya Pelargonium 
Radula Oil (see monograph on Mawah Oil) has been brought to the east African mountains 
directly from South Africa, probably as pelargonium graveolens, and then the plant has 
hybridized in Kenya. 

All geranium oils are distilled from cultivated plants. The yield is very small, usually from 0.1 to 
0.3 percent (of the plant material), averaging less than 0.2%. In most areas, there are two 
crops per year, but climatic conditions in the most important areas play a decisive role in the 
annual output of oil. 

Geranium Oils are used very extensively in perfumery. Significant quantities of geranium oil 
are used in the production of "rhodinol ex geranium" or "terpeneless geranium oil", etc., see 


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Geranium Oil, terpeneless. Very small amounts of geranium oil are still used in certain types of 
flavors. 

The individual types of geranium oil will be briefly discussed in the following monographs: 

Geranium Oil, "African". 

Only a few decades ago, the term "African geranium" was synonymous with "Algerian 
Geranium". Once the world's most overwhelming producer of geranium oil, Algeria barely 
achieves the rank of a small number three or four now. Several factors have contributed to the 
decline of Algeria as the leading producer of geranium oil: first, the increasing interest in the 
cultivation of vegetables and grapes in the beautiful, but rather limited "sun valley" of Algeria, 
the Mitidja plain; later, the gruesome and destructive years of insurrection, rebellion, strikes, 
riots, guerillas and warfare, terrorist actions, etc. These have reduced the size of the geranium 
fields, and the production of geranium oil has fallen off to less than 10 metric tons annually in 
recent years. As it is less exposed to climatic destruction, the Algerian geranium can grow 
peacefully in respect to weather conditions, and healthily, and the material is distilled in large 
and modem stills, producing a uniform oil of very attractive appearance: a pale yellow or pale 
olive-yellow liquid, usually crystal-clear, free from dirt and water; the odor is somewhat 
different from that of the Reunion geranium oil: it is lighter, more rosy-leafy, less minty, and 
usually free from the sulfide topnote. The herbaceous and powerful tone is subdued in the 
Algerian oil, and the rich, sweet-rosy dryout undertone is more pronounced. There are no 
traces of earthy or "potato"-like notes. Incidentally, a mixture of Algerian and Reunion 
geranium oil produces a very interesting combination odor. 

Algerian Geranium Oil is scarce and usually follows the Reunion oil in price fluctuations. It is 
equally subject to adulterations, but it is also available air freighted directly from the bulkers in 
Algeria when the oil is bought in 50-kilo lots or larger quantities. 

Moroccan Geranium: 

Of rapidly increasing importance is the geranium oil distilled in Morocco from plants that are 
cultivated in the northwestern parts of that country, a short distance inland from Rabat at the 
Atlantic coast. Harvest and distillation is highly rationalized and very modern, carried out on a 
large scale, partly thanks to clever political attitude of the larger producers toward the future 
government of Morocco. The production has thus not suffered significantly during the years of 
terrorism in Morocco in the first part of the 1950's or later. 

Adulteration "on the spot" is rare, but there is a possibility of local adulteration with Moroccan 
pennyroyal oil and with the absolute from the distillation waters in the production of the 
essential oil. The latter manipulation could be considered a "sophistication" rather than an 
adulteration of the oil. 

Moroccan Geranium Oil, now often called African Geranium, is a yellowish or dark yellow, 
rarely greenish-yellow liquid of sweet and powerful rosy-leafy, slightly herbaceous odor, 
combining some of the qualities of the Algerian oil with those of the Reunion type of geranium 
oil. The odor of the Moroccan oil is usually less fresh-leafy, but more earthy than that of 
Algerian oils, but there are commercial lots of Moroccan oils which are almost 


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indistinguishable from the very best Algerian oils. Moroccan geranium oil was not very popular 
when it first appeared on the market, but consumers have become accustomed to this type 
now, and it seems to have a safe future as a regular perfume raw material. The huge stills 
ensure a uniform quality, and the locality offers a great advantage for the users in comparison 
to the faraway Reunion supplies. Thus, the Moroccan geranium oil now follows the Reunion 
and the Algerian oils closely in price fluctuations, taking advantage of occasional cyclones in 
Reunion and the possibility of a further drop in the Algerian production. 

Belgian Congo Geranium: 

In the Belgian Congo, particularly in the eastern provinces of Kivu and in the Urundi region, 
geranium has been cultivated for more than 20 years. Production has been as high as 15 tons 
of oil per year, but the enormous interest in coffee, particularly after World War II, tempted 
many settlers to leave the growing of geranium and change to coffee-growing which demands 
much less attention. An important uptrend occurred in 1958, however, when, after the 
World's fair in Brussels, one of the settlers succeeded in buying large amounts of stainless steel 
for stills and in having the steel shipped to the Congo at a low cost. Stills were constructed with 
all necessary gear, and a standard size, 800 U.S. gallon (3000 litres) still could be bought and 
erected on the plantation for as little as 600 U.S. dollars. Already in 1959, results are visible: 
increased production, reasonable cost, uniform quality (bulked oil) and regular availability. 
Thus, we have another "African Geranium Oil" as a regular perfumery raw material. 

The oil is yellow and usually clear, free from water and dirt, has no sulfide topnote, but also 
less diffusive power than the Reunion and Algerian oils. The Congo oil is considerably sweeter 
and less herbaceous-minty, less earthy than these oils. It is, no doubt, generally an excellent 
starting material for the isolation of a natural "rhodinol". Lower in rough and terpenic notes, it 
also becomes a good item in combination with the other two oils. Congo oil is usually 
somewhat lower in cost than the Algerian or Reunion oils, but it may not be available "on the 
spot" all year round. As a rule, the oil is air freighted from Goma or Bukavu airports in the 
eastern Belgian Congo, directly from the producing region to the buyer. Adulteration is thus 
practically out of the question. 

Smaller quantities of geranium oils are produced in various other parts of Africa: 

East African Geranium Oil: 

In Kenya and Tanganyika, pelargonium graveolens is cultivated and locally distilled. However, 
in Kenya, the Mawah Oil (see monograph) is more important. The mawah oil can not 
substitute the true geranium oil in perfume formulas. The Kenya geranium oil is generally of 
good quality, high in rhodinol, but comparatively poor in diffusive power. It is inferior to 
Algerian and Reunion oils in respect to performance in soap (perfumes). In Tanganyika, a few 
tons of a similargeranium oil are annually produced and shipped, mainly to Europe. The East 
African oils are generally low in monoterpenes and ketones, comparatively high in alcohols. 

West African Geranium Oil: 


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In Angola, Portuguese West Africa, a German settler and world famous perfumer-author has 
cultivated and distilled geranium experimentally. The annual production is very small and 
there seems to be little interest in this oil. 

Egyptian Geranium Oil: 

Production of geranium oil has been discontinued. Geranium fields were abandoned in 1955 
(prior to the author's last visit there), and cultivation has not been recommenced. 
Nevertheless, commercial lots labelled "Egyptian geranium oil" are offered from time to time. 
It is presumable that such oils are either rejected lots from other sources, or that they are 
compositions of true and artificial geranium oils. 

It is still customary to use the term "African Geranium" in perfume formulas for true Algerian 
geranium oil. The above described African oils are substantially different in perfume type from 
Algerian oil. 


Geranium Oil, Reunion. 

Also called Geranium Bourbon from the old name of the island of La Reunion (lie de Bourbon), 
Geranium Oil, Reunion is the most important of all the geranium oils. It is produced in 
hundreds of small, mainly primitive stills which treat often less than one metric ton of plant 
material per charge. The daily output of oil from one still may be only a few kilos after many 
hours of work at two or more distillations, not to speak of scores of hours of back-breaking 
work in the field, ploughing, weeding, cleaning, fertilizing and cutting on steep hills where not 
even wheel-carts can go. The small lots of oil are sold to middlemen, who in turn sell larger lots 
to the brokers. The latter are usually French exporters or wholesale brokers. They bulk the oil 
lots, and this stepwise bulking of very small lots explains why the various drum lots of 
Geranium Bourbon Oil are fairly consistent and uniform in odor, but it also explains why the 
appearance of the oil is often poor: water, mud, precipitate and other worthless impurities 
may amount to several percent of the oil, and this can cause a sizeable loss for the buyer who 
wants to clean, filter or strain the oil. It is certainly no fun to buy water and dirt at the price of 
U.S. $ 55.— per kilo. It should be kept in mind, however, that certain exporters do filter the oil 
and remove the water before the oil is shipped overseas. The average temperature in Reunion 
island is about 25°C. At this temperature, the oil will dissolve more than one percent of water. 
Most of this water will "fall out" of the oil when the drums are shipped (particularly when air 
freighted!) to the buyer. The latter will find a significant amount of water at the bottom of his 
drum with the expensive oil. But in most cases, this water separation cannot be blamed upon 
the bulker or exporter in Reunion. The water must be accepted as a calculated risk. It can only 
be satisfactorily and finally removed after arrival at its destination. 

Freshly distilled Geranium Bourbon Oil has a very peculiar, rather obnoxious topnote which is 
partly due to dimethyl sulfide. The latter is probably not present as such in the leaves, but is 
produced during the rapid decaying of the plant material immediately prior to the field 
distillation. The unpleasant topnote will disappear after proper aeration or ageing of the oil, or 
when the oil is filtered or decanted. The color of the oil is then greenish-olive to almost 
brownish green. Later on, the green color fades, and the oil becomes more yellow when old. 

Its odor is very powerful: green, leafy-rosy, with a pronounced fruity-minty undertone and a 


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rich, long-lasting, sweet-rosy dryout. As for the flavor of geranium oil, although the oil is very 
rarely used in flavors at all, it is worthwhile mentioning that it has a bitter taste, rather 
herbaceous and not at all pleasant as such. It is used sparingly in combination with rich and 
sweet flavor materials, e.g. in the classic "sen-sen" type of flavors: with ionones. artificial 
musks, vanillin, bergamot oil, patchouli oil, clove oil, heliotropine, etc. Old-fashioned 
toothpaste flavors still contain small amounts of geranium oil. 

In perfumery, this oil is used so commonly that it is hardly possible to point out its particular 
application. For certain purposes, it is preferable to use a so-called Terpeneless Geranium Oil 
(see monograph: Geranium Oil, terpeneless) which may be produced from geranium oil 
"Bourbon" or from any of the other geranium oils with various results. Most often, the 
deterpenation is merely a removal of the light fractions in a vacuum distillation, and perhaps a 
few percent of the tail fractions and residue. 

Geranium Oil "Bourbon" is frequently adulterated, although never directly on the island of La 
Reunion. Unfortunately, very few consumers receive their geranium oil in the original 
containers directly from the source of production, but the long transport and possible delay 
seems to scare many buyers. However, many lots of geranium oil are now air freighted not 
only to France, but also to more distant customers. The fluctuations in availability and cost of 
Reunion geranium oil has encouraged certain supply houses to cut or plainly adulterate the oil, 
and only a thorough olfactory examination, combined with a solid knowledge of the true oil, 
can protect the customer from these frauds. Instrumental analysis has been a great help in 
detecting plain adulterations, dilutions, cutting, etc. and there is probably no other essential oil 
which has been so thoroughly investigated, or upon which so much time and money has been 
spent in order to detect and identify "key" odor constituents, as the geranium oil. This highly 
sensitive type of analysis has, unfortunately, also developed the unethical "art of 
sophistication" (or plain adulteration) to a point where the evaluation of a geranium oil is a 
challenge to the buyer, to his perfumers' noses, and to the analytical instruments at his 
disposal. 

Geranium Oils, Various. 

France: 

Very little, if any, geranium oil is produced from the plants cultivated in the south of France 
today. Occasionally imported lots of oil are distilled over roses to yield the so-called 
"Geranium sur Roses —de Grasse". This product, which is not an essential oil according to our 
definitions, serves certain perfumery purposes. It offers a rich and very sweet-rosy base for 
rose perfumes, muguet bases, carnation modifications, etc., but the user of this material is 
limited in his choice of suppliers in order to obtain the same proportion of rose and geranium 
in this co-distilled oil. Similar codistillations are common with: Sandalwood-rose, benzyl 
acetate—jasmin, petitgrain oil—orange flowers, etc. and e.g. the Indian "attars". 

Corsica: Insignificant amounts of geranium oil are produced here. 

Italy: The production mainly serves the local market which is far from saturated by the local 
production. 


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Spain: Similar to Italy. 

Japan: The production in 1958 was 3 metric tons which is far from sufficient for the local 
consumption. Recent import figures show an annual import of 15 to 20 metric tons to Japan. 

El Salvador: A French perfume house has established a firm interest among local farmers in the 
cultivation of geranium, and they expect to produce from 20 to 50 metric tons of geranium oil 
annually. The oil has not yet been marketed as Salvador Geranium Oil. 

Haiti: The production is insignificant. Political disturbances have greatly impaired the interest 
in perfume oil production. 

U.S.S.R.: According to the author's knowledge, geranium oil is not exported from the U.S.S.R., 
although it is estimated that the annual production is far in excess of 20 metric tons, perhaps 
over 50 tons. 

India: This country produces small quantities of geranium oil for local consumption. The 
production does not cover more than a fraction of the needs of the Indian soap and perfume 
industry. 

Geranium Oil, Terpeneless. 

Although the actual amount of hydrocarbons in geranium oil is comparatively small, the partial 
or total removal of "light" fractions of geranium oil (during a vacuum distillation) produces 
quite interesting perfume materials, distinctly different from the parent oil. From a chemical 
point of view, this treatment is not strictly a deterpenization (compare, e.g. wormwood oil, 
dethujonized) since the foreruns of a vacuum-distilled geranium oil will contain not only small 
amounts of pinene and other monoterpenes, but also certain amounts of aliphatic and olefinic 
alcohols of the C 6 to Ci 0 -series, perhaps even higher members. Traces of aldehydes, ketones 
and low-boiling esters are also present in these "head" fractions. The "heart" fraction will 
consist mainly of the so-called "Rhodinol ex Geranium", a mixture of terpene alcohols, laevo- 
citronellol and geraniol presumably being the main components. In the "tail" fractions, there 
will again be certain components whose fragrance the perfumers do not appreciate to the 
same extent as for the rhodinol fractions. 

Thus, a "Terpeneless Geranium Oil" may be a bulking of selected fractions of a vacuum- 
distilled geranium oil. The fractions are selected esthetically by perfumers who are specifically 
experienced in this art. Consequently, this product varies significantly according to the origin 
and the supplier (producer). It is generally assumed that Reunion geranium oil yields the best 
rhodinol, but apart from the indisputable fact that this oil usually gives the highest yield of 
terpene alcohol fractions, it is also the most expensive of all the geranium oils. The yield will 
usually be well over 50%, in rare cases as high as 70%, depending upon the content of ketones 
(laevo-isomenthone and other ketones), etc. in the oil. These will distil immediately prior to 
the "rhodinol" and they may impart a "minty" note which is harmful to the delicacy of a good 
rhodinol. 

The terpeneless geranium oil or "rhodinol ex geranium" (two different perfume materials) are 
colorless or very pale yellow liquids. The odor of the "rhodinol" is delightfully sweet, yet fresh 


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and rosy, very uniform and tenacious. The odor of the "terpeneless" geranium oil varies 
according to the individual supplier (producer) of the oil. 

"Rhodinol ex Geranium" is used very extensively in perfumery as a base for rose, muguet, 
carnation, apple blossom and many other perfume types. Its floral sweetness, delightful 
freshness and delicate warm-rosy tonalities blend well with the odors of hydroxycitronellal, 
linalool, geraniol, dimethyl benzyl carbinol, cinnamic alcohol, cyclamen aldehyde, phenyl ethyl 
alcohol, geranyl esters, linalyl esters, etc. etc. 

Rhodinol ex geranium is frequently adulterated with "synthetic" rhodinol, laevo-citronellol, 
dextro-citronellol, geraniol, nerol, fractions of palmarosa oil, citronella oil, phenyl ethyl 
alcohol, etc. In the evaluation of "rhodinol ex geranium", the instrumental analysis is a most 
valuable method to produce a proof in cases of suspicion as a result of the olfactory analysis. 
The fact that the large consumers are still willing to pay over 100 U.S. dollars per kilo for a 
good "rhodinol ex geranium" should be sufficient proof that there is no competitive substitute 
for this excellent perfume material. 

Ginger Absolute. 

Ginger Absolute is produced by extraction of the ginger rhizome (see Ginger Oil) with 
hydrocarbon solvents. After evaporation of the solvent, the residual extract is extracted with 
alcohol. After chilling and filtration of the alcohol extract, this extract is evaporated under 
gentle vacuum until the alcohol is removed. The residue is Ginger Absolute. However, since 
the absolute is not a commercially available item, it is customary for the interested party that 
he produce his own absolute. As a starting material, the commercially available Ginger 
Oleoresin (see monograph) is frequently used, unless the user of ginger absolute does not 
prefer to start all the way from ginger rhizomes, specifically selected for this purpose. 

Butaflor Ginger is a specially prepared extract of ginger (see Ginger Oleoresin). 

According to the method of production and partly to the type of ginger rhizomes used, the 
ginger absolute may vary considerably in appearance and flavor. Usually, it is a viscous orange- 
brown or dark, yellow-brown liquid, just pourable at room temperature. Its odor is best 
described as being a very true reproduction of that of ginger rhizome, concentrated many 
times. The sweetness is emphasized, the rich, warm spiciness is predominant, and the tenacity 
is only modest. The typical lemon-orange-like topnotes (particularly well known from the 
Cochin and the Jamaica gingers) are accentuated by the fresh, slightly camphoraceous-warm 
and later sweet-woody body-notes of this absolute. 

The flavor is equally warm, but also pungent spicy, truly representative of the candied rhizome 
("Chinese stem ginger"). 

Ginger Absolute is used by certain flavor houses in compositions where alcohol-solubility is of 
paramount importance, and a true-to-nature flavor must be maintained. The absolute thus 
represents the aroma and the pungency of ginger, and it replaces the old ginger tincture in 
flavor work. The application of ginger absolute is similar to that of ginger oleoresin (see Ginger 
Oleoresin). In perfumes, Ginger Absolute may introduce the most interesting and surprising 
notes in high-class lotion perfumes, etc., or in the so-called "men's fragrances" in the spicy 


202 


series, after-shaves, etc. It blends excellently with animal notes (castoreum, civet, costus, 
labdanum) and with woody notes (sandalwood, vetiver, patchouli, linalool, olibanum, etc.), 
with floral notes (very interesting effect in gardenia, etc.) and in many types of modern fantasy 
fragrances. 

Gingergrass Oil. 

A twin brother of the palmarosa grass, the ginger- grass has very little importance in 
perfumery. The oil is distilled from the East Indian grass, Cymbopogon Martini, varietas Sofia, 
a physiological variety of the palmarosa grass (see monograph Palmarosa Oil). Cultivation of 
the two grasses interlace in the regions to the northeast of Bombay, in the states of Madras, 
Bengal, and Punjab. The grass is distilled when in full inflorescence, and usually the entire 
overground parts of the plant are cut for distillation. The stills are generally of a very primitive 
type. 

Gingergrass Oil is an oily liquid of yellow to dark yellow, amber-brown or almost brown color. 

It has a peculiar fatty-sweet, oily odor, leaving a slightly woody and rosy dryout note. The 
grassy notes, and particularly the rather fresh-spicy top- notes are entirely different from 
those found in palmarosa oil. This peculiar odor is sometimes referred to as an "ensilage"- 
odor. The main constituent of gingergrass oil, Geraniol, is not even perceptible until the oil 
dries out on a perfume blotter. The odor of geraniol is masked in this oil by the grassy and 
rather unpleasantly smelling trace components, one of which, however, is quite interesting: 
Perila Alcohol, also known as dihydro cuminyl alcohol. This alcohol possesses an extremely 
diffusive and strong, oily-grassy, fatty-herbaceous odor. It is present in a number of other 
essential oils (see monograph on Perilla Oil). For the effect of this alcohol, Gingergrass Oil 
finds some use in the construction of certain artificial essential oils, e. g. bergamot oil, jasmin 
absolute, cumin oil, "tea"-notes, etc. The content of Perilla Alcohol in gingergrass oil is, 
however, not high enough to encourage a production (by isolation) of this interesting perfume 
intermediate from the oil. 

Gingergrass Oil once was a popular perfumery raw material for rose compounds, particularly 
for soap perfumes, etc. Frequent and crude adulteration, often at the place of production, 
ruined the good reputation of this oil. The annual production has now dropped far below 50 
metric tons, and the oil is mainly absorbed by the huge Indian market in soaps and detergents. 

Gingergrass Oil is hardly a regular item on the European and American market reports, and it 
may slowly disappear from the perfumery field except in its country of origin. 

Ginger Oil. 

Ginger Oil is produced by steam distillation, occasionally by water-and-steam distillation of the 
dried, unpeeled, freshly ground rhizomes of Zingiber Officinale, a plant which is native to the 
tropical coastal regions of India. The rhizomes, sun-dried and unpeeled, have been known as a 
spice for several thousand years, and the plant was among the early introductions to the West 
Indies when the Spanish seafarers roamed the Caribbean Sea shortly after A. D. 1500. 


203 


The ginger plant is now cultivated in most tropical and subtropical regions, e.g. Jamaica, 
Indochina, Southwest India, Ceylon, West Africa (particularly Sierra Leone and Nigeria), south 
China, south Japan and Central America. Smaller crops are grown in Madagascar (Nossi-Be), 
Indonesia, Zanzibar, northwest Australia, Haiti, The Dominican Republic, Cuba and other areas 
of the West Indies. For the production of essential oil, the Nigerian and the Jamaican gingers 
are the most important. It is worthwhile noting that the term "African ginger" refers to 
Nigerian ginger when we speak of Ginger Oil, while it generally means Sierra Leone ginger 
when the spice itself is discussed. 

Sierra Leone ginger is usually sold as a spice for grinding, while Nigerian ginger—which is 
always unpeeled—is mainly used for the distillation of essential oil and for extraction of Ginger 
Oleoresin (see following monograph). Jamaican ginger is partially peeled and, accordingly, is 
lighter in color. Since the essential oil is located in cells immediately under the epidermis, 
peeling of the rhizome will inevitably result in a loss of essential oil, either by accidental 
removal of oil cells, or by resinification or evaporation of oil caused by exposure of the oil cells 
to the air. Jamaican ginger accordingly yields considerably less oil than does the Nigerian 
ginger, and there is a distinct difference in the olfactory characteristics of the two oils. The 
odor of Nigerian ginger oil is heavier, more grassy-fatty, oily and woody than that of the 
Jamaican oil. An individual odor description is given below. 

There is no production of ginger oil in Nigeria, while the oil is produced on a small scale in 
Jamaica, Zanzibar (experimental stage), India, China and Japan. The largest proportion of all 
the ginger oil of commerce, however, is produced in Europe and the U.S.A. from rhizomes 
imported from Nigeria, Jamaica and the Far East. In Japan, an oil is distilled from locally grown 
ginger, but this oil has a different aroma, and is only of local interest. The author had an 
opportunity to follow the development of experimental ginger production in the Gold Coast in 
1954 to 1956 (now Ghana), and he had fresh rhizomes shipped from that country to Denmark. 
The water content in the fresh rhizomes was found to be from 68 percent to 73 percent. The 
water content in commercial grades of dried ginger rhizomes varies from 12 to 20 percent. 

This is mentioned to emphasize the importance of drying ginger rhizomes (and other 
botanicals) prior to shipment (costly freight of unnecessary water, deterioration of the spice, 
hydrolysis of oil constituents, etc.). 

Ginger Oil is a pale yellow to light amber- colored mobile liquid. Its viscosity increases upon 
ageing or exposure to air (resinification). The odor is warm, but fresh-woody, spicy and with a 
peculiar resemblance to orange, lemon, lemon- grass, coriander seed oil, etc. in the initial, 
fresh topnotes. The sweet and heavy undertone is tenacious, sweet and rich, almost balsamic- 
floral. African ginger oil is generally darker in color and presents a more fatty sweetness. The 
freshness is not pronounced nor is it very characteristic of that type ginger oil. It is, however, 
extremely rich and tenacious. Jamaican ginger oil is usually very pale in color, mobile like a 
pine needle oil, and with a pronounced odor-freshness of lemon- orange-coriander-like 
character. The body is sweet but not balsamic, the tenacity is only moderate. The initial notes 
of freshly distilled Ginger Oil from Jamaican rhizomes often have a peculiar "rubber"-like type, 
similar to that of freshly distilled nutmeg oil (myrcene-like notes?). This note is hardly ever 
perceptible in African ginger oil. 


204 



There is no pungency in the flavor of any of the ginger oils. The flavor is warm and spicy, 
slightly bitter at high concentration, but pleasant-aromatic at ordinary use level. The suggested 
use level for an average good grade of Jamaican ginger oil is 0.30 to 1.50 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible is 0.02 to 0.05 mg%. See also Ginger Oleoresin which is generally 
preferred as a flavor material, representing all the characteristics of the ginger rhizome itself. 

Ginger Oil is used in perfumery to introduce warmth and certain nuances of spicy sweetness 
which are often wanted in heavy Oriental bases and in a few floral fragrances, too. The interest 
in the oil for perfumery use has increased considerably during the recent years of the growing 
"spice-trend" in men's fragrances and in lotion perfumes in general. The oil blends well with 
bois de rose oil, cedarwood, coriander, coumarin. berizyl acetate, citrus oils, eugenol, ionones, 
nitromusks, rose de mai absolute, nonanolide, nerol. etc. The Jamaican oil lends more 
freshness and topnote, while the Nigerian oil will give a solid body note, a warmth which is 
quite unique and typical of this oil. 

In flavors, traces of Ginger Oil have an interesting effect in strawberry, pineapple, peppermint 
(modifier), but the most important field by far is that of baked goods: cookies, powder cakes, 
spice cakes, where pungency is not particularly called for. (Ginger nuts are flavored with 
Ginger Oleoresin^. In alcoholic beverages, the oil gives interesting twists to the herbaceous 
types of liqueurs (benedictine, etc.), while the non-alcoholic beverages, e.g. the carbonated 
ginger ale is usually flavored with ginger oleoresin, or with a mixture of ginger oleoresin, ginger 
oil, capsicum oleoresin and sweet orange oil. Ginger oil blends well with sweet orange oil, lime 
oil, bergamot oil, etc. in flavor compositions. 

The oil is produced according to demand, and there is ample supply of the spice available. 
Deliberate adulteration can be made with galanga oil (China and Japan), but usually the 
differences in the quality of the oils can be traced back to lack of experience in distillation 
technique at the producer's place, or poor selection of botanical material for distillation. 

The annual world crop of ginger is in the order of magnitude of 100 million lbs. of fresh, 
undried rhizomes. This quantity corresponds to about 10,000 to 15,000 metric tons of 
commercial grade, dried ginger rhizomes. A very large proportion of this quantity is absorbed 
in households in the Far East, particularly in India. 

Ginger Oleoresin. 

Ginger Oleoresin is a prepared oleoresin. It is produced by extraction of the dried and 
unpeeled rhizome of Zingiber Officinale, ground to a moderately coarse powder. The solvent is 
ethyl- ether, acetone, ethyl alcohol, occasionally chlorinated hydrocarbons, but rarely benzene 
which is highly toxic. The removal of the last few percents of solvent is a problem which has 
yet to be solved satisfactorily. Certain solvents can be removed almost quantitatively through 
the use of small amounts of ethylalcohol as a "chaser" during the last stages of evaporation. 
Ginger Oleoresin is extracted from various types of ginger (see Ginger Oil), but the majority of 
all ginger oleoresins are derived from Nigerian and Jamaican ginger, the former being the most 
inexpensive material, the latter having the most refined aroma. From the southwest coast of 
India comes a highly appreciated quality of ginger which is preferred for the production of 
oleoresin for use in carbonated beverages (Ginger Ale, etc.). 


205 


Ginger oleoresin is a dark brown or very dark amber colored, viscous liquid which usually 
deposits a grainy mass at the bottom of the container. The contents of a container should be 
thoroughly stirred before the material is weighed for compounding or sale. The odor of ginger 
oleoresin is warm-spicy, sweet and very aromatic-rich. The flavor is equally warm, but 
pungent-biting, leaving a peculiar cooling aftertaste almost as a reaction to the pungency. It 
gives an immediate feeling of heat and produces perspiration from the facial glands. The 
reader, who may have tasted Chinese candied ginger or a good ginger-nut (cookie) along with 
a cup of hot tea, will certainly agree that this combination can produce a breathtaking heat- 
shock. 

Ginger oleoresin is used in numerous sorts of baked goods, spice blends, meat sauces, 
chutneys, candies, throat lozenges and, more recently, in carbonated soft drinks (Ginger Ale, 
etc.). The latter application has become one of the major outlets for ginger oleoresin during 
the past decade or two. For this purpose, ginger oleoresin is frequently adulterated with 
capsicum oleoresin (see Capsicum), whose pungent effect is many times greater than that of 
ginger. The pungency of ginger oleoresin preparations disappears after treatment with hot 
alkali, while the pungency of capsicum is resistant to this test. Capsicum additions to ginger 
preparations may be detected in this way. Ginger oleoresin can replace the powdered ginger 
rhizome in Indian curry powder, but it is still customary to prepare this spice blend exclusively 
from powdered botanical drugs. 

Capsicum oleoresin does not contain any essential oil, while Ginger Oleoresin contains from 15 
to 30% of essential oil (ginger oil). Oleoresins from Nigerian ginger may contain as much as 25 
to 35% of essential oil, while the oleoresins from Jamaican or south Indian ginger usually have 
a lower oil content but a considerably higher content of the resinous matter in which we find 
the pungent principles. The ketone, Zingerone, which has been named as "a principal 
constituent of ginger" has been produced synthetically from vanillin and acetone by 
condensation followed by hydrogenation. However, the author has been unable to detect any 
pungency in the flavor of synthetic zingerone at the concentration of 0.50 to 1.00 mg%. This 
concentration is higher than the concentration of natural zingerone in any finished product on 
the market. It seems more likely, that this ketone is the decomposition product which is 
formed when the pungent principle (or principles) in ginger is treated with hot alkali (see the 
above test for adulteration of ginger oleoresin with capsicum oleoresin). The pungent 
principles in ginger thus seem to be condensation products of zingerone with aliphatic 
aldehydes (hexanal and heptanal in particular). These facts should be kept in mind when ginger 
oleoresin is used in finished goods where alkali is present. Potassium carbonate is used to 
improve the crunchy texture of certain spice cookies. This type of alkali is liable to ruin the 
pungency of ginger in the baked goods. Certain types of ginger cookies are flavored with a 
ginger-lemon combination which enables the manufacturer to use a small amount of citric acid 
along with the flavor. In the latter case, the pungency of the ginger oleoresin (or ginger 
powder) is maintained. 

Ginger Oleoresin is rarely used in perfumes, partly because of its poor solubility in alcohol 
(except when it happens to be an "alcoholextracted oleoresin"), partly because of its color and 
incompatibility with a number of perfume chemicals. A few manufacturers of perfume raw 
materials and flavor concentrates have produced various interesting "Ginger Absolutes" or 


206 



specialties like the Ginger Butaflor. This product probably represents the highest 
concentration of the odor and flavor principles in ginger rhizome (see also Ginger Absolute). 
Odorless or tasteless ballast resins and similar extractive matter with no individual odor or 
flavor have been eliminated in a selective solvent extraction. A highly true-to- nature, viscous, 
dark amber colored extract is the result. Such materials are useful in perfumery where a richer, 
warmer gingernote or undertone is wanted. It should be mentioned that these special extracts 
are five to ten times more expensive than ordinary oleoresins. 

Goldenrod Oil, Texas. 

Well known over most parts of the world, The Americas, Asia and Europe, a multitude of 
varieties of Goldenrod grow wild or are cultivated, usually for decorative purposes. Similar to 
its relative, the chrysanthemum, it is a very rugged and strong, healthy plant, a fact which may 
explain the wide distribution of Goldenrod. To the author's knowledge, only one goldenrod has 
ever obtained any significant interest among the perfumers and flavorists: the so-called Texas 
Goldenrod, botanically known as Solidago Odora. By steam distillation of the flowering herb, 
an essential oil is produced in Texas, U.S.A. 

Oil of sweet goldenrod is a colorless, rather mobile liquid of sweet-spicy, aromatic-herbaceous 
odor, reminiscent of estragon (Tarragon). The odor is inferior to that of estragon in respect to 
sweetness, tenacity and delicate, green-foliage notes. The rather simple or homogeneous odor 
of goldenrod oil is probably the main reason why the oil has never become a "big item" on the 
perfumer's shelf. It does not present any significant advantage over estragon oil. or over the 
main constituent, methyl chavicol (estragole), and it has no fresh-green topnote, such as we 
find it in sweet basil oil. The author never saw a genuine sweet goldenrod oil while he worked 
in Europe. 

Sweet goldenrod oil would be of interest mainly for flavorists who could possibly use it as a 
modifier for anise, basil, estragon, etc. in candy and licorice flavors, "root-beer" flavors for soft 
drinks, etc. Suggested use level is 0.40 to 0.80 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.08 to 
0.15 mg%. The oil could find some use in perfumes of fougere type, chypre, I'origan, moss, 
etc., or in trace amounts in lilac, muguet, etc. 

The annual production of Texas sweet goldenrod oil is very fluctuating, and the oil is presently 
available only upon request with due notice. It is very likely that the oil will entirely disappear 
from the market. 

Grapefruit Oil. 

This oil, which is not strictly an essential oil according to our definitions, is produced by cold 
expression of the peel of the fruits from a Citrus species which presumably evolved from the 
West Indian "shaddock" fruit. Although not a hybrid, the grapefruit did not exist 400 years ago, 
and it was still a rarity around the beginning of the twentieth century. Highly developed 
cultivation and refining of the fruits (better juice, meat, fewer seed, etc.) has, as so often in 
nature, caused some changes elsewhere in the fruits: the oil from the peel has become milder 
and sweeter of odor than it was only a few decades ago. 


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Grapefruit Oil is produced mainly in Florida, U.S.A., and to a lesser degree in Texas and 
California. Outside the U.S.A., the West Indies (Dominica island, the Dominican Republic, 
Jamaica and Trinidad), Brazil, Israel and Nigeria are also producers. All production in the U.S.A. 
is mechanized; this is also true in Israel. Hand pressing is still carried out in the West Indies. 

Grapefruit Oil is a mobile, yellowish to greenish- yellow or pale orange-yellow oil, possessing a 
fresh-citrusy, rather sweet odor and a similar taste. As mentioned above, the bitterness 
particularly known from European and Middle-Eastern fruits and peels, is no longer found in 
today's American grapefruit oil. The odor resembles that of sweet orange oil to a certain 
degree, but also has notes in common with bitter orange oil. Thus, grapefruit oil is quite useful 
in bergamot compositions and for all modifications of citrus notes in perfumery. The main use, 
however, is in flavors, particularly in soft drink flavors. A partially deterpenized grapefruit oil is 
often preferred for this purpose. More than 90% of the grapefruit oil is made up of 
monoterpenes, mainly d-limonene which has only a minor influence upon the characteristic 
flavor of the oil. Like all other citrus oils, grapefruit oil is not very stable and deteriorizes easily 
upon exposure to moisture, air and daylight. Antioxidants and oxygen-free storage conditions 
can prolong the shelf-life of these oils. Certain combinations of antioxidants are effective in 
concentrations of 0.002% which is far below the threshold of flavor or odor perception. 
Terpenes are particularly disadvantageous in soft drink flavors since they tend to create a 
"ring" of opaque emulsion inside the bottleneck at the surface—or on the side of the bottle if 
it is stored lying down. However, a certain amount of terpenes is necessary to produce the 
natural freshness of citrus oils. Thus, "concentrated" grapefruit oils are often used for the 
above flavors. Fifty percent or more of the monoterpenes are removed by careful vacuum 
distillation at less than 30° C. "Cold processed" deterpenized oils are produced by alcohol 
washing (see Terpeneless Oils, Part One of this book). 

Due to the tremendous growth of the grapefruit industry, the oil is no longer the rarity or 
scarce item it was only 15 or 20 years ago. Indeed, the grapefruit juice processors are faced 
with a problem of disposing of all the oil they can produce. Not only is there the machine- 
pressed oil, but also the Distilled Grapefruit Oil, produced by steam distillation of the crushed 
peels and residues from the juice extraction. Smaller quantities of oil is obtained during the 
evaporation of juice which inevitably contains some oil. Distilled Grapefruit Oil is a poor flavor 
material. It may have a comparatively high content of aldehydes, but the content of other 
oxygenated compounds in the distilled oil is negligible. The distilled oil finds its way into low 
cost perfumes, industrial fragrances, etc., often mixed with other distilled citrus oils and 
marketed under the name of Citrus Oil. Even the seeds from the grapefruit are now used for 
production of a fatty (vegetable) oil. 

Grapefruit Oil (cold pressed) is rarely adulterated. There are different qualities of the oil and it 
is important to get a freshly produced or carefully stored oil. However, the Distilled Grapefruit 
Oil can be used as a diluent for the expressed oil. This fraud will show up not only in the 
decrease of evaporation residue (very small in distilled oils), but also in the lack of flavor 
richness of the adulterated oil in an organoleptic test. 


208 



Guaiacwood Oil. 


Erroneously called guaiacwood concrete, this oil is steam distilled, occasionally steam-and- 
water distilled from the wood of Bulnesia Sarmienti, a wild-growing tree from the jungles of 
Paraguay and Argentina. It should not be confused with the Guaiac of the drug store where a 
resinous substance, produced from another tree, Guaiacum Officinale (the "lignum vitae" of 
the Bahama islands) is occasionally used. "Guaiac resin" is an entirely different product and 
only very rarely used in perfumery. A tincture is prepared from the resin. This tincture has a 
pleasant balsamic vanilla-like odor with a somewhat smoky undertone. It was this tincture 
which was used by Sherlock Holmes when he identified bloodstains on a murder scene. 

Guaiacwood Oil is now distilled locally, although some quantities of wood (known as "Palo 
Santo") are exported for distillation in Europe or the U.S.A. The wood is hard and its 
combination before distillation presents quite a problem. It is a much-used wood for 
ornamental work (hand carved bowls, ashtrays, etc.). 

Guaiacwood Oil is a soft or semi-solid mass, yellowish to greenish yellow or pale amber in 
color. When melted, it may stay supercooled and liquid for a long time. Once again, we meet a 
product which quite frequently presents odor types not reported in literature: apart from its 
delicately sweet, rosy-woody odor which is often referred to as "tearose-like", the oil may 
have a "smoked ham" odor which is definitely unwanted, but not uncommon. It is conceivable 
that this odor, which was never reported prior to World War II, occurs in oils which have been 
"forced" during the distillation through the addition of mineral acid (sulfuric, etc.) to the 
chopped, wet wood in the still. This increases the yield of oil, but it also creates a hazard of 
spot-burning of the woodchips. Similar to amyris, the age of the wood prior to distillation also 
has some influence upon the odor of the oil. 

The main constituent of guaiac wood oil is called Guaiol ("gaiol") This sesquiterpene alcohol 
can be acetylated to the so-called Guaiyl Acetate. "Guaiac wood acetate" is the acetylated oil, 
often merely neutralized, not redistilled. Unfortunately, the "smoked ham" odor is carried over 
in the latter product which is frequently offered under the label Guaiyl Acetate (incorrect). 

Guaiacyl Acetate (l-acetyl-2-methoxy-benzene) is the acetate of a phenol which is present in 
guaiac resin (see above). It has nothing to do with guaiac wood oil or its constituents. 

Guaiacwood Oil is produced in large quantities and is readily available, the annual output 
being close to 100 metric tons. The oil is a low-cost fixative and modifier, an excellent blender 
in woody-floral perfumes, in soap compounds as well as high-class perfumes. It blends well 
with linalool, nerol, geraniol, terpineol, oakmoss, ionones, orris products, spice oils, etc. It is 
occasionally adulterated with copaiba balsam. Guaiac wood oil is, in turn, sometimes found as 
an adulterant in rose de mai absolute, amyris oil, sandalwood oil, costus oil, oakmoss concrete, 
etc. 


209 


Guarana Paste. 


Although cocoa is not included in the monographs on natural flavor materials in this book (the 
author considers it primarily a nutriment), a few brief notes will be spent on a similar but less 
known and quite interesting material: Guarana Paste. 

Guarana paste is made from the pulverized, roasted seed of Paullinia Cupana (paullinia 
sorbilis), a Brazilian tree. The seed looks almost like a chestnut when it is fresh. The roasted 
seed is pulverized and triturated with a small amount of water to form a dough which is then 
shaped into bars or balls and left to dry in the sun or on a grill over open fire. 

The product which is known as Guarana Paste serves locally as a substitute for chocolate. It is 
distinguished by its combination of a chocolate- like flavor and a cola-like effect. It contains 
more caffeine than any other known natural product and it is accordingly a powerful stimulant. 
The caffeine content can amount to 5% while the content of tannin is about 25%. 

Mixed with manioc flour or other starch material, the Guarana Paste can be baked to a bread; 
diluted with water, the paste can serve as a refreshing tonic. Sweetened with sugar (like cocoa 
paste) the guarana paste forms the so-called "Brazilian chocolate". 

Guarana Extracts are commercially available. A "standard" liquid extract is prepared with 
diluted alcohol and it is adjusted to a content of 4% caffeine. One part by weight of the liquid 
extract is equivalent to one part by weight of an average quality of guarana paste. 

Guarana Paste produces interesting Aromadistilates (see Part One of this book) with sherry 
wines, cognac or rum. These distillates can be useful as flavor bases for the development of 
liqueur flavors, cordial flavors, pudding or souffle flavors and other food flavors. 

Gurjun Balsam. 

Gurjun Balsam, also called Gurjum Balsam is a natural oleoresin, not a balsam according to the 
definitions outlined in Part One of this work. It is exuded from trees of the Dipterocarpus 
species, growing in the Far East, particularly in India. The oleoresin is a pathological product, 
formed only after incisions or other damage to the trunk of these tall trees. 

Locally used in the varnish and lacquer industry, Gurjun Balsam finds some use in perfumery in 
other countries. It serves similar purposes as does copaiba balsam: it is a low-cost, 
comparatively mild-smelling natural fixative for woody, balsamic or pine-type fragrances. It is 
an odor-depressant and "stretcher" of general application. The natural oleoresin "gurjun 
balsam" contains from 60 to 80 percent of a viscous essential oil which is also used 
occasionally in perfumery (see Gurjun Balsam Oil). 

Gurjun balsam, also called Wood Oil or Gurjum Oil (erroneously and misleading), is a viscous, 
ambercolored or greenish-olive to grayish liquid, occasionally opaque or slightly fluorescent. 

Its odor is faintly sweet, woody, pinelike, reminiscent of copaiba balsam and amyris oil, 
however, with a crude undertone similar to that of a steam distilled pine oil (American). 


210 


Although the production of Gurjun Balsam is still quite sizeable, its application in perfumery 
has declined significantly during the past decades. The product has always carried a reputation 
of being a material for adulteration "par excellence" of certain essential oils, e.g. palmarosa oil 
and other East Indian oils. See also Gurjun Balsam Oil, lllurin Balsam, Copaiba Balsam. 

The physical properties (optical rotation, etc.) of gurjun balsam have been utilized to adjust the 
physical data of artificial essential oils, etc. 

Gurjun Balsam Oil. 

From the so-called Gurjun Balsam (see previous monograph) an essential oil can be steam 
distilled in a very high yield. Although of little value in perfumery as such, the oil should be 
mentioned since it occurs as an adulterant in several essential oils, or as a constituent of 
certain artificial essential oils. Gurjun Balsam Oil is usually produced in Europe or the U.S.A. 
from gurjun balsam imported from the Far East (India, Burma, etc.). 

The oil is a pale yellow to pale amber colored, viscous liquid of a mild-woody, somewhat 
balsam- ic-sweet odor and great tenacity. The oil would find application as a fixative, modifier 
and odor- depressant material in woody or Oriental fragrances, e.g. in soap compounds where 
its great tenacity and mild, uniform odor is an advantage. It has very little "odor value", but it 
blends perfectly with a multitude of common perfume materials. 

On account of its extraordinarily high laevorotatory power, gurjun balsam oil has served as a 
"correcting agent" in artificial essential oils which had to meet certain physical specifications or 
Pharmacopoeia demands. It is not infrequently found as a diluent in ylang-ylang oil, patchouli 
oil, sandalwood oil, vetiver oil, cubeb oil, etc. 

Gurjun (Balsam) Oil is not a common commercial article any more, but it is still available since 
the parent "balsam" is regularly produced in large quantities in the Far East. 


H 

Hamamelis. 

The north American shrublike tree, Hamamelis Virginiana, also known as Witch Hazel, has 
enjoyed a tremendous and over-exaggerated reputation for its virtues with respect to the 
hemostatic and astringent effects of its leaves and bark. Extracts and distillates of the leaves 
are still used, and these are quite popular ingredients in skin- lotions, after-shaves, creams, 
etc. The leaves do contain tannin which is astringent, and they do contain a small amount of an 
essential oil which has a hemostatic effect. The latter claim is based upon the fact that the 
Hamamelis Leaf Distillate has a hemostatic effect, and that tannin is not distillable with steam 
or with hydro-alcoholic vapors; thus, tannin is absent in the leaf distillate. 

Under the name of Hamamelis Water, another product is marketed and used as a popular 
embrocation. It is prepared from twigs of the witch hazel which are collected just before the 
buds open. This material is comminuted after partial drying; it is macerated with water, and 
the mixture is distilled after 24 hours. To the distillate is added alcohol sufficient to preserve 


211 


the distillate from mold or fungus growth (about 15 percent ethyl alcohol). This product has a 
peculiar tea-leaf-like odor due to micro-percentages of essential oil. It is inconceivable that this 
Hamamelis Water can have any therapeutic value. 

However, the dry extract of the leaves and the standard extract (= fluidextract) are 
commercially available products, and both are currently used in pharmaceutical preparations. 
They have occasional application in perfumery when this peculiar note of dry tea-leaves, a 
herbaceous-foliage type, is required. 

Our much more common and popular Hazelnut shrub, Corylus Avellana, a cousin of 
hamamelis, could probably yield quite similar products from its leaves and bark. But it is 
probably spared because of the delicious nuts, a valuable and highly appreciated crop. 


Hamanasu Concrete. 

This perfumery material is derived from the flowers of Rosa Rugosa, a plant which is cultivated 
in Japan. The annual production (1958) is about 100 kilos, all of which is absorbed in Japan for 
finer perfumery products. 

Hamanasu concrete is not regularly available outside of its country of origin. The author has no 
personal experience with the use of this material. Samples so far received have been olive- 
green to dark orange brown of color, and the odor has been woody-floral, sweet, somewhat 
honeylike. It is most likely that considerable variations in odor and appearance may occur in 
such a small scale production. 

Hay Absolute. 

The term "Hay" in this place refers to the type "new mown hay", also called "foin coupe". This 
type of fragrance has been desirable for perfume base creations for many decades, and it is 
quite surprising that a "natural" new mown hay product was not developed long before it did 
appear on the market. 

There are various kinds of Hay Absolute available, and it is hard to give exact data on starting 
materials, processing or yields. The botanical material is extracted with petroleum ether to 
produce a concrete. The absolute is prepared by alcohol washing of the concrete. 

Generally, the commercially available Hay Absolutes are viscous liquids, dark amber, dark 
green or brownish green in color, occasionally they are soft masses of olive-brown color. The 
odor is powerful and extremely sweet, quite diffusive, coumarin-like and faintly herbaceous, 
very uniform and tenacious. The undertone is almost jam-like sweet, reminiscent of figs or 
preserved prunes in odor type. There is a distinct difference among the hay absolutes 
extracted from hay without flowers, with flowers, or with seed. See also monograph on Flouve 
Absolute. 

An absolute is also prepared from "Alpine grass", Hierochlea Alpina, by a Grasse perfume 
house. 


212 


Hay Absolute is used in perfumery not only in "new mown hay" bases, or in combination with 
flouve, melilotus, tonka, woodruff, deertongue, etc., but also as an individual note to be 
introduced whenever a truly herbaceous-sweet undertone is required: in lavender, fougere, 
chypre, colognes, tea-notes, "tabac"-notes, forest-notes and various bouquets. Interesting 
effects are obtained with hay absolute in jasmin bases, orange flower bases, etc. Hay absolute 
could be used in flavors, but the coumarin-ban is, at least ethically, extended at such natural 
products which contain significant amounts of coumarin. Flouve absolute (which may contain 
coumarin!) is slightly superior to hay absolute in respect to versatility in flavor use. 

Hay Absolute is produced in France only, and in very limited quantities. However, the demand 
is weak, and an increased production is quite possible since the botanical material is present. 
The absolute may be adulterated with deertongue extract, flouve (no economical gain), 
melilotus extract, tonka extract, woodruff extract, synthetic coumarin or various methyl 
coumarins, etc. 

Occasionally, plain compositions of natural and synthetic materials are offered under the label 
"hay absolute". True Hay Absolutes do exist, however. 

See also Hay Oil, Flouve Absolute, Flouve Oil. 

Hay Oil. 

A comparatively new item which is not yet regularly found in the price lists is the essential oil 
of hay. The few producers do not specify from which grass (hay) the oil is distilled, or whether 
it is actually an extracted oil or a distilled one. It is most likely that one or several of the 
common ensilage grasses are collected during the period of inflorescence, properly dried, 
extracted with petroleum ether, and then finally distilled at very low pressure (molecular 
distillation of the extract with or without a co-distilling, neutral liquid). 

Hay Oil is usually a pale amber or pale yellow liquid with a delightfully sweet-herbaceous, tea¬ 
like fragrance, reminiscent of the odor of sage clary, wet tea leaves and hay. The undertone 
and the dryout are almost floral-woody, but remain sweet and very uniform. Certain types of 
hay oil show no coumarin-like odors at all. It is most likely that such oils are true distillates and 
not extracts or molecular distillates of extracts. In the latter cases, coumarin would certainly be 
perceptible in the product. 

Hay Oil is extremely interesting and useful in modern perfume types: citrus colognes, lavender 
fougeres, fantasy compositions, jasmin modifications, orange flower bases, as a "nuanceur" for 
spicy fragrances or "men's perfumes", carnation modifier, etc. 

Unfortunately, the price of this material (it is about one-fifth of the price of jasmin absolute) 
prohibits its general use, e.g. for carrying notes in a "new mown hay" perfume base. Hay Oil 
blends extremely well with sage clary, champaca, mimosa, cassie, magnolia leaf oil, flouve oil, 
chamomile oils, helichrysum oil, tobacco leaf absolute, mate extracts, tea leaf absolute, 
phenylethyl alcohol, linalool, bergamot oil, lemon oil, ylang-ylang, bitter orange oil, 
deertongue, melilotus, coumarin, etc. 


213 


In flavors, the oil may be used as a modifier in the citrus-blends for cordials and liqueurs and as 
a modifier for peppermint oil, spearmint oil, etc. in candy or chewing gum. However, here 
again its poor availability prevents extensive use of this magnificent material. 

See also Flouve Oil, Hay Absolute, Magnolia. 

Helichrysum Kilimandjarum. 

Among the numerous essential oils belonging to the so-called "herbaceous chamomile group", 
we can also place the oil of Helichrysum Kilimandjarum. 

The oil is steam distilled from the flowers of the above plant which grows abundantly in East 
Africa, and is produced in Tanganyika by a few of the local essential oil distillers. Botanically 
related to Everlasting (see Everlasting Absolute and Helichrysum Oil), the oil of helichrysum 
kilimandjarum is an orange-colored or reddish- brown liquid which has a sweet-floral, 
somewhat fruity-herbaceous odor. The oil is only very rarely offered in the market, but since 
the botanical raw material is abundantly available, it could be made available in sizeable 
quantities if reasonable notice is given. 

The oil does not, however, possess any significant or outstanding asset in the shape of 
interesting perfumery notes. For this reason, it may never gain any great popularity among 
perfumers. It should be kept in mind that a large scale production may turn out an improved 
oil which could have odor qualities similar to those of Helichrysum Oil, European (see following 
monograph). 

Helichrysum Oil. 

See also Everlasting Absolute. 

Helichrysum Oil is steam distilled from the flowering tops of the small plant, Helichrysum 
Angustifolium and other species of Helichrysum. The plant grows wild and is cultivated in the 
south of France, Italy, Yugoslavia and several other Mediterranean countries. The yield of 
essential oil from helichrysum angustifolium is very poor, but certain closely related species of 
helichrysum, e.g. Helichrysum Orientale, are usually co-distilled and increase the yield without 
impairing the odor qualities of the oil. 

Helichrysum Oil is a pale yellow, oily liquid of powerful and diffusive, but pleasant and rich, 
natural odor. The topnote has certain features in common with those of the extracted material 
(everlasting absolute), and these topnotes are not exactly attractive at high concentration. The 
sweetness is so rich and overwhelming, honeylike and deep, that it takes more than the 
average of imagination to appreciate the odor of this oil. However, the sweet-fruity and tea¬ 
like, delicate undertone is unique, and the tenacity is quite outstanding. 

The oil finds augmenting application in perfumery where it blends well with boronia, 
chamomile, citrus oils, geraniol, ionones, labdanum, lavender, nerol, mimosa, oakmoss, orris 
products, sage clary, etc. It gives interesting effects in ambre, chypre, lily, muguet, rose and 
other bases. The main constituent of helichrysum oil is Neryl Acetate which is only rarely found 
in high percentage in essential oils. The oil is an excellent modifier for certain types of fruit 


214 


flavors where its rich and deep-sweet notes are well utilized in raspberry, plum, fig, etc. It 
blends well with alpha-irone, phenyl ethyl alcohol, menthyl acetate, alpha ionone methyl 
glycidate, amyl esters, nerol, terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless lemon oil or lime oil, lemon 
petitgrain oil, etc., in fruit flavors for carbonated beverages, candy, etc. Helichrysum Oil is now 
produced on an increasing scale in Yugoslavia, and its cost is no longer prohibitive for its 
extensive use (1959-price was about engl. sh. 225/— to 275/— per kilo). It is conceivable that 
the oil will find a permanent place on the perfumer's shelf—and at his balance—in the near 
future, if it is not already one of his favorite items. 

Heliotrope Absolute. 

Originated in Peru and introduced in Europe more than 200 years ago, the Heliotropium 
Peruvianum is now cultivated commonly in the south of Europe. Knowing it from Danish 
greenhouses as a tender and tiny, unimpressive ornamental plant, the author was quite 
astonished to find a shrublike plant, the size of a sunflower, when he first met the heliotrope in 
the south of France in the 1930's. The name Heliotrope actually means the same as 
"sunflower" (for which the French name is "tournesol"). They both "follow the sun" 

Heliotropium Peruvianum (also known as Heliotropium Arborescens) has a small clusters of 
grayish-purple or violet-colored flowers which emit a very sweet odor reminiscent of bitter 
almond oil, yet more heavy floral and with a distinct fruity undertone. The plant is known in 
the U.S.A. as "cherry-pie blossom". To the chemist, the odor of the flower may remind of 
heliotropine, but this note is not too obvious. The perfumer will find this note well concealed 
in heavy-sweet notes of the lilac-, hawthorne-, or carnation type. 

Absolute of Heliotrope has never become a common perfume material, nor an inexpensive 
one, probably on account of heliotropine being available as a low-cost synthetic chemical. The 
absolute is occasionally produced in the south of France from the flowering tops of the plant 
by hot extraction with a fixed oil (digestion method). Heliotrope absolute is a semi-solid 
greenish-brown or dark brown mass of strongly herbaceous, but also intensely sweet odor. 
Only upon dilution to about I or weaker, the odor seems to resemble that of heliotrope 
flowers. The absolute blends well into violet, mimosa, cassie and other florals, but it does not 
offer any significant advantages over other natural or synthetic products in the same odor 
group. It is very likely, therefore, that Heliotrope Absolute will completely disappear from the 
perfume market within the next decade or two. 

Henna. 

Although not famous as a perfume or flavor material, the leaves and flowers of Henna are so 
abundantly available that a brief description will be given here in case its peculiar fragrance 
should sometime become of interest to an increasing number of perfumers. The leaves of the 
shrub or bush, Lawsonia Inermis, were used in Egyptian cosmetics probably thousands of 
years ago. There are still millions of women all over the world today, who dye their hair with 
Henna leaves, using various intensifying or dye-controlling additives such as mild alkali, mild 
acid, etc. They use water and powdered leaves made into a paste which is applied to the hair 
for a certain number of minutes or hours. 


215 


The main suppliers of henna leaves are Sudan, Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, Ceylon, etc., and 
henna is also cultivated in China, Indonesia, the West Indies ("Jamaican mignonette"), etc. The 
dried leaves have a very pleasant tealike, herbaceous odor. The roots and leaves are used 
locally for the dyeing of the palms of the hands, the toes, nails and hair of Moslem women. 

However, the flowers have such an attractive fragrance that an essential oil has been prepared 
from them on an experimental scale. The author has no personal experience with the use of a 
genuine (straight and authentic) henna flower oil, but he can confirm that the flowers smell 
extremely sweet, delicately floral and tealike, reminiscent of boronia and chioranthus spicatus 
oils. "No wonder!" the chemist would probably say, because he has identified beta-ionone and 
alpha-ionone in the essential oil from henna flowers. 

In India, the so-called "attars" are prepared from flowers which do not readily yield essential 
oils by steam distillation. From Henna flowers is prepared the "Hina" attar or "mendee attar". 
This product is a dark orange colored or dark brownish-yellow to reddish-brown, viscous liquid. 
Its odor is somewhat medicinal, phenolic or bitter, but with a tenacious leafy undertone. The 
odor characteristics varies from one source to another. 

An Absolute of Henna Flowers has also been prepared although not on a commercial scale. 

The literature seems to disagree about the odor of Henna Flower Oil, and the author of this 
book will refrain from using any quotations, and only verify that the flower "in natura" smells 
in accordance with the above description (visits to Sudan and Egypt, 1956). 

On account of the extremely small yield of essential oil by steam distillation of Henna flowers, 
it is inconceivable that this oil can become a common perfume material, even considering the 
abundance of the botanical material. 

See Boronia Absolute and Chioranthus Spicatus. 

Ho Leaf Oil. 

This oil is steam distilled from the so-called Ho-Sho variety of the tree, Cinnamomum 
Camphora which is widely cultivated in Formosa, Japan, and, to a minor extent on the Chinese 
mainland. The leaves of the above tree can be stripped off once or twice a year without 
damaging the tree. The leaves of felled trees (for camphor oil production) can also be utilized. 
Thus, there is ample and inexpensive botanical material ready for the production of Ho Leaf 
Oil. Accordingly, the leaf oil is offered at a lower price than the Wood Oil (see Ho Wood Oil), 
and has become a potential competitor to the Brazilian bois de rose oil. Furthermore, Ho Leaf 
Oil, rectified or of a high grade, contains practically no camphor-like notes, and it presents 
such a clean linalool fragrance that no other essential oil comes closer to the pure linalool odor 
than a rectified Ho Leaf Oil. 

The oil is practically colorless, and possesses a clean, sweet, floral-woody and delicate odor. 
There is little or no change in the odor during the evaporation on a perfume blotter, and the 
tenacity is only moderate. 

Ho Leaf Oil can be used in high percentages in a multitude of perfume types: as a modifier, 
blender, sweetener, floralizer, or individual odor. It blends perfectly with phenyl ethyl alcohol, 


216 


cinnamic alcohol, amyl salicylate, citronellol, geraniol, ionones, hydroxycitronellal, cyclamen 
aldehyde, lavandin oil, etc., and its very low cost broadens the fields for its use beyond 
measure. For the isolation of Linalool, for the production of linalyl esters, it is superior to any 
other natural starting material—and cheaper than any except lavandin oil. It performs 
excellently in soaps where it may very well replace linalool (from bois de rose oil). "Acetylated" 
Ho Leaf Oil is available in commercial quantities, and this product may replace linalyl acetate in 
soap perfumes, low-cost detergent fragrances, etc. 

The annual production of Ho Leaf Oil has surpassed the 100-ton-mark, and this oil may one 
day find its place among the "upper ten" essential oils with respect to quantity produced. 

Homalomena Rubescens. 

An oil which has hardly yet reached the shelves in European and American perfume 
laboratories, has been known and used for quite some time in the Far East: the essential oil of 
Homalomena Rubescens which is steam distilled from the comminuted roots of this plant. The 
plant is related to calamus. It grows wild and commonly in India, Indonesia, the Malaccan 
peninsula and Borneo. It is experimentally cultivated in India for the production of larger 
quantities of essential oil. 

Oil of Homalomena Rubescens is a pale yellow or amber-colored liquid of a sweet-woody, 
somewhat floral, but also harsh-pinelike odor. The odor is reminiscent of that of low grade Ho 
Wood Oils or of certain fractions of bois de rose oil. It serves in its homeland as a soap 
perfume ingredient, as a source of Linalool (the main constituent of the oil), and for the 
production of linalyl esters. 

The rhizome of the plant is used locally for the flavoring of tobacco. To the author's 
knowledge, the rhizomes have not yet been exported or distilled outside their country of origin 
beyond the experimental scale. The oil does not offer any sensational or new notes in 
perfumery when Ho Oils, Bois de Rose Oil, Lavandin Oil, etc. are freely available. 

The annual production of Homalomena Rubescens Oil is still in the order of magnitude of a 
few metric tons. The entire production is consumed locally. 

Honeysuckle Absolute. 

This material is better known under the name from its producing country: "absolu de 
chevrefeuille". It is produced by extraction of the flowers of Lonicera Caprifolium and other 
Lonicera species. The plant is a climbing vine and is well known all over the world as far north 
as Scandinavia and south to South Africa, mainly in the temperate zones. 

The flowers are extracted with petroleum ether to yield a concrete which, in turn, is further 
processed into an absolute by the conventional alcohol-washing method. 

Honeysuckle Absolute is an orange-green to dark green or brownish, viscous liquid. Its odor is 
intensely sweet, fatty-floral, somewhat reminiscent of jasmin absolute from chassis and of 
orange flower absolute. The sweetness is not unlike the nauseating sweetness of tuberose. 
However, the various absolutes which are available on the market, do not truly represent the 


217 


fragrance of the flower. It appears that the present extraction methods are imperfect, and it is 
very likely that the available honeysuckle absolutes are "compounded" from natural and 
synthetic perfume materials. The absolute has very little significance for the creative perfumer, 
but the honeysuckle type of floral fragrance is frequently used or requested by customers to 
the perfume houses. Small amounts of authentic Honeysuckle Absolute may be available upon 
demand. Flowers are available in France and England from cultivated and wild plants. 

Artificial honeysuckle (perfume bases) can be created from available perfume materials, e.g. 
allyl ionone and other ionones, benzyl isobutyl carbinol, cyclamal, cassione, 
hydroxycitronellalmethylanthranilate, isobutyl phenylacetate, helichrysum oil, lily-bases, 
narcissus bases, orange flower bases, tuberose bases, tolyl acetate, rhodinol, cinnamyl acetate, 
floranol, phenylethylphenylacetate, phenyl propionaldehyde, etc. 

Hop Absolute. 

Used for flavoring purposes for more than 2500 years, Hops have also entered perfumery. In 
addition, they supply the flavor industry with some very interesting materials. Hops are the 
female flower catkins from the climbing vine, Humulus Lupulus. This plant is cultivated all over 
Central Europe and in the U.S.A., particularly in California, Washington state and Oregon (not 
far from the peppermint fields). In the eastern U.S.A., Virginia and New York state produce the 
balance of the American demand for hops to the beer breweries. 

The following perfume- and flavor materials are derived from hops: 

1) Hop Concrete and Hop Absolute, extraction products from hops. 

2) Hop Oil, steam distilled from the hops (see Hop Oil). 

3) Lupulin and Lupulin Distillate, from the glandular hairs on the hops, known as 
Lupulin (see monograph). 

The hops will yield Hop Concrete by extraction with ether gasoline or benzene. Petroleum 
ether is rarely used. The concrete is solid and dark green, waxy-resinous, and is only an 
intermediate in the production of absolute from concrete of hops. 

Hop Absolute is produced by alcohol-extraction of the concrete and subsequent recovery of 
the alcohol in vacuum. The evaporation residue is Hop Absolute. The absolute is a semi-solid, 
dark green mass of intensely deep-herbaceous, rich and green-spicy odor with a peculiar and 
characteristic "bitter"-leafy undertone, distinct and tenacious. A valerian-like topnote develops 
in older oils, but it can be removed by careful washing of the absolute. 

Used with caution and discretion in flavors, hop absolute introduces a most interesting 
naturalness to apple flavors, pineapple, etc., and it also lends a rich body to various types of 
spice- or seasoning compounds. The normal use level would be about 0.30 mg% to 1.00 mg%, 
and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.05 to 0.10 mg%. In perfumery, it offers a bitter-green note 
which is interesting in pine, fougere, hyacinth, citrus (lime in particular), and even in aldehydic 
perfume bases. 

Hop Absolute is produced in France on a very limited scale only. The botanical material is, 
obviously, abundantly present. More recently, ultrasonic vibration has been introduced as a 


218 


means of extracting botanicals, etc. Ultrasonic Hop Extract is commercially available, and, 
according to the type of menstruum used, the product will be soluble in water, alcohol or 
hydrocarbons. 

Most commonly, a mixture of water and ethyl alcohol is used, thus producing an extract which 
is soluble in low-proof alcohol. The yield of extracted, aromatic matter is considerably 
improved by this method, over the yield attained by conventional extraction. A few French 
houses specialize in ultrasonic extraction. Ultrasonic extracts are generally very dark. See 
Ultrasonic Extracts in Part One of this book. 

See also Lupulin. 

Hop Oil. 

An essential oil is steam distilled or steam-and- water distilled from the Hops (see Hop 
Absolute). The oil has odor and flavor characteristics quite different from those of the absolute 
or the concrete from the same botanical material. Hop Oil is produced in Germany, France, 
and occasionally in other countries in Central Europe, in England, etc. The best oils obviously 
come from the areas where the hops are grown, since the volatile constituents of the hops are 
very sensitive to air exposure and oxidation. Resinification and the formation of free acids in 
particular will ruin the odor and flavor of hop oils, e. g. oils which have been distilled from old 
or dried material, or by improper storage of the hops or the oil. 

Hop Oil is a pale yellow (when fresh) to reddish- amber colored liquid, mobile when fresh, 
viscous when old. The odor of a fresh hop oil is very rich, spicy-aromatic, sweet and heavy, but 
overall pleasant. Due to ageing or improper storage, the valeric, isovaleric and caprylic acids 
are formed and liberated, heavily influencing the odor and flavor to the disadvantage of the 
oil. Oils of sour, butyric-valeric or sweat-like odor should not be used at all. Cold stored in 
filled, well stoppered bottles, protected from daylight—or stored in solution, hop oil is fairly 
stable over a period of a year or more. 

Adulteration of hop oil is not uncommon. Nutmeg oil, copaiba oil, various terpenes and 
fractions from other essential oils, etc. have been identified in commercial lots of hop oil. 

The oil is used in flavor work for its rich, bitter- aromatic and somewhat spicy aroma. In spice 
blends, table sauces, tobacco flavors, and in flavors for alcoholic beverages, the oil may be 
used in combination with angelica root oil, cascarilla oil, and similar aromatic botanicals with 
which it introduces characteristic notes. The use of hop oil 

in the beer industry is comprehensively discussed in works dealing with beer brewing. The use 
level of hop oil in flavors is so strongly dependent upon the presence and concentration of 
other aromatic materials, that it serves no purpose to give approximate figures. The Minimum 
Perceptible of hop oil in neutral medium is about 0.03 to 0.06 mg% (fresh oil). In perfumes, 
Hop Oil lends a warm, rich and piquant, spicy note, useful in colognes, chypres, Oriental bases, 
fougeres, etc. The true annual production of Hop Oil may be quite substantial, but the amount 
of oil available for the perfume industry is very limited. A few Hungarian and German distillers 
add sodium chloride to the distillation waters in order to produce a better separation of oil 
from the water. Furthermore, they may extract the water phase with benzene or other 


219 


hydrocarbon solvents in order to collect certain water-soluble parts of the essential oil which 
are necessary to reproduce fully the volatile aroma of the hops. These "complete" Hop Oils are 
superior to ordinary hop oils in respect to flavor effect, but their keeping qualities are equally 
poor or even inferior to those of ordinary hop oils. 

Horseradish Oil. 

Of interest to the flavorist only is the essential oil and the various extraction products from the 
root of Armoracia Lapathifolia, a common plant in Europe, known as Horseradish ("raifort" in 
French). The root which is commonly sold on vegetable markets, can be classified as a pungent 
condiment, similar to mustard seed (see monograph on Mustard Oil); mustard seed is 
classified as a pungent aromatic seed. The most important of the constituents responsible for 
the pungency of horseradish, is identical to the main constituent of mustard seed oil from 
black mustard seed. 

A very small yield of essential oil is obtained by water-and-steam distillation of the 
comminuted horseradish root, soaked in water. The essential oil is pale yellow or almost 
colorless, mobile, and of intensely sharp odor and lachrymatory effect, reminiscent of the 
virtues of mustard oil, but even more pungent or irritating than this oil. For flavor experiments, 
it is advisable to start with extremely high dilutions, e.g. p.l mg% or even less in order to avoid 
irritation of the mucous membranes on tongue and palate. The oil finds some use in the 
canning- and ready-made salad industry, replacing the fresh horseradish which may be 
inavailable for parts of the year. 

Horseradish Oil is occasionally adulterated with black mustard oil, and it is a rough job to 
determine through organoleptic examination, whether or not you have a true oil. 

A "concrete" or Resinoid of Horseradish (so- called) is produced by benzene extraction of the 
root. It is necessary to dry the root prior to this extraction. Fresh or semi-dried roots can be 
extracted with acetone or ethyl alcohol. The various extracts present a more true-to-nature 
aroma than does the oil. The "resinoid" is usually a dark amber colored, very viscous mass. It 
has a rich, but pungent and somewhat sharp odor with a peculiar warm and quite pleasant 
undertone. This product is very suitable for use in seasonings, etc. as a replacement for the 
root itself. However, the dried root is now available flaked or "grated" in airtight sealed 
packages for household or industrial use. 

Horseradish Oil and Horseradish "Resinoid" are very rarely offered commercially. They may 
be produced upon demand, or they are produced by the individual consumers for their specific 
needs. 

Ho Wood Oil. 

From one of the many varieties of Cinnamomum Camphora, locally known as Ho-Sho, two 
essential oils are derived, both of which are quite important to the perfume industry: 

A "camphor oil" (see monograph on Camphor Oils) is distilled from the wood which, upon 
fractionation, yields about 20% of the so-called Ho-Oil or Shiu-Oil. Formosa and Japan are the 
major producers, while minor quantities are produced in Red China. Japanese "Ho Wood Oil" 


220 


is a fractionated ho oil, while the Chinese oil is usually "natural" and contains more camphor 
than linalool. 

Before World War II, hundreds of tons of Ho Oil were produced annually, and most of it was 
exported to Europe where it was further processed into perfumery grade linalool, linalyl 
acetate and other perfume materials. It was not until quite recently that the essential oil from 
the leaves of the same tree became available in significant quantities. The latter oil has now 
greatly replaced the Ho Wood Oil as a source of Linalool (see monograph on Ho Leaf Oil). 

Ho Wood Oil is a pale yellow or almost colorless oil with a sweet-camphoraceous, somewhat 
woody- floral odor. There have always been several grades of ho wood oil, the best ones being 
virtually free from camphoraceous notes. These oils were offered at a lower price than 
Brazilian bois de rose oil even in the years prior to 1955. 

Only the better grades of Ho Wood Oil were used as such in perfumery, although the 
camphoraceous types could be used in soap perfumes where lavandin, aspic, rosemary and 
similar materials were already present. As mentioned above, ho wood oil is now slowly but 
steadily being replaced by the leaf oil from the same tree. The wood oil still finds use in the 
producing areas as a soap perfume material and as a source of linalool. 

Huon Pine Wood Oil. 

A tree, Dacrydium Franklinii, which is probably a native of Tasmania, has been introduced in 
several other countries thousands of miles away from its homeland. With its very insect- 
resistant and useful lumber for furniture, ships and floorboards, etc., the tree is now cultivated 
in New Zealand, Borneo, Malaya, Indonesia, South America, etc. 

Distillation takes place in Tasmania, but not regularly. 

The wood sawdust, shavings, etc. are steam distilled to yield a pale yellow or reddish-brown 
liquid of a faintly sweet, woody-spicy and somewhat bitter odor, reminiscent of cedarwood, 
Texas. Huon pine wood oil was used during World War II as an insect repellant (it contains over 
95% methyl eugenol), but the oil caused too many cases of skin irritation, and it was 
abandoned for this particular purpose. The oil may serve as a natural source of methyl 
eugenol, but with the abundance of clove leaf oil at floor level prices, a production of Huon 
Pine Wood Oil is not economically attractive. 

The oil could be used as such as a modifier in woody perfume bases where the sharp, cedar¬ 
like note is not out of line, and where a rich, tea-like, herbaceous-woody undertone is wanted. 
For this type of perfume effects, the essential oil of Melaleuca Bracteata (see monograph) is 
preferable, and its odor is much more delicate. As a strange coincidence, the latter oil is a 
native of Australia; thus, we find the two strongest methyl eugenol carrying essential oils 
originating in this area. 

It is very likely, that Huon Pine Wood Oil will slowly disappear from the market on account of 
failing interest in this oil. 


221 


Hyacinth Absolute. 


Probably originally from Asia Minor or the Balkans, the Hyacinthus Orientalis is now cultivated 
on a large scale in Holland, mainly for the production of bulbs which are exported to garden- 
owners all over the world. At a certain moment, there are substantial quantities of flowers 
available for extraction. In Holland, there is only one producer of importance, and this house 
probably produces 90 percent or more of all Hyacinth Absolute in the world. The annual world 
production in 1958 was estimated at 175 kilos. Extraction is performed either by the 
conventional two-step method via the concrete, or by the more recently developed adsorption 
method. The odorous principles are adsorbed on silicagel or prepared charcoal in a cylinder. 
The fragrance from the flowers is forced through this cylinder in an atmosphere of nitrogen or 
carbon dioxide. The gas acts as a carrier for the flower odor. In spite of the very limited 
production, Hyacinth Absolute is offered by a multitude of suppliers, and in a multitude of 
qualities, prices, etc. The appearance and odor varies too, and it is well-nigh impossible to give 
a description of a true, uncut absolute. Some perfumers even go so far as to state that, "if a 
product smells of hyacinths, it is definitely not a true hyacinth absolute! “. Incidentally, very 
few flower oils will, undiluted and in a pure state, smell like the flower from which they are 
extracted. Dilutions down to 0.1 percent or even less will usually develop the true-to-nature 
odor. 

Hyacinth Absolute is (usually) a reddish-brown or dark brown to greenish-brown, viscous 
liquid, and it has an intensely sweet, green-floral, but somewhat sharp and at first unpleasant 
odor; later in its tremendous tenacity, it tones down to a very hyacinth-like, floral and foliage- 
green fragrance. 

The absolute could be used in a variety of floral fragrances, provided that it were available at a 
reasonable cost (it is offered at anything from $ 1000 to over $ 12,000 per kilo), and if it were 
readily available, uniform and reliable. The composing of an artificial hyacinth perfume base is 
still a favorite problem for many perfumers. Frequent adulteration of the commercial lots of 
so-called hyacinth absolutes with narcissus absolute, violet leaf absolute, ylang-ylang, and a 
wealth of synthetic materials, has only encouraged perfumers to try composing their own 
hyacinth base, rather than buy adulterated material. 

Artificial hyacinth perfume bases may be composed from cinnamic alcohol, styrax products, 
phenyl propyl alcohol, phenyl acetaldehyde, phenyl ethyl alcohol, galbanum resinoid, ylang- 
ylang oils, isoeugenol, floranol, tolyl acetate, phenyl ethyl cinnamate, terpineol, 
hydroxycitronellal, methoxy phenyl butanone, amyl salicylate, benzyl cyanide, benzyl formate, 
amyl cinnamic aldehyde, indole, phenyl-ethyl dimethyl carbinol, etc. etc. 

To the author's opinion, the perfume industry can do very well without a true (and 
unreasonably expensive) Hyacinth Absolute. 

Hyssop Oil. 

Presumably originating in the Mediterranean area, Hyssopus Officinalis has been known and 
cultivated as a culinary herb and for medicinal uses for hundreds of years. The plant grows wild 
in the coastal areas of the south of France, Italy, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R., etc., and is cultivated in 


222 


these countries and in Bulgaria, Hungary and Holland for the purpose of distillation of its 
essential oil. Hungary and France regularly produce small quantities of the oil by steam 
distillation of the overground parts of the plant, harvested immediately prior to inflorescence. 

Smaller quantities of oil are produced in Holland and Germany. 

Hyssop Oil is a pale yellow or faintly greenish yellow to almost colorless oil of a powerful, 
somewhat sharp, but sweet-camphoraceous odor, and with a warm-aromatic, spicy 
undertone. Its flavor is warm and sweet, slightly burning or biting, but rich aromatic and 
herbaceous-spicy. The suggested use level is 0.10 to 0.40 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible 
is 0.03 to 0.05 mg%. 

Hyssop Oil is used in flavor work, not only to replace the herb in pickles, meat sauces and 
seasonings, etc., but also to give bouquet to alcoholic beverages, particularly the "chartreuse" 
type of liqueur. In perfumery, the oil will induce a rich body, warm and spicy-herbaceous notes 
and personality or typical character to certain types of fragrances, e.g. the citrus type colognes, 
fougeres, ambres and light-aldehydic fragrances as well as heavy, oriental bases. Hyssop oil 
blends well with citrus oils, lavender oil, rosemary, myrtle, laurel leaf, sage and sage clary, 
amyl salicylate, linalool, eugenol, geraniol, etc. 

The oil is occasionally adulterated with cedar- leaf oil, camphor oil or camphor oil fractions, 
lavandin oil, myrtle oil, sage oil, etc. The annual production of Hyssop Oil is very small, 
probably less than one ton. It is not likely that production will be increased as the herb has 
been known for a very long time and still seems to lose in popularity almost continuously. 


I 

Illurin Balsam. 

Synonyms: llurin Balsam, Niger Balsam, "African Copaiba". 

There are several products which are called Illurin Balsam, although they are only occasionally 
offered on today's market. True "Illurin balsam" is a natural oleoresin formed as a 
physiological product in the trunk of certain West African leguminosae, related to Copaifera 
(see Copaiba Balsam). It is possible that Daniella Thurifera is one of the parent trees to this 
"balsam". The name Illurin is derived from the commercial centre (llorin) of the southwestern 
corner of the northern province of Nigeria. This big city is on the Kano-Lagos road, but not on 
the river Niger itself. The Illurin Balsams were usually shipped to London from Lagos (on the 
"Niger coast"). Hence the name Ulurin balsam or Niger balsam. 

Another natural oleoresin, derived from a related tree, is known as Hardwickia Balsam, and 
occasionally sold as Niger balsam. The two products are quite similar in appearance and odor. 
See also Gurjun Balsam. A balsam (oleoresin) has been obtained from the tree Oxystigma 
Mannii years ago. This product served as a source of beta-Caryophyllene, the main constituent 
of this oleoresin. 


223 


Illurin Balsam is a dark amber colored to brownish, viscous liquid, occasionally turbid or 
opalescent. The odor is sweet-woody, balsamic, very pleasant, uniform and tenacious. Certain 
lots show more "burnt" or phenolic, tarlike odors than others; however, as mentioned above, 
the product is a physiological one, and it is not produced by burning, boiling, heating, cutting 
or otherwise damaging the tree. The rough odor is probably due to a difference in origin. A 
number of related species of the tree grow in various parts of West Africa. Many of these trees 
are exploited for "balsam". 

Illurin Balsam has become a scarce and rare item, but it could find use in perfumery as a 
blender for ionones and many other synthetic materials which may need a natural blender or 
"rounder-off". The oleoresin blends well with cedarwood, nitromusks, isobornylacetate, amyl 
salicylate, orris resin, vetiver oil, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss products, lavandin oil, etc. etc. It 
could probably do well as an extender in low-cost perfumes for certain types of household 
products, insecticides, deodorants, industrial perfumes, etc. 

Illurin balsam has served as an adulterant for Copaiba Balsam, but more recently, there have 
been cases where Copaiba Balsam has been sold as Illurin Balsam. This gives some indication 
about the scarcity of the African product. 

The "balsam" contains a very high amount of essential oil which can be distilled from the 
"balsam" with steam. This oil is very rarely offered in a true and pure state. Illurin Balsam Oil is 
a pale amber or almost colorless liquid of a soft, mellow and pleasant, woody-sweet, later on 
somewhat dry odor of good tenacity. If available, the Illurin Balsam Oil would be interesting to 
use in the reconstruction of certain essential oils, e.g. spice oils, ylang-ylang, etc. The oil would 
be an excellent blender and extender in many bases where a high amount of synthetic 
components produce "sharp" notes or "rough" corners in the odor of the perfume base. 
However, with Copaiba Balsam Oil readily available at a very reasonable cost, there will 
probably never be a substantial demand for Illurin Balsam Oil although the latter has definite 
advantages in odor softness and tenacity over the former. 

Inchigrass Oil. 

From a species of the south Indian grass Cymbopogon, closely related to palmarosa- and 
ginger- grass (see monographs), an essential oil is produced locally by primitive steam 
distillation. 

Most of the local Hindi or Sanskritic names for the grass mean "gingergrass", referring to the 
fact that the fresh green grass produces a ginger(root)-like odor when rubbed between the 
fingers. 

It is interesting to note that the leaves of the gingerplant smell fresh, lemony, citronella- 
verbena- like when rubbed between the fingers. The two grasses are not botanically related. 
The yield of oil is fair, almost equal to the yield from Java- citronella grass. Inchigrass Oil is a 
pale yellow or pale amber colored liquid of fresh, sweet citronella-palmarosa-like odor with a 
tealeaf-like, rich herbaceous undertone. The latter note is quite predominant, or even 
unpleasant, in certain lots of the oil. These types of inchigrass oil have some resemblance to 
perilla oil in respect to odor. 


224 


There are a number of varieties of the plant, all growing in the southern parts of India, and 
various types of Inchigrass Oil have been offered. The more camphoraceous-bitter smelling 
oils would certainly be less popular in the case that Inchigrass Oil should become commonly 
available on the European and American markets. Inchigrass oil is used locally for the scenting 
of soaps and detergents, household articles, etc. Only very occasionally it reaches the outside 
markets; accordingly, it has not found any place in American or European perfumery. 

The oil might serve as a modifier along with palmarosa oil, citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus 
staigeriana, eucalyptus citriodora, leptospermum citratum and other soap perfume materials 
of the "fresh-lemony" type. 

See also Cymbopogon Connatus. 

Iva Oil. 

Practically unknown today, and probably ne' returning to perfume or flavor creation, is the 
essential oil which is steam distilled from the flowers of Achillea Moschata. The plant which is 
a Compositae member grows wild in central Europe, and it has been used in Switzerland and 
France for various local specialties of alcohol beverages, particularly the "old" types of 
Benedictine and Chartreuse liqueurs (both of which are of French origin). Often more than 
forty different herbs, roots, spices, etc. go into the very complex "tincture" upon which the 
aromas of these liqueurs are based. 

Iva Oil is, like many other essential oils from members of the Compositae family, blue 
greenish-blue when freshly distilled, but it fades considerably on ageing. The odor too, varies 
significantly according to the age of the oil. Generally, the odor is warm-herbaceous, 
camphoraceous, with a similarity to hop oil and tansy oil, while it usually is difficult or 
impossible to perceive the "musky" notes which have given the name of Musk Yarrow to the 
plant. It is conceivable that the unpleasant, and to some people almost "animal" notes from an 
increasing amount of valerie acid in older oils can be responsible for the "musk" name. The 
related plant, Achillea Millefolium, the very common Yarrow Herb, is described in this work 
under Milfoil. 

Oil of Iva could find use in perfumery to introduce rare and so-called "intriguing" notes in 
citrus colognes, fougeres, herbaceous fragrances, etc. 

With the present production at zero level, it is inconceivable that Iva Oil will find extensive use 
in future perfumery. 

Ivy Leaf Absolute. 

From the leaves of Hedera Helix and other species related to this climbing vine, a concrete is 
produced by hydrocarbon extraction. The concrete, in turn, is processed further to an absolute 
by the conventional method (see Absolute, Part One of this book). Ivy grows wild all over 
Europe: in the forests, and along the borderline of woods, and it is quite common in the United 
States too. Commercial extraction of the leaves for perfumery use is undertaken in France, and 
occasionally in Germany. The product is known in France under the name of Absolu de Lierre. 
The Ivy plant is an evergreen and it is the botanical symbol of constant affection. 


225 


Ivy Leaf Absolute is a dark green, semi-solid mass with an intensively herbaceous-green, or 
bark-green odor, and a rich, sweet-bitter foliage- extract undertone. These odor characteristics 
will immediately place the ivy leaf absolute among the most interesting "green" or "foliage"- 
like natural materials. It is used in a number of bases and compounds, particularly in those 
where a heavy, not expressly floral, green note is desired, e. g. as a modifier with violet leaf 
absolute, hop absolute, as a naturalizer for dibutyl sulfide, amyl heptine carbonate, beta- 
gamma hexenyl acetate, phenoxy acetaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, methyl phenyl carbinyl 
acetate, etc. It is also useful in forest blends, fougeres, chypres, etc., or in the reproduction of 
certain natural materials, e. g. oakmoss extracts. Ivy Leaf Absolute blends well with oakmoss 
products, mimosa absolute, linalool, nerol, galbanum resinoid, cyclamen aldehyde, amyl 
salicylate, etc. and it is particularly interesting in moss fragrances and pine needle fantasy 
bases. 

This absolute is produced on a very limited scale only, but there are ample quantities of 
natural raw material present in nature. Since the plant is not cultivated beyond the indoor 
scale, collection of leaves involves quite a bit of hand- work and, accordingly, the absolute has 
not yet become too common. 


I 

Jaborandi Oil. 

Although very rarely found on the essential oil market, this oil deserves brief mention. The 
parent plant is very important in medicine since the alkaloid, Pilocarpine, is extracted from the 
leaves of Pilocarpus Jaborandi, a woody shrub native to Brazil. A number of varieties exist in 
other South American countries, e.g. Paraguay, and in Cuba, Martinique, and Guadeloupe in 
the West Indies, and in Central America. 

Occasionally, an essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves prior to the extraction of the 
alcaloid. This oil is thus a by-product, and is not regularly produced. When the alcoloid is 
extracted from the pulverized leaves with ethyl alcohol (and no previous steaming of the 
leaves), some essential oil will separate when the extract is evaporated. The essential oil must 
be removed in order to facilitate further processing of the alcaloid. 

Jaborandi Oil is a yellowish to orange-yellow liquid of a sweet-herbaceous, somewhat fruity, 
not exactly pleasant odor; the odor tones out later on in a tea-like, somewhat bitter, but quite 
pleasant undertone. The author declines from giving any comments on the flavor, although 
this usage has been mentioned and described in other works. The presence of Methyl Nonyl 
Ketone (see also Rue Oil), and the fact that the plant belongs to the family of rutaceae, places 
the oil among possible skin-irritants. Accordingly, the author would not recommend it for use 
in flavors. In perfumery, Jaborandi Oil could be used as a "piquant" additive in colognes, 
fougeres, aldehydic bases, etc., if the amount of this oil is kept at a safe level. The very poor 
availability of the oil, however, prevents its extensive use. 


226 


Jasmin Absolute from Chassis. 


See also monograph on Absolute in Part One of this work. 

When the flowers are removed from the "chassis", and the fragrance-saturated fat (= the 
Pommade) is scraped off, to be extracted with alcohol, there still remains not only a certain 
amount of fragrant fat on the removed flowers, but some odorous matter is still contained in 
these flowers themselves. In order to isolate and concentrate this matter, the flowers are 
extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent, usually petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract is 
evaporated (to an intermediate "concrete from chassis"), and the evaporation residue is 
extracted with alcohol. In turn the alcohol is removed from this extract, and what is left is 
called Jasmin Absolute from Chassis. This is actually a by-product of the enfleurage process, 
and the annual amount of available chassis-absolute is obviously very small. Furthermore, it is 
constantly decreasing with the lessening use of the enfleurage method. 

Jasmin Absolute from Chassis is a viscous, very dark orange or chocolate-brown liquid; it has a 
peculiar odor, only faintly reminiscent of jasmin absolute from concrete or of the jasmin flower 
itself. It resembles somewhat the odor of orange flower absolute: warm, sweet, heavy, 
tenacious, fatty-floral, slightly herbaceous and deep-fruity, but less indolic-sharp than the odor 
of the jasmin flower itself. 

In use, it cannot replace the absolute from concrete, but it does find application in floral bases 
where a non-indolic jasmin effect is called for. Its extremely rich and tenacious body lends a 
natural quality to perfume compositions where synthetic materials may tend to produce 
"rough" notes. 

Jasmin Absolute from Concrete. 

Of the two main types of Jasmin Absolute, the one made from concrete is the most important 
by far. It is produced by alcohol-extraction of jasmin concrete (see monograph). This extraction 
process is usually carried out in France who supplies most of the commercially available Jasmin 
Absolute. However, substantial quantities of absolute are produced by the larger consumers 
who purchase jasmin concrete, sometimes from several different sources other than French in 
order to obtain a uniform quality which can be reproduced year after year. These consumers 
will themselves process the concrete into jasmin absolute according to their special needs. 
Minor quantities of jasmin absolute are produced in Italy, Morocco, Egypt, India, Formosa, and 
China. In India, the jasmin flowers are known as Chameli or Chambeli. The so-called Chamei 
Attar is produced from jasmin flowers by extraction with hot fat. 

Jasmin Absolute from Concrete is a dark orange (on ageing reddish-brown), somewhat viscous 
liquid, and it possesses an intensely floral, warm, rich and highly diffusive odor with a peculiar 
waxy-herbaceous, oily-fruity and tea-like undertone. The odor and the nuances in the 
undertone varies according to the origin, production, age and method of purification (from the 
concrete). 

Jasmin absolute represents one of the most striking examples of nature's ability to round off 
and conceal—or unsurpassably utilize—the odor- effect of very simple odorants, e. g. benzyl 


227 


acetate and linalool, the main constituents of jasmin absolute (in respect to quantity). Most 
perfumers have, at one time or another in their experience, tried to duplicate the jasmin 
fragrance by relying upon literature information as to the chemical composition of jasmin 
absolute (a very unartistic approach to a perfumery problem!). The perfumers will no doubt 
agree that the problem is not solved, nor is it hardly even approached in this way. The odor of 
a mixture of benzyl acetate, linalool, benzyl alcohol, methyl anthranilate. indole, etc. in the 
analyzed proportions is far from representative of the jasmin fragrance. More recently, a 
number of low-percentage components have been identified in the jasmin absolute, and these 
findings have greatly contributed to the improvement of artificial jasmin flower oil bases. A 
large number of synthetic materials, some of them chemically related to the jasmones, have 
been developed, and these are of great help to the creative perfumer in his attempts to 
reproduce the much wanted jasmin effect at a lower cost. A few natural perfume materials 
with no relationship whatever to jasmin (apart from the following) can be incorporated in 
artificial jasmin bases, and they lend striking true-to-nature effects: The deep-herbaceous tea¬ 
like notes from tealeaf or mate-extracts, the waxy or honeylike sweetness from beeswax 
extracts, the grassy fattiness from perilla oil or gingergrass oil, the warm tobacco- like and 
herbaceous notes from chamomile oils, the fatty-cresylic notes from high-boiling ethers of 
para-cresol (iso-butyrate, salicylate, caprylate, etc.), the tobacco-leaf-like notes from esters of 
nicotinic acid (methyl or propyl), are known examples from successful artificial jasmin bases. 

Jasmin Absolute from Concrete is used in such a multitude and variety of perfumes that it is 
hardly possible to establish a rule for its use. "No perfume without jasmin" is an old saying, 
and this is not far from the fact. The jasmin-rose complex forms the more important part or 
"fond" of numerous "grands parfums" as well as quite ordinary perfumes and bases. The floral 
note, when required, is provided by the addition of jasmin absolute or any kind of a jasmin 
base in 8 out of 10 cases. And the practising perfume student will be surprised when he learns 
how little jasmin absolute he has to use in order to obtain just enough of a "floral" note. With 
that fact in consideration, even a true jasmin absolute is rarely too expensive to use. 

The annual production of jasmin absolute from concrete can be roughly estimated from the 
known production of jasmin concrete which is in the order of magnitude of 10 metric tons. 
Only a minor portion of the concrete is used as such; the balance is processed into absolute, 
totalling about 4 metric tons per year, including private productions. The value of the total 
world production of extracted jasmin products can be estimated at about 5 million U.S. dollars. 

Jasmin absolute is frequently adulterated. Its high cost seems to tempt certain suppliers and 
producers beyond their moral resistance. Additions of indole, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, ylang- 
ylang fractions, jasmin absolute from chassis (see monograph), artificial jasmin bases, various 
synthetic jasmones and homologues, etc. occur quite frequently in commercial lots of jasmin 
absolute from concrete. The quality of the various absolutes from French, Italian, Moroccan, 
Formosan, Corsican, Egyptian or other concretes affects the quality of the corresponding 
absolutes. The method of processing concretes into absolutes is an art and a science which 
demands experience, skill and general "know-how". Accordingly, the evaluation of jasmin 
absolutes prior to the purchase of this expensive and important raw material, is a very 
important part of the perfumer's job. 


228 



Jasmin Absolute from Pommade. 


Also known as Jasmin Absolute from Enfleurage, this product is obtained by alcohol extraction 
of the fat from the trays in the enfleurage process (see Pommade, Part One of this book). The 
application of the Enfleurage process to the jasmin flowers is an old and well-known method 
of extraction, but it has become increasingly impractical or uneconomical due to the higher 
cost of labor. The method is employed almost exclusively in the Grasse region of France where 
the industry and its people have a century-old experience and inherited skill for flower 
treatment. It is estimated that less than 10 percent of the world's crop of jasmin flowers (from 
cultivations and regular fields) are treated by enfleurage, the balance being extracted with 
hydrocarbon solvents to yield jasmin concrete. Minor quantities of jasmin flowers are treated 
in India by liquid fat extraction (hot oil infusion) to yield the so-called "attars", local flower oil 
concentrates. 

Jasmin Absolute from Pommade is a dark orange colored to dark reddish-brown, viscous 
liquid with a highly true-to-nature jasmin flower odor. By the nature of things, this perfume 
material has no odor of solvent, but upon ageing it may develop a slightly fatty off-note due to 
the extraction-fat. Modern anti-oxidants usually keep the fat from becoming rancid. 

The jasmin pommade-absolute varies in odor according to the method of extraction, (and this 
process is a delicate one!), the quality of the flower material, the age after picking, the location 
of the field, etc. Generally, the indole note is more pronounced in the pommade-absolute than 
in the absolute from concrete. 

The use of the pommade-absolute is similar to that of the latter product, but the poor 
availability of the pommade-absolute prevents general use. The very good yield in the 
enfleurage process is one of the main reasons for continued production of this fine 
concentrate of the fragrance of the jasmin flower. Jasmin absolute from pommade is likely to 
disappear slowly from the perfumery market because of the extremely elaborate process and 
huge amount of human hand-work involved in the production of this 200-year old natural 
perfume material. 


Jasmin Concrete. 

From the flowers of Jasminum Officinale, mainly from the cultivated variety (var. 
Grandiflorum), is produced one of the most important, if not the most important natural 
perfume raw material. Jasmin concrete is prepared by petroleum ether extraction, occasionally 
by extraction with other hydrocarbon solvents, of the mature flowers. 

The plant originated in the mountainous region of northwest India, and has been known for 
thousands of years in the East. Its fragrance is immensely popular in all parts of the world, but 
seems particularly attractive to the people in the countries where the jasmin plant grows wild 
or cultivated. 

Jasmin concrete is produced in Morocco, Italy, France (and Corsica), Egypt, Guinea, Comoro 
islands, India, Syria (Lebanon), China, Formosa, Japan, etc. The respect to quantity, Morocco 
and Italy are the leading producers of jasmin concrete. The concrete must be produced very 


229 


near the growing area, but the Absolute (see Jasmin Absolute from Concrete) can be prepared 
from the concrete anywhere and at a later time. 

Thus, not all the growing areas produce jasmin absolute. In fact, very few do, partly because 
most large consumers will buy jasmin concrete and prepare their own jasmin absolute 
according to their needs and specifications. 

The extraction with petroleum ether is carried out with the application of gentle heat, but 
certain processes (e.g. butane extraction) are carried out at room temperature. Butaflor 
Jasmin is an absolute-type, produced by butane extraction of the flowers and subsequent 
alcohol-washing of the concrete (see Jasmin Absolute in Part Two of this book, and Absolute 
in Part One of the book). 

Jasmin Concrete is a solid, waxy, reddish-orange, dark orange, yellowish-orange or brownish 
mass. The odor varies according to type, origin, solvent used, etc., but is generally warm, 
intensely floral, somewhat indolic-sharp, but immensely rich and tenacious. There are various 
types of herbaceous sweet, fatty green, tea-like or "bread"-like, almost "broth"-like odors 
found in various qualities and types of jasmin concrete. However, the odor is more correctly 
evaluated in the jasmin absolute which is free from the waxes and other alcohol- insoluble and 
practically odorless materials. The waxes act as powerful odor-depressors, and the 
characteristic radiation or diffusion of the odor of the absolute will not appear until the waxes 
are removed. 

Jasmin Concrete contains approximately 50 percent alcohol-soluble matter (= Jasmin 
Absolute, see monograph), and part of the evaluation of a jasmin concrete should be devoted 
to the determination of the content of alcohol-soluble matter. For a quick evaluation of a 
concrete, it is often sufficient to make up a 10 percent solution of the concrete in a highly 
purified, fixed (vegetable) oil. and compare this solution to a 5 percent solution of an 
acceptable jasmin absolute in the same solvent. This test will give the perfumer a fair 
impression of the strength of the two materials. As was mentioned previously in this 
monograph, it is customary for large consumers and connoisseurs to purchase their own 
concretes and process them into jasmin absolute. 

Jasmin Concrete is also used in soap perfumes where its effect can be utilized at the most 
surprisingly low concentrations. This fact makes jasmin concrete useful even in the so-called 
medium-cost soap perfumes. Its effect is mainly that of "rounding-off" rough chemical notes, 
e.g. from benzyl acetate, tolyl acetate, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, methyl anthranilate, etc., 
lending body and naturalness and a warm, floral undertone. The concrete is particularly useful 
in soap perfumes where high amounts of these and other synthetic materials are present and 
would tend to produce a sharp, rough odor; jasmin concrete is an excellent modifier in chypre 
bases for soap, violet bases (where it blends well with mimosa concrete) and numerous floral 
bases. 

Jasmin Concrete is not infrequently adulterated. The most common additive is the "spent wax 
from the production of jasmin absolute. The odor of jasmin concrete is perceptibly impaired by 
comparatively small additions of these almost odorless waxes. A "special grade" of Benzyl 
Acetate is offered by a few perfume houses who distil benzyl acetate over a certain amount of 


230 



"spent waxes" from the production of jasmin absolute. This benzyl acetate is particularly 
suitable for the creation of artificial jasmin bases. Obviously, it is necessary to start with a high- 
grade chlorine-free benzyl acetate in order to obtain a really soft and floral type of this ester. 

Jonquil Absolute. 

A very scarce and, partly for that reason, very rarely used perfume material is the flower 
absolute from the Narcissus Joniquilla. This very fragrant narcissus species probably originated 
in Asia Minor, and it is cultivated in the Grasse region of southern France and in Morocco for 
the purpose of extracting perfume oil. The latter area seems likely to become the center of 
production very soon. 

The flowers are extracted with petroleum ether to yield a concrete which in turn is processed 
to an absolute. Annual production has been as high as 100 kilos, but is presently only a fraction 
of this figure. In Morocco, the bulk of the flowers are processed into a concrete, while in 
France, the local flowers are either processed into concrete and absolute, or they are treated 
with hot oil (digestion) or with cold fat (enfleurage to produce a pommade). These products 
are further washed to yield alcohol-soluble products (see Infusion and Pommade in Part One 
of this book). The enfleurage yields a lighter-colored product, but it is worthwhile mentioning 
that the yield is poor as distinguished from jasmin and tuberose, where the flowers actually 
continue to produce perfume oil even while they are dying on the grease-plates (the 
"chassis"). Most of the jonquil absolutes available today are prepared by the simple and 
economical two-step extraction via the concrete. 

Jonquil Absolute from Concrete is a viscous, dark brown or dark orange to olive-brown liquid 
of heavy, honeylike, deep-sweet floral odor with a strong green undertone and a somewhat 
bitter, very tenacious dryout note. The odor bears great similarity to the fragrance of longoza 
and tuberose, and a remote resemblance to hyacinth. Jonquil absolute blends excellently with 
jasmin, violet leaf absolute, orange flower absolute, longoza, ylang-ylang and other heavy 
florals, or with powerful green-floral absolutes. Hydroxycitronellal, isoeugenol, cyclamal, linalyl 
acetate, cinnamic alcohol, rhodinol, methyl para-toluate, undecanolide, phenylethyl phenyl 
acetate, amyl phenyl acetate, n-propenyl methyl anthranilate, tolyl acetate, methyl benzoate, 
heliotropyl acetone, alpha ion- one, etc., are examples of synthetic materials which are 
frequently used in artificial reproductions of the jonquil fragrance. 

On account of its high cost and scarcity, Jonquil Absolute is frequently adulterated, e.g. with 
narcissus absolute, ylang-ylang absolute, benzoin Siam "resin absolute", longoza absolute, 

Peru balsam oil, everlasting absolute or helichrysum oil, vanilla absolute, etc. and various 
synthetic materials. 

Juniperberry Oil. 

Commercial Juniper Berry Oil is produced by two methods: 

The best oil is steam distilled (or steam-and- water distilled) from the crushed, dried or 
partially dried, ripe berries (fruits). Occasionally water distillation is used. The greater part of 
all commercial juniperberry oil, however, is derived from the fermented fruits as a by-product 


231 


of the central European juniper-brandy manufacturing. It should be noted that juniper berries 
(fruits) contain certain amounts of fixed oil, occasionally called "juniper oil" (see Juniperberry 
"Resinoid"). 

The shrub, Juniperus Communis, grows wild all over central and southern Europe, southwest 
Asia, northern Asia, North Africa and North America. The best berries are collected in northern 
Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and France. Lower grades are collected in 
Germany, Poland, U.S.S.R., Portugal, Spain, Bulgaria, India, and Scandinavia. 

The gin-distillers are also large consumers of juniper fruits. Some of them still make their own 
distillates from juniperberry tinctures rather than using a sesquiterpeneless juniperberry oil 
which never gives the same "body" of flavor to the beverage. The actual production of steam- 
distilled juniperberry oil is surprisingly small. Substantial quantities of so-called Juniperberry 
Oil are produced by another method: 

The dextrose-containing juniper fruits are fermented in order to produce a popular beverage. 
An essential oil can be produced from the fermentation mass. This distillate, which is a mixture 
of flavored alcohol, water and essential oil (mainly monoterpenes and other fractions, 
insoluble in alcohol), is redistilled, and thus the flavored, low- proof alcohol (the beverage) is 
separated from the terpenic oil fraction. The latter constitutes commercial "Juniperberry Oil". 

Juniperberry Oil (steam distilled from the fruits) is a water-white or very pale yellow, mobile 
oil, having a fresh, yet warm, rich-balsamic, woody-sweet and pine-needle-like odor. In fact, 
the oil of Pinus Pumilio (which grows in juniper- areas, too) resembles juniperberry oil very 
much in odor characteristics. The oil derived from the fermented fruits usually has a more 
turpentine-like, pinene-like odor and little or no balsamic sweetness. Its tenacity is inferior to 
that of the "true" oil. The fermentation oil is not suitable for flavor purposes. The flavor of 
steam distilled juniperberry oil is warm, slightly bitter-aromatic, balsamic and rich. The 
bitterness is quite persistent at all levels of dilution. It is quite typical of many perfume 
materials that they may present odors which give an impression of sweetness, while their 
flavor reveals an almost prohibitive bitterness. The suggested use level for a good juniperberry 
oil from selected fruit material is about 0.30 mg%. At this concentration, there is still a distinct 
and characteristic bitterness along with the aroma of the oil. The Minimum Perceptible is 0.05 
to 0.08 mg%. The actual use level in alcoholic beverages is considerably higher than the above 
figure. High concentration of alcohol impairs the sense of taste. 

Juniperberry Oil is used in perfumery for its fresh-balsamic notes, as a modifier for various 
pine needle oils (with which it blends very well), with citrus oils in room spray perfumes, in 
ambres, fougeres, chypres, after-shave fragrances, spice compositions, colognes, etc. 
Labdanum absolute is an excellent fixative for juniperberry oil. Other fixatives and blenders are 
mastic, opopanax, fir needle absolute, oakmoss products, elemi resinoid, illurin balsam, 
cypress oil, sage clary, borneol, nopyl acetate, abitol, lavandin oil, lavandin concrete, lovage oil, 
benzoin resinoid, toluresinoid, etc. 

In flavors, it is customary to use a sesquiterpeneless oil, produced from a high-grade true 
juniper- berry oil (steam distilled from the fruits). The natural (total) juniperberry oil is poorly 
soluble in ethyl alcohol, and the oil has a pronounced bitter taste which is often translated as 


232 



"turpentine-like" by the layman. Even better for flavors is a Juniper Berry Distillate, e.g. a 
distilled, concentrated tincture in low-proof alcohol which eliminates the terpenes. As a 
shortcut and poorer edition of the latter product, a Juniper Berry Aroma Distillate may be 
produced from juniper berry oil, alcohol and water. An aroma-distillate is obtained by 
subsequent distillation and rectification of the low-proof alcoholic distillate. In flavor quality, it 
is inferior to the distillate made from the berries (compare: production of gin). 

Juniperberry Oil is very frequently adulterated. More justly, one could say that commercial 
juniperberry oil is rarely the true distillate from the berries. The most frequent additive (or 
substitute) is, obviously, the poor oil from the fermentation process. This oil is commercially 
offered under the label of juniperberry oil. Other adulterants are pinene, camphene, 
turpentine oil fractions, juniper wood oil (see monograph), juniper twig oil, etc. Only a 
thorough organoleptic evaluation will reveal a poor or adulterated oil among samples of true 
oils, produced from the freshly crushed fruits by steam distillation. 

An essential oil is distilled in Yugoslavia from fruits and twigs of Juniperus Smreka. The odor of 
this oil is somewhat lighter than that of true juniper berry oil, less ambra-sweet, less rich on a 
dryout. Oil of juniperus smreka is produced on a very limited scale and not yet widely known 
outside Yugoslavia. 

Juniperberry Oil, terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless. 

This oil is preferably produced from a high-grade true Juniperberry Oil, derived from juniper 
fruits by steam distillation (see Juniperberry Oil, previous monograph). The deterpenation may 
be either complete or partial; various methods of removing the monoterpenes and 
sesquiterpenes are described in Part One of this book (see Terpeneless Oils). The greater part 
of the monoterpenes may be removed by distillation in vacuum, but since some of the 
valuable flavor principles of the oil have boiling points only slightly in excess of 200° C. at 760 
mm, it is advisable not to "push" the vacuum distillation too far. The monoterpenes distil at 
160 to 185°C. (760 mm). At good vacuum (e.g. 1 mm Hg.-pressure or lower), the differences in 
boiling point are very small and the hazard of losing valuable flavor principles considerably 
increased. 

Furthermore, the partially deterpenized oils have a pronounced tendency of resinifying within 
a comparatively short time, while the "absolute" (terpeneless) oils are more stable. Selective 
cold- extraction (liquid-liquid) of the oxygenated constituents from the partially deterpenized 
oil may lead to a totally deterpenized oil. Various patents cover the methods of removing the 
mono- and sesquiterpenes with the application of little or no heat, thus avoiding the 
detrimental effect of a prolonged fractional distillation of the oil. The yield of totally 
terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless oil from a good natural oil is usually less than five percent. The 
terpenes are almost worthless; consequently, the terpeneless oil is quite expensive. It presents 
the advantage of being soluble in low-proof alcohol, and it is stable against oxidation and 
resinification when kept cool, dark or in alcoholic solution. The oil is used in flavors for 
alcoholic beverages, particularly for gin and "Steinhager" types, furthermore in the complex 
liqueurs, e.g. benedictine, D.O. M., etc. Interesting modifications of the juniperberry flavor are 
obtained with terpeneless lime oil, spice oils, angelica root oil, etc. The average use level would 


233 


be about 0.10 to 0.30 mg%, while the Minimum Perceptible is 0.05 to 0.08 mg%. It appears 
from these figures that the actual flavor strength of the terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless 
juniperberry oil is only about twice the strength of a good natural juniperberry oil, although 
the material concentration may be as high as 30 times. The two flavors are, however, distinctly 
different and there is no doubt that the flavor or the deterpenized oil is superior to that of the 
natural oil, by far. 

In perfumery, this oil is occasionally used to introduce a balsamic-sweet, almost ambra-like 
note, e.g. in modern aldehydic fantasy-perfumes, ambres, "powdery" fragrances, Oriental 
bases, high-class pine needle fragrances or forest blends, etc. It blends well with aliphatic 
aldehydes, cinnamic alcohol, cypress oil (tail fractions), cedrenol and its derivatives, fir needle 
absolute, labdanum products, ionones and methylionones (particularly the so-called "delta"- 
methylionone which is beta-iso-methyl-ionone), macrocyclic musks, nitromusks, oakmoss 
products, heliotropine, nerol, etc. 

Terpeneless, Sesquiterpeneless Juniperberry Oil is usually a somewhat viscous, pale yellow or 
pale amber-colored liquid of intensely sweet, balsamic-resinous, yet fresh and somewhat fruity 
odor. The various methods of deterpenization produce oils of quite different appearance and 
organoleptic virtues. The oil is occasionally adulterated with deterpenized oils of pinus pumilio 
or of cypress. Mastic Oil (see monograph on Mastic) could be used, but it is too scarce and too 
expensive for this purpose. 

Juniperberry "Resinoid”. 

A few European (mainly French) manufacturers of perfumery raw materials offer a product 
which is extracted from the dried, ripe fruit of Juniperus Communis, the juniper tree (see 
monograph on Juniper Berry Oil). One producer will label his material "Juniper Berry 
Resinoid", while another may call it "Juniper Berry Concrete", etc. According to our definitions 
(see Part One of the present book), an extraction of juniper berries with a hydrocarbon solvent 
will yield a concrete since the fruits contain a certain proportion of waxy or fatty matter (fixed 
oil) and only insignificant amounts of resins. The botanical material is a harvested, live 
material, not an exudation. Accordingly, the term "resinoid" is misleading. However, the 
commercial product is usually transformed into a resinous, viscous and sticky substance by the 
addition of natural or synthetic "resins". The viscous matter in commercial juniperberry 
"resinoid" may thus be an artificial replacement for the fixed oil which has been eliminated 
during the extraction. When juniper- berries are extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent, the 
extract may contain 4 to 8 times as much resin as it contains of essential oil. To produce a 
pour- able extract, the manufacturers add certain diluents, high-boiling odorless solvents, 
plasticizers, etc. 

The perfumery effect of a good juniperberry oil, particularly that of a monoterpeneless oil, has 
inevitably tempted the manufacturers—or perfumers—to produce an extract from the fruits. 
The extracts are produced in France and Hungary. Reports on the Hungarian production and 
suggestions for the use of these extracts have been published in perfumery literature during 
1959. 


234 


Juniperberry "Resinoid" (juniperberry Concrete) is a viscous syrupy substance or a semi-solid 
mass, hardly pourable at room temperature. It is clear and olive-green of color, homogeneous 
and attractive of appearance. Its odor will usually present a topnote of the solvent (benzene or 
petroleum ether) which can be "aired" out. The beautiful, rich, balsamic-sweet, delightfully 
ambrelike fragrance of the resinoid is, however, of a surprisingly poor tenacity. 

Juniperberry concrete is an interesting material which can be used with advantage in chypres, 
Oriental bases, high-class pine needle fragrances or forest notes, ambres and aldehydic bases, 
etc. It blends extremely well with labdanum absolutes, benzoin, opopanax, sage clary, 
galbanum, cinematic in general, oakmoss products, cedarwood derivatives, vetiver and 
sandalwood oils, methylionones, etc. 

The present production of Juniperberry Concrete ("resinoid") is negligible. 

Juniperus Macrocarpa. 

The essential oil from the heartwood of Juniperus Macrocarpa is produced on a limited scale 
in Yugoslavia where it serves as a local cedarwood oil type for soap perfumes, detergents, 
disinfect- ants, etc. Small quantities of this oil are exported to other European countries and to 
the U. S. A. The oil has little or nothing to offer to the perfumer who already has two or more 
of the readily available cedarwood oils at his disposal. 

Juniper Wood Oil. 

Although this material is rarely found as a true essential oil, it deserves some attention. A 
number of oils are offered in Europe under the above name, but most likely none of them are 
true steam distillates from the wood and twigs of Juniperus Communis, the same tree which 
supply us with fruits (see Juniperberry Oil). From an olfactory point of view, the best "juniper 
wood oils" that the author has seen were very similar to good or fair commercial juniperberry 
oil. Most often, however, the so-called wood oils were merely berry oils which had been 
diluted with up to six or nine times the amount of turpentine oil, alpha pinene or mixtures 
containing cypress oil, etc. 

According to private communication to the author, juniper wood oil is frequently produced by 
co-distillation of juniper berries, twigs and perhaps wood, with turpentine oil. 

The commercially offered oils were all pale yellow or practically water-white, mobile liquids of 
sweet-balsamic, fresh-turpentine-like odor and of bitter, burning flavor. Juniper wood oil has 
little or no use in perfumes and flavors, but it is still used in veterinary medicine. The oil is 
usually offered by producers in Portugal, Hungary or France. In Yugoslavia, the wood from 
Juniperus Oxycedrus is distilled. The oil is colorless and of turpentine-like juniper odor. The 
fruits from this tree are occasionally distilled and the resulting oil offered as juniperberry oil. It 
is inferior to true juniperberry oil in respect to odor and flavor. 

Juniper Tar is produced by destructive distillation of wood from Juniperus Oxycedrus. The 
product is described under its commercial name, Cade Oil. 


235 


K 


Kaempferia Galanga. 

In order to avoid confusion with true galanga oil (see monograph), the above essential oil is 
mentioned under its botanical name. 

Kaempferia Galanga is a small tropical plant of the ginger family; it is cultivated quite 
commonly throughout India and Indonesia, partly for the production of essential oil from the 
rhizomes of the plant, partly for use as a local spice. 

The rhizomes (underground stems) are steam distilled in India to yield a yellowish or pale 
amber-colored, somewhat viscous oil which deposits a substantial amount of crystals on 
standing. The crystals have been identified as Ethyl paraMethoxy Cinnamate. In this respect, 
the oil is quite similar to the east Indian Ekangi Oil from the rhizomes of Hedychium Spicatum 
(see monograph on Sauna Oil), a close relative to Longoza. 

Judging from the odor of the comminuted rhizomes, it is conceivable that the steam distillation 
affects the volatile part of the material and that the above ester is not present as such in the 
botanical material itself. The author has not seen any type of extracted product from the 
rhizomes of Kaempferia Galanga, but it is most likely that such extracts would smell more like 
the rhizomes than does the oil. 

Oil of Kaempferia Galanga has a sweet-woody, warm, balsamic, somewhat spicy odor of great 
tenacity. The flavor is less pleasant, camphoraceous, burning, yet very rich and aromatic. 

The oil is not regularly produced, and it is rarely offered outside its country of origin. The 
rhizome is commercially available and is known in Indonesia under the name of "tjikoer" or 
"kentjoer". It is occasionally used as a replacement for curcuma, but it cannot introduce the 
same flavor (and color) effects in a curry powder as can the curcuma rhizome. 

See also Curcuma, Galanga, Longoza, Sanna and Zedoaria. 

Kama. 

Various products, derived from the flowers of local Citrus varieties in Pakistan, are used as 
domestic perfume materials for cosmetic preparations. Kama products represent some of the 
most important perfume materials produced in Pakistan. They could be considered as 
equivalent to enfleurage products of orange flowers in Europe and Africa. The process of 
enfleurage is, however, not applied to orange flowers on a commercial scale in Europe or 
Africa. 

Kama flowers are extracted with various oil- containing seeds, e.g. rape seed, sarson seed, 
sesame seed, etc. Kept under pressure, the flowers release their odorous substances to the 
fixed oil in a process resembling the "infusion" in oils. 

Kama Flowers have been steam distilled experimentally to yield an essential oil. This oil is a 
pale green or olive-green, mobile liquid of fresh citrusy, somewhat bitter-leafy odor with a 


236 


sweet and floral undertone. The odor resembles that of lemon petitgrain oil. Kama Oil is not 
yet available in commercial quantities outside of Pakistan and India. 

If it were made readily available, Kama Oil could find some application in European and 
American perfumery for colognes, floral fragrances (interesting topnote for muguet), aldehydic 
bases, ambres, etc. It blends well with citrus oils, lavender, labdanum, linalyl acetate, 
citronellol, heliotropine, and numerous other natural and synthetic materials. 


Karo-Karounde. 

The flowers of a small west-African shrub related to gardenia, have been used by the natives 
for a long time to perfume linen, hair oils, baths, etc. It is just one of many west African 
fragrant flowers, but this plant happens to grow in the region of Guinea where several 
essential oils have already been produced on a large, commercial scale by French companies. 

The plant Leptactina Senegambica grows wild in the mountainous region called Fouta-Djalon 
in Guinea, southeast of the Senegambia. The shrub is found all the way up in Gambia, and 
south to the old Ivory Coast. The author also found the plant further south in Congo and other 
areas of the former A.E.F. However, only at Labe and Mamou in Guinea are there extraction 
installations capable of processing flowers into concretes. Occasionally, the concrete is further 
processed to an absolute by the French people in Guinea, but most often the concrete is 
shipped to Grasse to be processed. Unfortunately, this is the first step toward the appearance 
of obviously "compounded" and "sophisticated" absolutes of such rare exotic materials, and it 
is regrettable that one must state that true karo-karounde absolutes are offered very rarely 
from Grasse. The true absolute is, furthermore, very expensive, usually somewhat higher in 
price than jasmin absolute from concrete. 

The plant is known by the natives under the name of "kaulathi" or "fara-koronte". The locally 
produced, petroleum ether extracted concrete is a solid, soft-waxy, dark orange-brown mass, 
while the absolute is a viscous liquid of chocolate-brown or dark orange-brown color. Its odor 
is intensely floral, deep-herbaceous and sweet, but somewhat nauseating. The undertone is 
slightly fruity, very tenacious, and it fades out in a delightful floral- woody, faintly green- 
herbaceous note. There is a certain similarity to orange flower water absolute, jonquil and 
jasmin pommade absolute with a peculiar bitter-almond-like undertone. 

Karo-Karounde Absolute blends excellently with the above materials and with ylang-ylang, 
narcissus, isoeugenol, cinnamic alcohol, styrax resinoid, galbanum resinoid, undecanolide, 
clove bud oil or clove bud absolute, phenylethyl alcohol, ar-methyl phenylethyl alcohol, methyl 
cinnamic alcohol, neryl acetate, heliotropine, mimosa and cassie absolutes, hexyl cinnamic 
aldehyde, tea leaf absolute, etc. The absolute of karo-karounde gives very interesting effects in 
hyacinth, gardenia, stephanotis and tuberose bases and it can be used in a multitude of other 
heavy-floral or Oriental- floral perfumes. The absolute must be used with care because of its 
peculiar topnote which reminds of the odor of benzylformate or phenylethyl formate. This 
note is probably due to the presence of large amounts of phenylacetonitrile (benzyl cyanide) in 
the volatile part of the absolute. 


237 


The annual production of karo-karounde absolute is estimated at less than 100 kilos. A high 
proportion of this quantity is swallowed up by a few French perfume houses who use this 
powerful material in some of their "grands parfums". 

Kauri-Copal. 

A number of conifers in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific islands are exploited for their 
natural resins. The Kauri-Copal is a natural oleoresin exuded from Agathis Australis, a conifer 
from New Zealand. Upon steam distillation of this oleo-resin, an essential oil is produced, 
known as Kauri-Copal Oil. A similar oil is produced by direct (dry) distillation of the natural 
oleo-resin. The two oils are pale yellow liquids of fresh, lemon-terpene-like odor. These oils are 
probably not used in perfumes or flavors at all, but they present by their mere presence a 
certain hazard of contamination and adulteration of other essential oils. 

Another essential oil is produced by steam distillation of the leaves and twigs from the same 
tree (Agathis Australis). This oil is hardly used, if used at all, in perfumes or flavors. 

Kuromoji Oil. 

From a small tree in Japan, Lindera Sericea, is distilled various essential oils. The author finds 
that the oil from the leaves is still a commercially available item, and would like to submit the 
following comments from the studies of this oil: 

Kuromoji Oil, also called Lindera Leaf Oil, is a pale yellow or almost colorless, mobile liquid 
possessing a very strong, fresh-aromatic odor, reminiscent of myrtle leaf oil, eucalyptus 
smithii, eucalyptus dives, elemi oil, cajuput oil, etc. The flavor is spicy-warm, aromatic, 
somewhat bitter and slightly biting, not unlike the flavor of a poor-grade ("weedy") natural 
spearmint oil. 

Kuromoji Oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the bush, but even the twigs, bark and wood 
of this bush have been distilled experimentally. To the author's knowledge, and through direct 
communication with the producing areas, it appears that only the leaf oil is presently available. 
The oil has been produced in Formosa, too. 

Kuromoji Oil could find use in perfumery for its fresh and aromatic-spicy fragrance. In 
fougeres, fougere-colognes, chypres, after-shave lotion perfumes, spicy colognes, etc., the oil 
would no doubt lend interesting notes. It produces interesting topnotes in high-class perfumes 
of the Oriental type, ambres and aldehydic fantasy types. In this respect, the oil resembles 
Evoulimba Oil (see monograph). It is more complex than the melaleuca oils or the eucalyptus 
oils, more powerful than myrtle oil, but its diffusive power and low- boiling constituents will 
place it as a "small" ingredient among the perfume materials which have to be adequately 
fixed and rounded off. Araucaria, cubeb oil, elemi resinoid, labdanum resinoid, opopanax 
resinoid, etc. are excellent fixative blenders for Kuromoji Oil. 

Ar present, the production of this oil is irregular and small, but there is ample material 
available for distillation on a larger scale. 


238 


L 


Labdanum. 

Labdanum is a resinous exudation from Cistus Ladaniferus, a small, wild-growing shrub, 
probably originating in the mountainous coastal regions of the eastern mediterranean 
countries and the Middle East. The shrub is now found in all the countries which surround the 
Mediterranean Sea. Before going into a monographic description of the individual products 
derived from this plant, a brief summary is given below: 

1) Labdanum, also called Labdanum Gum, which is the crude or strained botanical, 
consists of the natural (physiological) exudation from the plant, combined with the 
natural resinous matter, which can be forced out of leaves and twigs of the plant in 
boiling water. 

2) Labdanum Resinoid is the hydrocarbon extracted matter from the above crude 

Labdanum. 

3) Labdanum "Resin Absolute" is the alcohol- extracted matter from the crude botanical. 
This product is also called "purified labdanum", "soluble labdanum", "labdanum 
concentrate" etc. 

4) Labdanum Resin. Products under this label can unfortunately be a number of things. 
Most often they are made up by the alcohol- insoluble portion of Labdanum Resinoid. 
Selective solvent extraction of crude labdanum with benzene, petroleum ether, 
alcohol, etc. will often produce a dry and hard residue. This by-product is either sold as 
Labdanum Resin or "reconditioned" with Labdanum Resinoid in order to produce 
cheaper labdanum extracts. 

5) Cistus Oil. The name is misleading, since the commercial product is derived from crude 
Labdanum, not from the plant itself (see # 8). Cistus Oil is steam distilled from crude 
Spanish labdanum or, in rare cases, steam distilled from the Absolute from Concrete 
of Labdanum. The latter type of cistus oil is considered a very fine perfume material. 
Since the crude labdanum is often mistreated, the term "cistus" has for many decades 
been used to designate either 1) a better quality of labdanum or, 2) a product, derived 
from the plant itself, particularly from the plants grown in the South of France (Esterel 
etc.). 

6) Labdanum Concrete is the hydrocarbon extract from the leaves and twigs of the above 
labdanum plant. It is a true concrete in accordance with the definitions in this book. 

7) Labdanum Absolute from Concrete is the alcohol-soluble part of the above labdanum 
concrete. Products # 6 and 7 are thus derived from the entire plant. 

8) Labdanum Oil (so-called). Under this name is sold various essential oils, produced by 
steam distillation of the plant material (leaves and twigs of Cistus Ladaniferus). Such 
oils could justly be called Cistus Oils. They are of a certain interest to the perfumer, 
since the true cistus oils represent the odorous characteristics of the entire plant and 
not exclusively those of the resinous exudation. The oil is described in this book under 
the monograph Cistus Oil (true). 

Spain is by far the largest producer of labdanum. Thus, the products # 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are 
directly dependant upon the Spanish crop of labdanum "gum". Extraction of the plant itself is 


239 


carried out mainly in France, rarely in Spain. The products # 6 and 7 are thus dependant upon 
the French crop of cistus ladaniferus plants. These latter products usually display a green or an 
olive-green color, while the first 5 products appear in various nuances of yellow, amber or 
brown color. "Gum" products are never green, and true concretes are never amber colored 
unless they happen to be of the so-called "decolorized" type. 

Out of the above 8 main types of products, the Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 are the most common in 
the trade and the most important in perfumery. 

The individual products derived from Labdanum ("gum") or from the plant Cistus Ladaniferus 
are described in the following monographs: 

Labdanum (crude). 

Labdanum, often called Labdanum "gum" is the resinous matter, which is derived from the 
plant Cistus Ladaniferus and other species of cistus by boiling the leaves and twigs of this plant 
in water. According to our definitions (see Part One of this book) labdanum is a natural oleo- 
resin. It differs slightly from other oleoresins in the fact, that labdanum contains more waxes 
and less volatile oil than most of the other natural oleoresins. 

The plant grows wild in most countries around the Mediterranean Sea, but the production of 
labdanum is concentrated in Spain. The "gum" is skimmed off the surface of the water and 
mixed with other resinous matter, which sinks to the bottom of the boiling water. Smaller 
quantities of the "gum" are produced in Portugal, Morocco, Yugoslavia, and Greece. The plant 
is also known under the name of "rock rose". It is a small shrub, the white flowers of which 
have only a very faint odor. The flowers as such are not exploited in perfumery 

Labdanum (crude) is a dark brown, more or less solid mass. It may contain up to 20% water, 
but this should be either squeezed off or cautiously dried off the gum. When fresh, Labdanum 
is plastic but not pourable. It becomes harder on ageing and may even become brittle. If it is 
brittle at room temperature, labdanum should be rejected as a starting material for the 
processing of labdanum derivatives (perfume materials). Labdanum should contain a 
minimum of dirt, sand, water, leaves, stalks, wood-splinters, insects, etc. A strained (i.e. 
melted and cleaned) labdanum is preferable. 

The odor of Labdanum is sweet, herbaceous balsamic, somewhat ambra-like and slightly 
animalic, rich and tenacious. For proper evaluation of this material, an alcoholic extract should 
be made up from the sample. This test will tell about yield and about the odor and color of the 
wax-free, resin-free material. 

A so-called Cistus Oil (see this monograph) is prepared by steam distillation of the crude 
"gum". There is thus a possibility of adulteration of crude labdanum with exhausted "gum" 
from such distillations or with insoluble residues from the extraction of labdanum absolutes 
(see this). 


240 


Labdanum Absolute from Concrete. 


By alcohol extraction of Labdanum Concrete (see this monograph) is obtained an absolute. 

This type of material is produced mainly in the South of France where the plant, Cistus 
Ladaniferus grows wild and abundantly. Insignificant amounts are produced in Italy, Spain and 
Morocco and there is an irregular production in the island of Cyprus. The labdanum absolute 
from Cyprus— when available—is of very high quality. It is derived from a benzene-concrete of 
the labdanum herb. Experimental production of a "one-step" alcohol extract of the plant 
material has yielded interesting results, but is not yet a common process. Labdanum Absolute 
from Concrete is a semisolid, soft, but very sticky and non-pourable mass of olive-green, green 
or amber-green color. The odor is deep, sweet-balsamic, faintly but persistently herbaceous 
with an ambra-like, rich undertone. The latter is characteristic and rarely found in other 
perfume materials. Certain fractions of cypress oil, juniperberry oil, pinus pumilio oil, 

Moroccan chamomile oil, sage (clary) oil can display similar notes of ambra-like character. 

Labdanum Absolute from Concrete is used extensively in perfumery, partly as an excellent 
fixative, partly to introduce a rich, suave sweetness and natural undertone, which blends well 
with citrus-colognes, lavender-colognes, all kinds of Oriental bases, chypres, ambre bases, pine 
and "forest" blends, etc. 

Labdanum Absolute from Concrete blends excellently with nitromusks, oakmoss products, 
sage (clary), bergamot, lavender, pinus pumilio, calamus, lavandin, and citrus oils, or with 
amylsalicylate, ionones, coumarin, isobutylcinnamate, opopanax, etc. 

Recent years have seen the interest in labdanum absolute from concrete decrease significantly 
and switch to the large variety of labdanum "gum" products from Spanish raw material. The 
former product has, however, its own fresher and more peculiar note, which is not found in 
any of the "gum" products, see e.g. Labdanum "Resin Absolute". 

Labdanum Absolute from Resinoid. 

This product, although quite common in the trade, is rarely sold under the above proper name. 
It appears under a wealth of trade names, etc., and in an equally large variety of colors, 
qualities, viscosities, etc. The direct alcohol extract from labdanum "gum" surpasses the above 
product in popularity. See Labdanum "Resin Absolute". 

Labdanum Absolute from Resinoid is prepared from Labdanum Resinoid (see this 
monograph) by alcohol extraction. In this two-step extraction, the yield is inevitably somewhat 
smaller than in the case of direct alcohol extraction of the "gum". On the other hand, the two- 
step extraction does a better job of eliminating the waxy and resinous, mostly non-odorous 
and alcohol-insoluble matter. Resinoids prepared by petroleum ether extraction yield very 
attractive and light amber-colored alcohol-extracts (absolutes). A number of such materials are 
commercially available, usually under all kinds of fancy names, rarely revealing the true nature 
of the composition of the product. 

As a result of the two-step extraction, a hard, dark and almost odorless residue is left from the 
second extraction. This residue finds some use in the so-called Labdanum Resins (see that 


241 


monograph). Resinoids prepared by benzene extraction yield absolutes which are darker and 
more solid. The odor of such products varies significantly according to the solvent used. It is 
hardly possible to give a satisfactory odor description other than to mention briefly that the 
labdanum absolutes carry the odor characteristics of the resinoids from which they are 
prepared. 

From a perfumery point of view, the petroleum ether extracts yield absolutes of a "cistus oil" 
type of odor, more dry and ambra-like. The absolutes from benzene-resinoids have a sweeter 
ambre-like odor and often a somewhat "caramellic" or burnt note, probably due to the higher 
temperatures during the solvent recovery combined with the differences in extract 
composition (higher content of plant colors, non-odorous plant extract, etc.). 

The general application of Labdanum Absolute from Resinoid is similar to that of the resinoid 
itself. The absolute has the advantage of being alcohol soluble, and it is better suited for lotion 
perfumes, colognes, aerosol perfumes, face powders, etc. 

Labdanum Concrete. 

Labdanum Concrete is produced by hydrocarbon solvent extraction of the leaves and twigs (= 
the herb) of Cistus Ladaniferus and other species of Cistus, see the general monograph on 
Labdanum. The extraction of the dried plant material is usually carried out after the 
inflorescence, but may take place earlier. 

France, Italy, Cyprus, Greece, Corsica, Yugoslavia and Morocco all produce this concrete, but 
France (with Corsica) is the largest producer by far. Very little, if any, labdanum concrete is 
produced in Spain, the main supplier of crude labdanum "gum". 

Labdanum Concrete is a sticky-waxy, green to olive-green or brownish-green mass of sweet 
and pleasant, balsamic ambra-like odor with a tenacious undertone of rich, herbaceous 
character. This is an odor which is quite familiar to anyone who has visited the Mediterranean 
countries or islands during the months of March to July. 

Labdanum Concrete is used in soap perfumes where its alcohol-insoluble matter is no serious 
drawback. It may at times even be an advantage through the fixative effect of the waxes and 
resins. 

The concrete represents the first of the two steps in the production of Labdanum Absolute 
from Concrete (see this monograph). The latter finds a more versatile use in perfumery. 

Labdanum concrete from the island of Cyprus is very viscous, but can be poured at about 30— 
35°C. It is light colored, olive-green and will not color the perfume significantly in use. It is a 
benzene extract and often carries a faint note of this solvent. This is not unusual with 
concretes and other extracts. 

Labdanum concrete from other sources vary according to origin, solvent used, extraction 
method applied, etc. Apart from the above use in soap perfumes, etc., Labdanum Concrete 
serves mainly as an intermediate in the production of Labdanum Absolute from Concrete. It 
should be mentioned that the extracts from labdanum "gum" have become increasingly 


242 


popular lately, and may take over many of the applications where earlier the concrete from 
the labdanum plant or the corresponding absolute were used. An Ultrasonic extract of 
labdanum herb is available. It is a pale olive-green, soft-waxy material of strongly herbaceous 
odor type. 

Labdanum Resin. 

In strict accordance with our definitions, Labdanum Resin is the resinous matter from crude 
labdanum, soluble in hydrocarbon solvents but insoluble in alcohol. It is .a non-volatile and 
almost odorless matter. However, due to the method by which it is prepared, the resin usually 
carries some odor of the parent "gum". During the past few decades, labdanum has been 
subject to very thorough investigations in the sense that various attempts have been made to 
isolate the odorous matter and leave out the odorless portion. 

Extraction by selective solvent methods is now quite common. More simple is the two-step 
extraction. 

As an example, it can be mentioned that alcohol extraction, followed by petroleum ether 
extraction of the alcohol-soluble matter, yields one product, while petroleum ether extraction, 
followed by alcohol extraction of the petroleum ether soluble matter yields another product. 
Similar experiments have been carried out with benzene and other solvents. Obviously, it is 
preferable to perform the first extraction with a hydrophilic type of solvent (like alcohol) since 
the crude "gum" inevitably contains some moisture. Even a modest water content would act 
as an inhibitor on a hydrocarbon solvent extraction, and it can form emulsions which are 
difficult to break, etc. 

When Labdanum ("gum") is extracted with benzene and the extract in turn is treated with 
alcohol, a resinous matter separates from the alcoholic solution. Similar precipitates are 
formed during petroleum ether/ethyl alcohol extraction of labdanum (this process yields a 
very light- colored absolute), or during other two-step extractions. In all these cases, a very 
dark, hard and resinous, almost brittle mass is separated. It has only a very faint odor and it 
particularly lacks the sweetness of the total labdanum. Labdanum Resin is used primarily to 
"cut" other labdanum extracts, e. g. for cost reduction. It also finds some use as a fixative in 
soap perfumes, detergent perfumes, industrial perfumes, etc. when its dark color and poor 
solubility do not prohibit its application. 

Unfortunately, the term "Labdanum Resin" is also applied to other products from labdanum or 
to the residue from the steam distillation of Cistus Oil (see this monograph) from Spanish 
labdanum "gum". The latter type of "labdanum resin" is superior to the above mentioned resin 
in respect to odor. 

An almost obsolete perfume material is the type of "Labdanum Resin" which is produced by 
destructive distillation (at atmospheric pressure) of crude labdanum. 

Labdanum "Resin Absolute". 

In order to distinguish between Labdanum Absolute (which is usually the absolute from 
concrete extract of the plant material) and Labdanum "Gum" Absolute, the suppliers have 


243 


resorted to using various odd names for their products. These products should have at least 
one thing in common: alcohol solubility. 

Labdanum Resin Absolute is a fairly logical designation for the alcoholic extract of crude 
labdanum "gum". In other words, it is an alcoholresinoid of labdanum, prepared in a one-step 
hot or cold extraction. This product is also the cheapest of all the available alcohol-soluble and 
generally applicable labdanum extracts. 

For practical reasons, it is customary to add an inert solvent to the alcohol extract, preferably 
prior to the recovery of the alcohol in modest vacuum. The solvent can be diethylphthalate, 
diethylsebacate, isopropylpalmitate, or it may be a weak-smelling, high-boiling odorant like 
isobutylcinnamate or benzylbenzoate. Such diluents are often used to make the extract 
pourable at room temperature. The yield of alcohol-soluble extract from a waterfree, good- 
quality, cleaned crude labdanum "gum" is about 60 to 70%. In order to make this extract 
pourable, an addition of 20 to 35% of a solvent may be required. 

Labdanum Resin Absolute is a viscous, dark brown liquid when solvent is added. It is a 
semisolid mass when solvent-free. Its odor is somewhat stronger and sweeter than that of the 
crude labdanum, and the "burnt" notes of the botanical raw material are subdued or 
eliminated in the odor of this extract. 

Labdanum Resin Absolute is used extensively as a general fixative with a distinct sweetening 
effect and an ambra-type odor. It blends extremely well with nitromusks and other artificial 
musks, with ionones, linalool, linalylesters, pine needle oils, bornylacetate, cypress oil, clary 
sage oil, citrus oils (bergamot in particular), vanillin and coumarins, cedarwood oil and its 
derivatives, vetiver, sandalwood, etc. in countless types of perfumes and perfume bases. Its 
main use is in the creation of an Ambre note, in which bergamot oil, nitromusks, vanillin and 
ionones also play a significant role. The term Ambre refers to the Ambra (see this monograph) 
from the sperm whale. Ambrein is a name often given to a compounded perfume base of high 
fixative value. Various Ambreines of the trade consist of an extracted labdanum product with 
addition of nitromusks, bergamot oil, vanillin, vetiver oil, patchouli oil, olibanum resinoid, etc. 
In organic chemistry, the name Ambreine is applied to a terpenoid compound derived from 
farnesol and related to squalene. 

Since Labdanum Resin Absolute is obtained by direct—and usually hot—extraction from the 
crude botanical, it must be kept in mind that a separation of minor but very annoying amounts 
of a resinous matter may occur in dilute alcoholic compounds, e.g. colognes and lotions. To 
ensure crystal clear solutions and to safeguard completely against resinous deposits, 
Labdanum Absolute and Cistus Oil (see these monographs) are often preferred. 

Anhydrol Labdanum is a pale yellow liquid, obtained as a molecular distillate or co-distillate of 
a labdanum extract. The extraction of the crude botanical is carried out with a high-boiling oil- 
soluble solvent, completely avoiding the presence of alcohol or water. Anhydrol Ethyl 
Labdanate is presumably prepared from a labdanum extract made under reflux with alcohol. 
The natural acids are esterified, and will appear in the final molecular distillate as part of the 
odorous complex. The latter product is thus not truly representative of the natural raw 


244 



material, but it may be considered as a derivative of labdanum. See also the monograph on 
Anhydrols in Part One of this book. 

Labdanum Resinoid. 

This perfume material is prepared by extraction of the crude or cleaned labdanum (see this) 
with a hydrocarbon solvent. The method of extraction, particularly in respect to this product, 
has been greatly and successfully improved during the past decades. Selective solvent 
extraction has produced the most beautiful perfumery materials from this important natural. 

The labdanum ("gum") which is used for extraction is most often the Spanish labdanum. When 
benzene is used as a solvent, the yield of resinoid is quite good, but the product is very dark 
brown, rather hard, and not pourable at room temperature. It almost invariably carries a 
noticeable odor of the solvent. Petroleum ether has been used more frequently during the 
past years since it yields a beautiful light-amber-colored, pourable resinoid which contains the 
most wanted odor principles in high concentration. The yield is lower than in the case of 
benzene extraction, but the improved odor of the petroleum ether extract more than 
compensates for the loss in yield. 

Methanol, dichioromethylene, trichloroethylene and other solvents have also been tried out in 
the experimental extraction of labdanum. Some of these solvents have yielded interesting, 
attractive, light-colored extracts of various odor types. Due to the abuse of the terms 
"resinoid" or "resin" in commercial labelling of certain extracted perfume raw materials, it is 
not possible to give a general odor- or appearance-description of Labdanum Resinoid. In 
general, they are dark brown, semisolid resinous masses of a somewhat subdued labdanum 
odor (see labdanum absolute from resinoid). 

Labdanum Resinoid is a very useful fixative, sweetener and blender in soap perfumes of the 
"ambre" type, in fougeres, chypres, lavender perfumes, colognes, tabac bases or aldehydic 
bases, etc. Its dark color is its main drawback, but the trade offers lighter colored extracts for 
special use, e.g. in white soaps or where a high concentration of labdanum is wanted. For 
other applications, see also Labdanum Resin Absolute and Labdanum Resin, Labdanum 
Concrete. 

Labdanum Resinoid is frequently marketed as a viscous pourable liquid. In such cases, the 
product contains a "plasticizing" solvent, e.g. 10 to 50% of Diethylphthalate. It would be ethical 
and correct if the suppliers label the diluted materials accordingly. 

Larch Turpentine. 

Larch Turpentine or "Venetian Turpentine" is a turpentine type of a natural oleoresin. It 
occurs as a physiological secretion in the larch tree, Larix Decidua, a conifer. The tree is quite 
common in Central and Southern Europe, Austria, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, etc. The 
production of this material is declining, and the small lots available to-day are mainly of 
German or Austrian (Tirolean) provenance; occasionally some is produced in France. The 
cultivation of larch trees is greatly inhibited by the stubborn growth of parasite fungi on the 
trunks of these trees. 


245 


Larch Turpentine is a very viscous liquid, just pourable at room temperature. It is of light 
amber or pale yellow color, and possesses a soft, balsamic terpenic odor, reminiscent of fresh 
conifer resins and cones. The turpentine resinifies slowly on exposure to air and becomes 
increasingly viscous, almost hard. It will remain a slightly plastic lacquer upon drying, and, due 
to this ability, it has been used extensively in years past. 

Larch Turpentine is used in Europe, when and where it is available, as a fixative for pine or fir 
needle fragrances, low-cost fougeres, industrial perfumes, etc. It is an excellent fixative, but it 
has been replaced by methylabietate (e.g. "Abalyn") or hydroabietic alcohols (e.g. "Abitol") 
and other abietic acid derivatives in countries where Larch Turpentine is not available or where 
the demand is far in excess of the European production. However, the faint and pleasant 
fragrance of true Venetian turpentine favors the use of the natural product. If this effect is 
wanted, only Oregon Balsam or Canada Balsam (see these monographs) may replace larch 
turpentine outside Europe. 

On the other hand, Larch Turpentine has been used to adulterate the more expensive Canada 
Balsam in Europe. American turpentine producers also prepare a substitute for larch 
turpentine for use in the United States. This substitute is acceptable only in industrial and 
"technical" preparations, not as a perfume material. 

See also Canada Balsam and Oregon Balsam. 

Laurel Berry Oil. 

Almost obsolete, but undoubtedly still imprinted in the minds of older perfumers, is the 
essential oil which is steam distilled from the fruits of Laurus Nobilis. This small tree grows in 
most of the Mediterranean countries. Italy, Yugoslavia and Turkey are among the more 
important producers of the botanical raw material. The tree is cultivated mainly for its wood 
which is very suitable for fenceposts or supporters of wine plants. The leaves of the tree are 
described under Laurel Leaf Oil (see this monograph). 

Laurel Berry Oil, when steam distilled, contains substantial amounts of fixed oil, consisting 
mainly of odorless lauric acid, myristic acid and related compounds. These acids are eliminated 
by washing the total oil with diluted alcohol or by freezing an alcoholic solution of the total oil, 
compare Orris Oil. Occasionally the fruits are extracted with petroleum ether, and the fatty 
acids are isolated from the concrete product. This yields a Laurel Berry Absolute, rarely 
offered commercially, but sometimes prepared by certain perfume manufacturers for their 
own use. Steam distilled, de-waxed and fatty-acid-free Laurel Berry Oil is a pale yellow, 
greenish yellow or olive-green, mobile liquid of warm camphoraceous and spicy odor, 
reminiscent of myrtle, juniperberry, hyssop, Comoro-basil, cajuput and similar oils. Its fresh- 
medicinal, but pleasantly spicy and warm flavor has also been appreciated, but in this respect 
the oil has been replaced by one or more of the above oils or compositions. 

Laurel Berry Oil has been used as an insect repellant and as a spice oil (or more correctly, a 
culinary herb oil, see monograph on Spices, Part One of this book). In perfumery, the oil has 
found use as a modifier in chypre, colognes, luxury pine fragrances, ambre bases, etc.; in a 


246 


multitude of perfume types, the oil can enter as a trace additive to give fresh-warm, 
camphoraceous- spicy effects in the topnote. 

The oil itself is hardly available today, but the botanical raw material is abundantly available, 

see Laurel Leaf Oil. 

Laurel Leaf Oil. 

The laurel tree is a small unimpressive shrub or tree, originating in the eastern Mediterranean 
countries, or perhaps in Asia. It has been known for thousands of years, but the use of its 
leaves as a household culinary herb is a comparatively recent one. The tree, Laurus Nobilis, is 
cultivated in China, Israel, Lebanon Turkey, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R., Italy, Sardinia, France, etc. The 
production of Laurel Leaf Oil by steam distillation of the leaves and branchlets of the above 
tree is undertaken in China, Yugoslavia, Italy (Sardinia), France, and occasionally in Spain. 
Production of this oil in Algeria, Morocco and Cyprus Island has been abandoned. In Turkey, 
and to a certain degree in Italy, the laurel leaves serve as a packaging material for the world- 
famous bars of licorice extract (in Italy) or cubed blocks of the same (in Turkey). To prevent 
crusting of the hygroscopic extract, it is packed between layers of the sun-dried leaves of the 
nearby growing laurel tree. Since laurel leaves are a minor item on the import list of northern 
countries (e.g. Scandinavia), the entire import of laurel leaves for household use in those 
countries may be covered by this "packaging material". The licorice bars adopt a faint 
medicinal flavor of the cineole type which is perfectly compatible with the licorice flavor. The 
laurel leaves, on the other hand, will acquire a faint "sweet-extract" flavor which is quite 
acceptable for the purpose to which they are put (gravy, sauces, seasonings, etc.). However, 
the housewives in these countries will not know the true flavor of laurel leaves unless they pick 
their own leaves from the miniature laurel trees which, in huge pots, decorate the sidewalk 
cafes in northern countries during summertime. 

Laurel Leaf Oil is a pale yellow to very pale olive-green or almost colorless liquid of fresh, 
strong but sweet, aromatic-camphoraceous, somewhat spicy-medicinal odor. As a rule, the 
dryout notes of this oil are sweet, pleasant and slightly spicy, unlike those of eucalyptus, 
cajuput and, to a certain degree, myrtle oils. The two former oils are found occasionally as 
adulterants in commercial lots of laurel leaf oil. Chinese laurel leaf oil is distinguished by its 
very high content of eugenol (over 30%) which impairs the fresh notes of the oil significantly. 

Laurel Leaf Oil is used as a flavor ingredient by the canning industry (in pickles, seasonings, 
sauces, etc.) since, in comparison to the leaves, the oil presents the advantages of greater 
accuracy, uniformity, lower shipping weight, etc. The author disagrees strongly with published 
statements that the flavor of this oil is bitter. On the contrary, it is surprisingly sweet and 
pleasant. The suggested use level is 1.00 to 2.50 mg%, while the Minimum Perceptible 
concentration is about 0.25 mg%. The flavor is fresh, almost orange-like, with a rich and 
delicately spicy undertone, warm and soft. 

In perfumes, the fresh and warm-camphoraceous notes blend well with citrus oils, spice oils, 
bay leaf oil, pine needle oils, juniperberry oil, cypress, sage (clary), rosemary, etc. It produces 
interesting notes with olibanum, labdanum and lavender. The oil also finds use in aldehydic 
types of air fresheners, and as a modifier or "twist" note in men's colognes, after-shaves, etc. 


247 


The odor characteristics of Laurel Leaf Oil are not very unique or immediately striking. This 
may be one of the reasons why this oil never has attained any significant importance in 
perfumery. It could be produced in substantial quantities from readily available raw material, 
but the oil remains a minor item offered by only a few European supply houses and very few 
actual producers. 

Lavandin Absolute from Concrete. 

A Lavandin Concrete (see this) is produced by extraction of the flowering Lavandin plant (see 
Lavandin Oil) with a hydrocarbon solvent, usually petroleum ether or benzene. The concrete is 
subsequently extracted with alcohol; the alcoholic extracts are chilled and filtered, then 
evaporated cautiously, applying vacuum towards the end of the distillation. The extract thus 
produced is known as Lavandin Absolute from Concrete. Production takes place in the south 
of France, right in the heart of the lavandin-growing areas. Very small quantities are produced 
in Italy, Yugoslavia, Hungary and—experimentally—in Spain and Argentina. 

Lavandin absolute from concrete is a viscous, very dark green liquid of pronounced herbaceous 
odor, resembling that of the flowering herb closely. In comparison to the Lavandin Oil, the 
absolute from concrete has a deeper sweetness and body as well as a rich undertone. The 
camphoraceous-camphene-like topnotes of the oil are subdued, if present at all, in the 

Absolute. 

Lavandin Absolute from Concrete is used in fougeres, new-mown-hay types, herbaceous-floral 
fragrances, "forest"-notes, refreshing colognes, etc. It blends excellently with patchouli, clove 
oil, citrus oils (bergamot and lime in particular), amylsalicylate (whose "rough" corners it 
rounds off), ionones, etc. 

Its intense green color may be a disadvantage in some cases, but partially decolorized products 
are available. However, the natural and unbleached extract gives the note of the flowering 
herb which is most true to nature. This absolute is available in quantities to meet any demand, 
and its price is so low that this cannot possibly be an obstacle to the use of Lavandin Absolute 
from Concrete. 

See also: Lavandin Absolute from Distillation Water. 


Lavandin Absolute from Concrete, decolorized. 

Various methods (charcoal treatment, chlorophyll precipitation etc.) can be used to decolorize 
the dark green Lavandin Absolute partially without seriously affecting the odor of the perfume 
material. 

Although it is not a very common item, Decolorized Lavandin Absolute from Concrete finds 
use in the cases where the intensely green color of the parent absolute would be a drawback 
(certain lavender-colognes, etc., which must not turn out in a green note). The decolorized 
material is an olive-brown to olive-yellow liquid, and its odor resembles that of the parent 
green absolute. The sweetness and rich body can be impaired by the decolorizing process, but 
when a skillful partial decolorization is carried out, the pale product should give about the 
same performance in a perfume as would the green absolute. 


248 


With the tremendous developments in extraction processes for perfumery materials that have 
taken place during the past two decades, it is likely that Decolorized Lavandin Absolute from 
Concrete may become quite a common item on the perfumer's shelf. Its very attractive price 
and popular odor should make it a generally applicable perfume material. 

Lavandin Absolute from Distillation Water. 

Since Lavandin Oil has become such an important article, produced in quantities of about 1000 
metric tons per year, the steam distillation of this oil must obviously be carried out with due 
respect to yield, cost of production, loss, etc. And since Lavandin Oil is a comparatively recent 
shoot on the perfume tree (the oil was practically unknown 30 years ago), it is usually distilled 
in very modern stills. Some of these stills have a capacity of 20 tons of plant material. In such a 
large-scale operation, certain by-products often add up to significant quantities, and, if they 
are interesting, they may be recovered economically. 

Lavandin Oil contains small amounts of water- soluble components, and in a 20-ton still the 
amount of odorous substance dissolved in the distillation waters is quite significant. Most 
Lavandin distillers also have extraction facilities (petroleum ether or benzene), and this is why 
we have seen Lavandin Absolute from Distillation Water appear on the perfumery market 
recently. The distillation waters are extracted with petroleum ether or benzene, and the 
extract, free from solvent, can subsequently be extracted with alcohol to produce an absolute. 
The alcohol- washing process is sometimes omitted. The latter extract is a pale green, mobile 
liquid (unlike lavandin absolute from concrete) of a peculiar woody, somewhat dry, non-floral 
lavender type of odor. Like other water-absolutes, it is distinguished by the complete absence 
of terpenes. Accordingly, its solubility in diluted ethyl alcohol is excellent. 

Lavandin Absolute from Distillation Water is used in colognes, fougeres, lavender "waters", 
and other non-floral fragrances. It blends well with clove and other spice oils, bergamot, 
oakmoss, sage clary, cypress, labdanum, amylsalicylate, coumarins, linalool, isobornylacetate, 
etc. The water-absolute can even replace or support the effect of high-grade Lavender Oil in 
certain perfume compositions. Lavandin "Water Absolute" is an interesting perfume material 
and it should have a solid future in creative perfumery as well as a possible application in the 
reproduction of other essential oils. 

The production of Lavandin "Water Absolute" is limited, but can be adjusted to demand with 
due notice. In this connection it is worthwhile noting that Lavandin Oil is produced only once a 
year. If there is no "water-absolute" available in November, there will be no possibility of 
buying this material for another 8 months or so. 


Lavandin Concrete. 

Even newer than the essential oil of lavandin are the extracted Concrete and Absolute from 
Lavandin. The concretes have found extensive use in soap perfumery, and range among the 
most inexpensive floral-herbaceous perfume extracts. 

A Concrete of Lavandin is produced by solvent extraction (usually petroleum ether or 
benzene) of the flowering tops of the Lavandin shrub, see Lavandin Oil. The solvent is 


249 


recovered under vacuum but it is not unusual that trace amounts of solvent are perceptible in 
the odor of the commercial concrete. 

As the lavandin plant is cultivated almost exclusively in the south of France, the Concrete of 
Lavandin is produced in nearby extraction installations belonging to a number of perfume 
houses. Very small quantities of lavandin concrete are produced in Morocco, Spain, Hungary 
and Yugoslavia, mainly for local use. 

Lavandin Concrete (from Benzene-extraction) is a solid, waxy, dark green mass of intensely 
herbaceous, rich but not very sweet odor. The petroleum ether-extract concrete is a viscous 
liquid, just pourable at room temperature. Its fragrance closely approaches that of the dry 
herb of lavandin, almost chokingly camphoraceous- woody, without being sharp. It is typical of 
a natural extract, well balanced in odor, reproducing the floral as well as the leaf-stem-herb 
notes. The latter are derived primarily from non-volatile components, and this may be the 
reason for the naturalness in the odor of the concrete as compared to that of the essential oil. 

As mentioned above, Lavandin Concrete finds extensive use in soap perfumery where its 
contents of waxes, etc. is an advantage, and where alcohol- insolubility is no drawback. 
Sweetened up with coumarin, heptalactone, hydroquinone dimethylether, isoeugenol, etc. it 
forms an excellent base for a lavender soap compound. It is soluble in most essential oils and 
synthetic perfume materials, and it blends well with all lavender materials, amylsalicylate, 
oakmoss, artificial musks, pine needle oils or other pine odors, cedarwood products, cis-para- 
tertiary butyl cyclohexanylacetate, etc. 

Lavandin Concrete is readily available in large quantities in the late fall when the autumn crops 
have been treated. The green concrete can also be partially decolorized or processed to an 
absolute, see Lavandin Concrete, Decolorized and Lavandin Absolute from Concrete. 


Lavandin Concrete, decolorized. 

The intensely green color of Lavandin Concrete (benzene or petroleum ether extract) can be of 
some disadvantage, e.g. when this material goes into a perfume for a white or cream-colored 
soap and the concentration of Lavandin Concrete in the perfume exceeds a few percent. 
Various methods of decolorization are utilized, but a total removal of all coloring matter 
without seriously affecting the odor is well-nigh impossible. The majority of the chlorophyll 
and related substances can be removed, but even this process affects the odor. Charcoal 
treatment and subsequent filtration of the hydrocarbon solution of the concrete yields an 
olive-green product, whose color is much less intense than that of the natural concrete. 
Extraction of the herb with petroleum ether gives a lighter colored concrete than in the case of 
extraction with benzene or gasoline. 

There are several snow-white Lavandin Concretes on the market, but their olfactory 
properties show a substantial difference from those of the green concretes. In some cases, the 
white concretes are merely compositions of lavandin oil, myristic acid, traces of coumarin, 
methyleugenol, etc., and they have a much thinner odor (less "body") and poorer performance 
on soap than have the green concretes. A partially decolorized Lavandin Concrete is 


250 


preferable. It offers a "happy medium" similar to that in the case of oakmoss: a fair reduction 
in color intensity, and still a good odor performance. 

Colorless or Decolorized Lavandin Concrete has not attained the same importance as its green 
parent substance, and it will probably remain a small item on the market, used mainly by those 
who need a colorless perfume and still want a lavandin-concrete effect. 

Lavandin Oil. 

The story of Lavandin Oil is one of tremendous success. Unknown until the late 1920's, this 
essential oil today ranges among the world's 10 largest perfume oils from nature (in respect to 
volume). About 1000 metric tons was distilled in 1959, and half of this amount was either sold 
or contracted for even before it was distilled. From a 1954-price of almost U.S. $ 3.00 per lb., it 
has dropped to about $ 0.80 five years later. Even when we consider the very good yield, the 
very large and modern distillation units, the mechanization and rational centralization in the 
production, it is almost incredible than an essential oil can be distilled from a shrub, a once-a- 
year crop, and sold at this low price. 

Lavandin is a hybrid plant, developed by crossing the true lavender plant (Lavandula 
Officinalis) with the aspic or "spike" lavender (Lavandula Latifolia). The resulting plant is called 
Lavandula Hybrida, and it exists in a great number of forms (varieties), a few of which are 
distinctly more interesting than the others. When visiting the lavender fields, aspic fields and 
the cultivated lavandin areas, one is often told that the blue color of the lavender and the 
grayish color of the aspic will show up in a nuance in the lavandin, revealing which one of the 
parent plants is predominant in the hybrid. However, it is not possible to predict the yield, the 
composition or the approximate odor type of the oil from the color of the flowers alone. A wild 
growing lavandin is found in the south of France where both parents also grow wild, although 
at different altitudes. 

Lavandula Hybrida is cultivated on a large scale in the south of France, while small quantities 
are distilled in Spain, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Argentina, etc. The wild-growing lavandin plants are 
of insignificant importance for today's large- scale distillation of lavandin oil. 

Lavandin Oil is a pale yellow to almost colorless liquid which can be somewhat turbid and 
brownish after shipment in galvanized drums. A filtration and separation of water may be 
necessary in order to produce an attractive looking oil. The odor is strongly herbaceous with a 
very fresh camphene-cineole-like topnote which should not be distinctly camphoraceous. The 
rich, woodyherbaceous notes of the body components will usually become predominant 
within the first 60 seconds on a perfume blotter. It is important to evaluate a lavandin oil on a 
freshly dipped blotter since the characteristic notes of lavandin and the typical notes of poor 
oils or adulterated ones will show up immediately. The odor of the oil is not very tenacious, 
and after a few hours on the blotter, it may be impossible to distinguish a good quality from a 
poor one. 

Lavandin Oil is used for its fresh, refreshing notes, and is often used in very high concentration 
in the perfume formula. For detergent perfumes, liquid cleaners, dishwasher liquids, etc., this 


251 


oil gives excellent results and does not need strong fixation. In soap perfumes, a good fixation 
of the lavandin oil is necessary, as well as in hair preparations, etc. 

The oil consists mainly of linalool, linalylacetate (today about 30 to 32%, in some cases even 
more), cineole, camphene, pinene, traces of camphor, and a small, but very important 
percentage (one or two percent) of ethyl-n-amylketone. This last material has often been 
confused with methyl-hexyl-ketone, and the latter has even been named "lavender ketone" in 
various literatures. This ketone does not, to the author's knowledge, occur in nature. It does 
not give that "missing lavender touch" to a perfume based on synthetic materials. (The author 
is well aware, that this is a matter of opinion, not a matter of knowledge, but he feels 
convinced that he shares this opinion with the majority of other perfumers). 

Lavandin Oil blends well with countless natural and synthetic perfume materials. More 
recently the old-fashioned "Rondeletia"-theme has found a. renaissance in the combination of 
lavandin oil with clove oils, eugenol, bay leaf oil, cinnamon leaf oil, etc. Other blenders are 
aliphatic aldehydes (modifiers, topnotes), amyl salicylate, citronella oils, cypress oil, decyl 
alcohol, geranium oils, geranyl acetone, isobornyl acetate, pine needle oils, thyme or origanum 
oils, patchouli (also, fixative), etc. Fixation is obtained with sesquiterpene fractions from 
various essential oils (good for soap perfumes), labdanum products, nitromusks, coumarins, 
oakmoss, lavandin concrete, etc. 

Lavandin Oil is also acetylized to yield a product containing about 75% of "natural" linalyl 
acetate. This product was a source of low-cost linalyl acetate in the 1946 to 1956 period, when 
linalyl acetate from bois de rose oil cost about U.S. $ 8.00 per lb. 

10 to 15% of monoterpenes can be eliminated from the lavandin oil by careful vacuum 
distillation. The oil loses completely its characteristic odor and resembles certain grades of 
lavender oil. It is conceivable, that the vacuum distillation also causes a loss of cineole and 
camphor, whereby the typical notes of lavandin obviously disappear. 

Lavandin Oil is available in almost unlimited quantities, but it seems to find wider application 
every year, and the increasing production is readily absorbed by the hungry soap perfume 
industry. 


Lavender Absolute from Concrete. 

Lavender Absolute is prepared by alcohol extraction of the lavender concrete, chilling of the 
alcoholic solution and filtration and subsequent removal of the solvent in vacuum. Lavender 
Absolute is produced almost exclusively in France. Smaller quantities are produced in Italy. 

Lavender absolute is a dark green, viscous liquid of very rich, sweet-herbaceous, somewhat 
floral odor; in dilution, it bears a close resemblance to the odor of the flowering lavender 
shrubs. Its woody-herby undertone and coumarin-like sweetness duplicate the odor of the 
botanical material far better than does the essential oil. The absolute is sweeter but less floral 
than the essential oil, and the two materials can form a very pleasant combination. However, 
one cannot replace the other in compounding. Chemically, the difference between the 
essential oil and the absolute seems surprisingly small in percentage. The absolute contains 
almost an equal amount of linalool and linalylacetate (or other linalyl esters), these materials 


252 


constituting about 90°/ of the oil. Typical notes in the absolute are probably derived from 
coumarin, umbelliferone and their derivatives, most of which are non-distillable with steam. 
Also linalyl esters of non-volatile acids. Although most of the umbelliferone-ethers are 
odorless, they may play important roles as fixatives or stabilizers in the absolute. 

Lavender Absolute is used in citrus-colognes, chypres, fougeres, new-mown-hay bases, forest 
notes, etc. It blends well with labdanum, oakmoss, vetiver, patchouli, pine needle oils, 
coumarin, heptalactone, terpinyl propionate, geraniol and esters, sage clary, dodecanal, 
flouve, nitromusks, salicylates, etc. 

A partially decolorized Lavender Absolute has been prepared directly from the green lavender 
concrete. These absolutes are available, but not very common items. They are olive-green or 
yellow in color, and the odor is somewhat different from that of the green absolute. 

Lavender Absolute from Distillation Water is also available, but it is a comparatively rare item. 
Its odor is distinctly different from that of the absolute from concrete: it is more haylike, less 
sweet, less floral. It is usually a mobile liquid, pale yellow in color. It finds use as a "rounder- 
off" and modifier in certain new-nown-hay perfumes of the more modern type, in herbaceous 
bases, and in the duplication of certain flower absolutes and essential oils. 


Lavender Concrete. 

A Lavender Concrete is produced by extraction of the freshly cut flowering herb of true 
lavender, Lavandula Officinalis, with benzene, gasoline, petroleum ether or other hydrocarbon 
solvent followed by removal of the solvent in vacuum. This extraction is carried out in or close 
to the growing areas in the south of France. Insignificant quantities are produced in Italy and a 
few other countries. 

According to the solvent used, Lavender Concrete varies in appearance from waxy solid to 
viscous liquid. Petroleum ether yields a more liquid concrete. The color is usually dark green, 
but it appears darker in the liquid products than in the waxy-solid ones, probably due to the 
microcrystallized myristic acid, etc. in the waxy concretes. Apart from an inevitable note of the 
solvent, the odor is generally sweet-herbaceous, somewhat haylike, coumarin-like, but 
resembling the lavender flowers and stalks very closely. 

Its poor solubility in alcohol is no drawback for Lavender Concrete when this material is used 
in soap perfumes. The concrete is soluble in most perfume materials, and the waxes, myristic 
acid, palmitic acid, etc. will only act as fixatives and blenders in such cases. The concrete is 
readily available at a comparatively low price; a fact, which makes it practical to apply 
Lavender Concrete in soap perfumes of the lavender type, fougeres, new-mown-hays, 
chypres, forest-notes, pine needle fragrances, ambres, "tabac" perfumes and numerous other 
types. The concrete blends well with bergamot, citrus oils (of the "lighter" type, too), 
labdanum products, oakmoss products, patchouli, rosemary, sage clary, thyme oils, etc. and 
with coumarins, nitromusks, cedarwood derivatives, eugenol and isoeugenol, nopylacetate, 
etc. 

Lavender Concrete is occasionally adulterated. The most common additive is Lavandin 
Concrete. Exhaust waxes from the production of Lavender Absolute from Concrete are also 


253 


used for "cutting" the true lavender concrete. The latter fraud is simply a dilution. A partially 
Decolorized Lavender Concrete is commercially available, but the author has yet to see (and 
smell) a decolorized material whose odor has not been affected severely by this process. In the 
case of lavender, the loss of attractiveness and naturalness of odor is not compensated for by 
the fact that one has disposed of part of the color problem which exists in the green concrete. 

The major part of all Lavender Concrete produced goes into further processing to the 

Absolute. See Lavender Absolute. 

Lavender Oil. 

Lavender Oil is steam distilled from the freshly cut flowering tops and stalks of Lavandula 
Officinalis, a wild growing or cultivated plant, native to the Mediterranean countries. 
Distillation takes place mainly in the south of France where the plants grow at medium 
altitudes of this mountainous region (from 600 to 1500 metres altitude). Distilleries located at 
high altitude produce oils of higher ester content, not only because of the theory that the high- 
altitude, wild-growing plants contain more esters, but also because of the fact that high- 
altitude distillation means lower- temperature-boiling. Consequently, the distilled oil is not 
exposed to 100° C. hot steam, but perhaps only to 92 or 93° C. Even this small decrease in 
temperature means that the hydrolysis of the natural linalylesters take place at a much slower 
rate. A rapid distillation at slightly reduced pressure (high altitude) may thus produce an oil 
with nearly all the natural linalylesters. 

Lavandula Officinalis (in several varieties) grows wild in the south of France, in Italy, Corsica 
and Yugoslavia. It is cultivated widely all over the world, however not always successfully. 

Some of these areas are in Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cyprus, England, Greece, Hungary, Italy, 
Japan, U.S.S.R., Spain, Tanganyika, Tasmania, Turkey and Yugoslavia. There is some 
experimental cultivation and distillation in the farwestern state of Washington, U.S.A. English 
distilled lavender oil from English grown lavender plants deserves special mention (see below). 
Of the other countries mentioned, only Italy is exporting quantities of any significance. The 
production in Tasmania is mainly absorbed by Australia; Japan produces 2—3 metric tons per 
year which is far from sufficient for its own needs, and even the Russian production does not 
cover local consumption. The annual production in France varies from about 50 metric tons to 
almost 100 tons. It is difficult, however, to establish accurate figures for the production of this 
oil since it is subject to very extensive cutting, adulteration and other kinds of "handling", 
during which processes many other locally distilled oils and synthetic perfume materials are 
used in quantity. 

English Lavender Oil is distilled from a different variety of the lavender plant, it yields an oil 
rich in linalool, but rather poor in linalylesters. However, it is not rough or harsh like the aspic 
or lavandin oils, but represents an individual type of lavender which is obviously appreciated in 
the country where it is a common garden plant, and where its fragrance is well-known and 
very popular. It should be emphasized, that English Lavender Oil is distilled from flower 
material with very few stalks or leaves (compare Rosemary "flower" oil). 

Lavender Oil (French type) is a colorless or pale yellow liquid of sweet, floral-herbaceous 
refreshing odor with a pleasant, balsamic-woody undertone. An almost fruity-sweet topnote is 


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of a very short life, and the entire oil is not distinguished by its tenacity in odor. It is used 
extensively in colognes (citrus-colognes or the well-known lavender-waters), in fougeres, 
chypres, ambres and countless floral, semi-floral or particularly in non-floral perfume types. 
The oil blends well with bergamot and other citrus oils, clove oils (for "Rondeletia" type 
perfumes), flouve, liatris, oakmoss, patchouli, rosemary, sage clary, pine needle oils, etc. Also 
with amyl salicylate, coumarins, citronellol and geraniol and their esters, heptanolide, menthyl 
acetate, musk ambrette, moskene and ethylene brassylate, nopyl acetate, menthanyl acetate, 
isobornyl propionate, phenylacetaldehyde and its acetals in particular. Labdanum products are 
excellent fixatives and the oil of Mentha Citrata can be useful for modifications. Lavender Oil 
is subject to extensive adulteration, cutting, etc. Among the most common additives or 
"cutting" materials are: acetylized lavandin oil, synthetic linalool and linalyl acetate, fractions 
from the production of linalyl acetate from Ho Leaf Oil or Bois de Rose Oil, not to speak of the 
more crude additives such as terpinyl propionate, isobornyl acetate, terpineol, fractions of 
rosemary oil, aspic oil, lavandin oil, bois de rose oil, trace additions of ethyl-n-amyl ketone and 
its homologues, etc. Lavandin Oil is produced in quantities of about 10 times that of Lavender 
Oil, and at a fraction of the price of lavender. Strange as it may seem, this fact has indirectly 
caused a decrease in the adulteration and "cutting" of true lavender oil. Its price has come 
down to a more reasonable level again, and it is once more possible to obtain a true, genuine 
lavender oil. The latter oil will, however, remain a small item, and will probably eventually 
disappear from soap perfumery, being replaced by lavandin oil. 

True Lavender Oil is still unequalled as a popular, fresh-sweet herbal-floral fragrance in 
lotions, colognes, or as an additive to modern perfume types, aldehydic bases, spice 
compounds, etc. 

A Terpeneless Lavender Oil can be produced by careful vacuum-distillation of lavender oil. A 
"topping-off" of about 10 percent of the oil is usually sufficient to produce a virtually 
monoterpeneless oil. It is not necessary to continue distillation thereafter. The terpeneless oil 
is distinguished by an unequalled mellowness and softness in odor, a superior solubility in 
diluted alcohol and an improved stability. Its odor is somewhat similar to that of Lavender 
Absolute from Distillation Water. 

Lawang Oil. 

Among the comparatively few sources of eugenol from nature is an Indonesian tree, whose 
bark can be steam distilled to yield an essential oil rich in eugenol. 

Lawang Oil is probably derived from more than one species of Cinnamomum tree 
(Cinnamomum Culilawan and others). The bark is collected in Indonesia, Malaya, China and 
New Guinea. Distillation from locally collected material takes place occasionally in Indonesia 
from New Guinea material, in Australia. The eugenol content varies according to the species of 
Cinnamomum used, and up to practically 100% of eugenol has been reported. Other oils have 
a distinct safrole note behind the eugenol, changing the clove-like odor to a nutmeg-like 
fragrance. 

Lawang Oil is a dark yellow-brownish oil of warm, rich, spicy odor, varying as described above. 
It is used quite regularly in the local areas as a spice, while the oil only occasionally reaches 


255 


Europe or the U.S.A. Since it does not present any substantially unique or particular odor or 
flavor, the oil has not attained any importance through all its 70 or 80 years of existence on the 
market. It is conceivable that it will remain a partial substitute for—or additive to—clove, 
cinnamon and nutmeg in the local spice industry. 

The author has not been able to estimate the annual production of this oil. 

Leather. 

The term "leather"-notes or "leather" perfume types occur quite frequently in the perfumer's 
language. There are even a number of different perfume types which fall under the category of 
"leather". Originally and truly, the odor should only derive from leather, more exactly from 
untanned leather. But the use of the term "leather" for an odor has slowly changed to become 
a description of the tanning and processing materials in respect to odor type. The curing and 
tanning of leather involves the use of a number of chemicals, and the process is well known for 
the obnoxious odor emitted by the wet leather in the tanning brine. Various phenols are used 
as preservatives, but natural tars have also been used as "masking" odors during the process. 
The leather will acquire an odor of such tars and retain that odor for a very long time. This 
odor has become synonymous with "leather" odor. As a final step away from the original 
meaning of the term, also the various chemicals used in the curing are known as having a 
"leather" odor. 

A true Leather Tincture was produced in Germany years ago. Waste pieces of "Juchtenleder" 
or other cuttings of leather were chopped and extracted with alcohol by maceration. Such 
tinctures are not commercially available. 

In France, the "leather" notes are generally known as "cuir" or "cuir de russie" (Russian 
leather), but none of the commercial products are based upon natural leather. Birch Tar Oil 
fractions, Castoreum Tincture, various phenols, cresols, creosol, isobutylquinoline, cananga oil, 
zingerone, anhydrol ethyl labdanate, mate, styrax, crude amber oil, cade oil, origanum oil, etc. 
are used in the artificial reproduction of the odor-type which is today generally known in 
perfumery circles as a Leather type. 

Lemon Aroma. 

Lemon Oil "aromas" or "aroma distillates" are various products used by flavor houses; these 
products are usually manufactured by the individual houses according to their specific needs. 

In general, the "aroma" is a solution of an almost terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lemon oil in 
diluted alcohol (about 50% up to 70% alcohol) or propylene glycol (80 or 90%). The terpenes 
are simply separated out of a lemon oil solution in the straight solvent by the addition of 
distilled water. It may not even be necessary to add water in the case of propylene glycol 
which is a poor solvent for terpenes. See general procedure under Aroma and Aromadistillate 
in Part One of this book. 

The Aromadistillates of Lemon are based upon an alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic extraction of 
the lemon peel. The alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic extract is adjusted to about 30 or 40% alcohol 
strength with distilled water, and the terpenes are separated. The alcohol-layer is then distilled 


256 


slowly over a short column (packed) at atmospheric pressure. An all-glass still is preferred by 
most flavor extract manufacturers. Two layers are formed in the receiver: terpenes in the 
upper layer, since some terpenes will distil with water and will be insoluble in the low 
concentration of alcohol in the receiver. When the temperature at the top of the column is 
100°C., the distillation is carried on only until the alcohol percentage in the receiver (or in the 
total distillate) is 60%, 50%, 45% or whatever the manufacturer has established as his standard 
prescription. The terpene layer is removed from the turbid hydro alcoholic aroma-solution. If 
lemon oil has been used in place of lemon peels, the amount of terpenes will be quite 
significant. The terpenes are dried, filtered and sold as Lemon Oil, washed. This product is 
occasionally used in perfumery. The aromatic hydro-alcoholic solution is now redistilled slowly 
until the desired strength of alcohol is attained in the second distillate which is clear and 
water-white. The Lemon Aroma-Distillate contains the most delicate and light-aromatic parts 
of the fragrance and flavor of the lemon oil. Aromadistillates are particularly useful in the 
creation of flavors for carbonated beverages. The actual flavor strength of aroma-distillates is 
comparatively low (about 5.0 to 25.0 mg% is Minimum Perceptible), but they are 
unquestionably superior as background and body-notes in the respective flavor types. The low 
flavor concentration also leads to the advantage of crystal clear solubility in the carbonated 
drink. 

Lemon Aroma and Lemon Aroma-Distillate are, when produced from the essential oil, all- 
year- round available materials. Aroma-distillates made from lemon peels (by far superior in 
flavor) are only available when fresh, ripe lemons are available. Aroma-distillates should be 
aged for at least one month at a uniform temperature of not more than 15° C. prior to use or 
sale. In this respect they are somewhat similar to the old-fashioned citrus-colognes, obtained 
by distillation of peel extracts. 

Lemongrass Oil. 

Lemongrass Oil is produced from two distinctly different botanical species of Cymbopogon. 
One is a native of East India (Travancore, etc.) where it grows wild, and is now cultivated over a 
comparatively limited area in the western parts of India. The plant is Cymbopogon Flexuosus, 
and only cultivated plants are used for distillation. 

The other plant, Cymbopogon Citratus, is possibly a native of Ceylon and parts of East India, 
but it is now found only under cultivation. Unlike C. Flexuosus, the Citratus is widely 
distributed all over the world, and it has been given the somewhat confusing name "West 
Indian Lemon- grass". The two oils will be described under one monograph, but there will be 
an individual odor description. 

Lemongrass Oil is steam distilled from the fresh or partly dried leaves of the above grass; 
occasionally, it is water-and-steam distilled. Outside of India, the "west-lndian" grass is 
distilled in Africa (Kenya, Tanganyika, Belgian Congo, Angola, Equatorial Africa, Madagascar, 
Comoro islands, etc.), in Central America (Guatemala and Honduras), in the West Indies 
(Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico), in South America (Argentina, Brazil, 
Suriname), and in Formosa, Indochina, Indonesia, Malaya, etc. It is one of the 10 largest 
essential oils in the world in respect to volume produced annually (about 1500 tons in 1958), 


257 


although a good portion of this goes into the production of citral either for perfumery or flavor 
use, for the production of ionones, or for pharmaceutical use in the synthesis of vitamin A, etc. 
Lemongrass oil, as such, is not used very extensively in perfumes and not at all in flavors. 

Lemongrass Oil is a yellow or amber-colored, somewhat viscous liquid with a very strong, 
fresh- grassy lemon-type, herbaceous or tea-like odor. The oil is often turbid when it arrives 
from the producers, but care should be taken that it be kept dry (free from water) since it is 
able to keep 2 'A or 3 % of water clearly dissolved at room temperature. This water content is 
definitely harmful to the citral which decomposes rapidly in the presence of water, air and 
daylight. The water is conveniently chilled out under stirring of the oil and it separates as a 
bottom liquid layer. In the Belgian Congo, the largest producer (at Obokote in the district of 
Stanleyville) redistils his lemon- grass oil, and offers a water-free oil of 90—95% citral content. 
The foreruns from his redistillation consist of terpenes (myrcene, etc.) and methyl heptenone. 
They are used locally as low-cost detergent perfumes. 

When crude and unrectified, West Indian lemongrass oil is usually of a slightly lower citral 
content and it contains significant amounts of myrcene. In respect to odor, it has an earthy 
undertone reminiscent of Ceylon citronella oil (terpineol or borneol?), while the "East Indian" 
lemongrass oil smells sweeter, more distinctly citral- and lemon-like, fresh and light. It contains 
little or no myrcene. 

As mentioned before, Lemongrass Oils are mainly used as starting materials in the production 
of ionones, methylionones, vitamin A, or for the isolation of citral, which in turn is used either 
as such in perfumes or flavors, or it is processed into other perfume materials (acetals, etc.). 

Recently the Chinese oil of Litsea Cubeba (see this monograph) has presented a strong 
challenge to lemongrass oil with respect to citral production. The Chinese oil has been 
available in large quantities at about $ 0.77 per lb. but at the present moment (1960) it is not 
available at all in the U.S. A. and the quantities available in Europe are far from sufficient to 
cover the production of ionones, methylionones, etc. In recent years, the world production of 
ionones and in particular of the methylionones has exceeded 500 metric tons per year and 
may soon surpass 1000 metric tons. Lemongrass Oil contains about 70% citral which is the 
starting material for the production of ionones. 

In many tropical regions, the production of lemongrass oil is a by-product of the cattle raising: 
cattle feed being scarce, the exhaust grass from the distillation offers a good nutritive when 
added to molasses residues, etc. from sugar cane, etc. This also logically explains why the 
settlers continue to plant lemongrass in spite of the fact that it exhausts the soil to a 
considerable degree. The plant takes out nourishment, but it is fed back to the cattle who will 
return the yield in nature's great circulation of organic matter. It is conceivable therefore, that 
Lemongrass Oil will continue to be one of the "big 10" of our essential oils. Adulteration is not 
easy since the oil is purchased against analysis of its citral content, almost the only component 
of interest to the buyer. And synthetic citral is still too expensive to be used as a "cutting" 
agent in this case! 


258 



Lemon Oil. 


Next to sweet orange oil, the oil of lemon peel is the most important citrus oil. It is produced 
by expression (by hand or machine) of the ripe lemon peel after the juice has been removed 
from the fruit (machine pressing or sponge pressing of the peel), or it can be expressed prior to 
removal of the pulp and juice (ecuelle method of oil extraction). The various methods of 
expressing citrus oils have been discussed comprehensively in recent literature and will not be 
dealt with in this work. 

Lemon Oil, Distilled is an unimportant item in respect to flavor and perfume creation. Even 
steam distillation of chopped lemon peel under partial vacuum does not lead to a useful lemon 
oil. Certain quantities of distilled lemon oil are regularly offered from the producers of 
concentrated lemon juice (compare distilled sweet orange oil). 

The most modern and highly mechanized processing of lemons and other citrus fruits take 
place in California and Florida (U.S. A.) and on the island of Cyprus. Lemon Oil, Expressed, is 
produced in California, Cyprus, Italy, Guinea, Brazil, Tunisia, Israel, Mexico, Jamaica, India, 
Pakistan, Spain, China, Australia, Union of South Africa, and in several other countries where 
the tree, Citrus Limomum, is cultivated. 

The lemon tree is probably a native of East India and Burma, and it arrived in Europe with the 
returning crusaders in the 12th century. It is also known that Columbus brought along lemon 
and orange seeds on his second voyage to Hispaniola in 1493, thus founding the world's 
largest lemon industry (California, late in the 19th century). California is the largest producer of 
machine- pressed lemon oil, followed by Cyprus Island. Italy probably exports more lemon oil 
than does the island of Cyprus, but the Italian oils are partly machine pressed, partly hand 
pressed; unfortunately, a large portion of the Italian oils are of such poor grade that a dilution 
or adulteration, cutting, etc. with terpenes, citral, etc. is obvious. The author has observed no 
such mistreatment of lemon oil from Cyprus. Guinea is the world's largest producer of hand- 
pressed lemon oil (by the spoon-ecuelle method) but this country cannot compete with the 
other producers in quantity. See also Orange Oil, Sweet, from Guinea. Most of the other 
countries produce lemon oil only for local consumption. The total annual production of 
expressed lemon oil exceeded 1000 metric tons in the 1950's and was estimated at 1200 to 
1300 metric tons in 1959. 

Expressed Lemon Oil is a yellow to greenish yellow or pale yellow mobile liquid of very light, 
fresh and sweet odor, truly reminiscent of the ripe peel. No turpentine-like, harsh-terpene 
notes should be detectable on a perfume blotter. Good oils retain their fresh lemon odor 
practically unchanged on a blotter until there is no odor left at all. The odor of lemon oil is not 
very lasting, but the tenacity varies considerably with the method of expression. See below 
notes on the evaporation residue. The oil should be clear, not hazy or turbid, and it should not 
show resinous deposits. It has become customary to treat lemon oil (and other citrus oils) with 
an antioxidant in order to retard the deterioration of the oil when the original container has 
been opened, and the oil has been exposed to air, daylight and—in particular—moisture or 
water. Old-fashioned stabilizers, such as absolute alcohol (5% addition) or olive oil, are not 
without effect, but modern antioxidants can be used with good effect at a much lower level 


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(combination-antioxidants at about 0.005%). This treatment is preferable as it will not affect 
any later flavor or perfume work with the oil. Most antioxidants are without effect unless the 
oil is waterfree. When stored in a dark place at cool and constant temperature in a dry, 
ironfree container with little or no atmospheric air above the surface (carbon dioxide, nitrogen 
or other inert gas can be injected to replace the air in the container), lemon oil can be stored 
for years without losing its fresh and pleasant odor and flavor. The outstanding keeping 
qualities of Cyprus lemon oil could be due to the ultramodern processing by which the oil is 
very effectively freed not only of pulp and albedo particles, but also of water (in high-speed 
silver-lined centrifuges). 

It is a known fact that the old-fashioned sponge method, now almost abandoned in Italy, yields 
oils with very low evaporation residue, while machines will produce oils with either high 
residue (Italian machine pressed oils) or low residue (Californian machine pressed oils). 
However, the content of non-volatile matter (= evaporation residue) is not a very good 
indication of the quality of the oil since lemon oil residues, sesquiterpenes, etc., are 
commercially available from the producers of sesquiterpeneless oils. A thorough olfactory and 
organoleptic examination of the oils is the only safe means of evaluation. 

Expressed Lemon Oil is used in perfumes and flavors for its refreshing, sweet-fruity note. It is 
one of the more important ingredients in the old-fashioned citrus-type of colognes, in "Eau de 
Verveine" and other toilet waters, lotions, aerosol sprays, etc. It finds general application as a 
freshener and topnote ingredient in countless perfume types. 

Lemon Oil blends well with other citrus oils, with lavender oil, lavandin, elemi, labdanum, 
petitgrain, neroli, etc. and among the most common fixatives for lemon oil are coumarin, 
vanillin, cinnamates, elemi resinoid, oakmoss products, araucaria oil, etc. Lemon oil is often 
accompanied by aliphatic aldehydes as modifiers for the lemon topnote. 

In flavors, Concentrated Lemon Oils or Sesquiterpeneless Lemon Oils (see these monographs) 
are preferred since a high terpene content will cause problems with regard to solubility, and 
will tend to produce harsh notes when the flavor is incorporated in moist or aqueous 
preparations (carbonated drinks, candy, sherbet ice, etc.). The masking effect of Lemon Oil is 
well known from everyday life: lemon quarters or halves are often served along with fish and 
other seafood. The fresh lemon-odor completely masks the amine- like odors of the seafood. 
This masking effect is due to the minute amounts of peel oil, which inevitably are squirted 
upon the food, when the lemon is squeezed. The juice plays a significant role in the masking 
job: citric acid from the juice neutralizes the amines in the seafood, thereby eliminating part of 
the obnoxious odor. 

With vanillin and other synthetic flavor ingredients, lemon oil forms the base of the old- 
fashioned "custard" flavor, and certain types of hard candy are flavored exclusively with lemon 
oil in acid media. In view of the general acceptability and popularity of lemon as a flavor type, 
and considering the very wide variations in quality of various lemon oils, it is extremely difficult 
to give an approximate use level for lemon oil in flavors. The concentration would generally be 
from 1.50 mg% to 10.0 mg% in aqueous media with about 12% cane sugar and 0.05 to 0.08% 
citric acid or equivalent amount of other edible acid (tartaric acid, lactic acid, etc.). In a similar 
medium, the Minimum Perceptible is 0.50 mg% to 1.00 mg% for a good and fresh, commercial 


260 



quality of lemon oil. Lemon oil in high dilution does not give a true impression of the peel of 
the lemon fruit unless it is accompanied by a certain amount of acid. The acid taste seems so 
inseparably bound up with the lemon flavor that we subconsciously expect acidity along with 
the odor and flavor of lemon. For further discussion of lemon oils in flavors, see Lemon Oil, 
Concentrated and Lemon Oil, Sesquiterpeneless. 

Lemon Oil, Expressed, is frequently adulterated. Distilled lemon oil (see above in this 
monograph), lemon terpenes (from deterpenation), d-limonene (natural isolate or synthetic 
from pinene), synthetic dipentene, synthetic or isolated citral, and numerous other synthetic 
materials are used to "reconstitute" a poor lemon oil or a lemon oil with 

a low citral content, etc. Unfortunately, these cutting materials are readily available in Italy, 
and heavy fluctuations in the lemon oil price (particularly outside of the U.S.A.) have caused 
occasional increases in the cutting and adulteration of this essential oil to a point where 
consumers have been tempted to judge all Italian lemon oils under one mutual designation. 
The consumers or factories who carry out deterpenation of lemon oils can judge each oil in this 
respect. There are still some outstandingly good Italian lemon oils to be found and used by 
those who really know good quality from poor. The "scientific" adulteration of lemon oil 
(addition of known and identified components, derived from synthetic materials and added in 
correct proportions) can be very hard to find. But such "sophistications" may occasionally 
improve the oil and, in such a case, there is no reason for a customer to be disappointed. It 
should be mentioned, however, that physico-chemical properties, absolutely correct in every 
detail, can be established in an entirely artificial lemon oil which contains no natural oil at all. 
Lemon Oils with the labelling "USP" or "BP" or other recognized authoritative works of 
standards (Pharmacopoeias, Codexes, etc.) are commercially available. Certain suppliers seem 
to specialize in "correct physicochemical properties" of their essential oils without regard to 
the olfactory virtues of the oils. 

Lemon Oil, concentrated. 

Expressed Lemon Oil consists of more than 90% hydrocarbons (mainly d-limonene) which have 
but little flavor value, and whose insolubility in alcohol is a nuisance in flavor compounding, 
etc. By careful vacuum distillation, most of the terpene fractions of Lemon Oil can be removed. 
This method of concentration leads to the so-called two-fold, five-fold, ten-fold, etc. Lemon 
Oils. However, these concentrates present certain drawbacks: The waxes and high-boiling 
sesquiterpenes have been concentrated with the remaining oil, and have made it dark and not 
clearly soluble in all proportions in alcohol. The terpenes have carried over some oxygenated 
compounds (important flavor and perfume principles of the oil) and a certain loss of aroma 
must be expected. A five-fold lemon oil does not yield 5 times the flavor of a natural oil. The 
residual concentrate has been exposed to considerable heat during the last part of the 
distillation (concentration process). The delicate aldehydes in lemon oil may suffer during this 
kind of treatment. 

A more advanced method of concentrating citrus oils is a combination of vacuum distillation 
and alcohol-washing. The principle is that an "absolute" lemon oil is prepared. This "absolute" 
is subsequently "cut back" with selected fractions from the vacuum distillation in order to 


261 


produce a wax-free, sesquiterpeneless, partially monoterpeneless oil, possessing the freshness 
from the purified and selected monoterpenes and the solubility of other essential oils. It has, 
furthermore, an attractive, yellow color, not more intense than the color of the natural oil. 

Example: 120 kilos of a selected Cyprus or Californian cold-expressed Lemon Oil is submitted 
to vacuum distillation in an all-glass still at 0.1 to 0.3 mm Hg.-pressure. At this vacuum, either 
infra-red lamps or a hot-water glass coil heat exchanger will produce sufficient heat to start 
distillation. The temperature in the pot (distillation flask) will remain below 40° C. and, at the 
top of a four-foot column (6 inches diameter and packed with half-inch glass raschig rings), the 
distillation temperature will be 21 to 28° C. An acetone—C0 2 —trap will secure the ballast-type 
vacuum pump with a freeze of minus 90°C. The first 10% of the distilling oil is "broken" into 
one-kilo fractions. 75% of the oil is distilled off, leaving 30 kilos in the pot and almost 90 kilos 
of distillate (lemon terpenes). 

The 30 kilos are transferred to a smaller glass still, and 10 kilos (of monoterpenes) are distilled 
off under similar conditions although the pressure is now 0.05 to 0.15 mm. Hg. at the receiver. 
The remaining oil, about 20 kilos, is then extracted with a mixture of 70 parts by weight of 
ethyl alcohol and 30 parts by weight of distilled water. Three to four extractions, using 
respectively 40 kilos, 30 kilos, 20 kilos and 10 kilos of alcohol- water mixture at room 
temperature, will usually prove sufficient to exhaust all the oxygenated materials from the 
concentrated lemon oil. Some manufacturers use a 60% alcohol or even more diluted. More 
than four extractions are then required. Lemon oil contains little or no solid waxes, and the 
alcohol-insoluble part is a viscous, orange-yellow liquid. It can be vacuum distilled to yield 
certain useful fractions, but it is of little or no flavor value. When distilling lemon 
sesquiterpenes even at very reduced pressure, care should be taken that the "skin 
temperature" (the inner surface temperature of the flask) does not exceed 110°C. Viscous 
liquids tend to "burn" during distillations at elevated temperature because of the slow 
circulation and heat exchange in the liquid. 

The alcoholic solutions from the above mentioned extractions are mixed, and the alcohol is 
cautiously evaporated. Vacuum is applied during the last part of the evaporation. It will be 
necessary to interrupt the distillation when oil separates from the water or weak alcohol in the 
pot. The two layers are then distilled separately in order to avoid loss by water-distillation of 
the oxygenated compounds (azeotropic distillation of a binary/ ternary mixture). The oil layer, 
freed from alcohol and water, is dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and weighed. The 
"cutback operation" is then carried out with fractions from the first distillation according to 
the flavor needs of the company. It is possible to establish a standard prescription for this oil- 
concentration if the oil to be used is adequately flavor-checked prior to the above processing. 

The sesquiterpene fraction, insoluble in 70% alcohol, is an excellent material for the 
compounding of artificial citrus oils. A faster but less delicate method involves no alcohol- 
extraction. The Lemon Oil is vacuum distilled all the way and may be transferred to a smaller 
still at the end of distillation (the last 20% of the oil). If the pot temperature (the maximum 
temperature to which the oil is exposed) can be kept below 80° C. through sufficient vacuum, 
cautious heating and careful distillation, the oxygenated components of the oil will not suffer 


262 



severely. However, the high- boiling residue (2 A to 4 'A percent of the oil) will act as a strong 
"fixative", and will retain small but important amounts of flavor components. 


It should be mentioned that trace amounts of very important flavor ingredients are found in 
the lowest boiling fractions; these components are thus hidden or lost in the first terpene 
fractions. Accordingly, these fractions should be comparatively small (one-half to one percent 
of the oil, each fraction). A skillful "cut-back" process may reproduce the natural aroma of the 
oil with a minimum amount of monoterpenes. 

See also Lemon Oil, Terpeneless and Sesquiterpeneless. 

Concentrated Lemon Oils are used extensively in flavor work where a high amount of unstable 
and insoluble terpenes may cause trouble: Carbonated beverages (terpenes tend to form an 
oil- ring in the neck of the bottle), sherbet ice flavors (terpene peroxide formation and 
rancidity), etc. The Concentrated Lemon Oils are particularly superior to the 
sesquiterpeneless-terpeneless oils when used in soft drinks since the former will have the 
fresh notes from the monoterpenes which are so characteristic of lemon peel. A six-fold, 
alcohol- washed, concentrated lemon oil is soluble in alcohol in the proportions usually 
needed. A plain 6-fold concentrated lemon oil is not. 

Lemon Oil, terpeneless and sesquiterpene less. 

Expressed Lemon Oil can be deterpenized totally by the methods described in Part One of this 
work (see Terpeneless Oils). It should be remembered that the commercially available 
"terpeneless" oils frequently contain substantial amounts of terpenes. The author found 43% 
monoterpenes in a "terpeneless lemon oil" from a well known supplier. This amount is too 
high, and does not assure the customer of an alcohol-soluble product. 

A totally terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lemon oil is a yellow or pale yellow to almost colorless 
liquid with an intensely sweet, almost rosy-fruity odor, only faintly reminiscent of the odor of 
lemon peel. However, when used in flavors, it takes only a slight amount of added citric acid to 
convince the customer that this flavor is lemon. Many soft drinks are flavored this way (lemon 
sodas, etc.). Concentrated lemon oils (see the previous monograph) can be compounded to 
present suitable lemon flavor effects even without added citric acid. This is how ice cream is 
flavored with lemon (acid can not be included in emulsified milk products). 

The flavor effect of a totally terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless lemon oil is somewhere 
between 15 and 25 times as strong as that of the natural oil. Theoretically, one would expect it 
to be about 40 times as strong since the yield of oxygenated components (non-hydrocarbon 
odor-flavor principles) is about 2.4% up to 3.2% by weight of a good quality expressed lemon 
oil. But there is a small loss in the terpene fraction, and the terpenes themselves do supply 
some fresh flavor effect. 

In the figures given below the author has used a virtually terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lemon 
oil. This oil was produced by countercurrent (liquid- liquid) extraction with selective solvents. 
The loss of oxygenated components is negligible by this method. 


263 


The suggested use level was estimated at 0.10 to 0.50 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible was 
0.01 to 0.02 mg%. It appears from these figures that the flavor effect in actual use is only 15 to 
20 times stronger than that of a good, expressed lemon oil. However, the calculated increase 
in strength by the total deterpenation is clearly pictured in the minimum perceptible, which is 
50 times smaller for the deterpenized oil than it is for the natural, expressed oil. One could say, 
that the power is maintained but that the loss is that of a decrease in "flavor body" or "flavor 
volume". 

Terpeneless, Sesquiterpeneless Lemon Oil is very stable but it should not be kept in alcoholic 
solution. Dilutions for flavor experiments should be made fresh every time they are needed, or 
they should be kept in neutral oil solution (edible, odorless solvent of non-alcoholic type). The 
terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lemon oil contains 60 to 72% aldehydes, mainly citral. Citral 
decomposes rapidly when dissolved in ethyl alcohol under the formation of acetaldehyde, etc. 
The progressive decomposition is distinctly perceptible in the odor of alcoholic citral-solutions 
through the appearance of "coffee-like", "breadcrust-like" off-odors. 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil. 

From the leaves and twigs and occasionally also from undeveloped small fruits of the lemon 
tree, Citrus Limonum, an essential oil is produced locally by steam distillation. Although it is 
grown all over the world, the lemon tree is usually cultivated for its fruits only, see Lemon Oil. 
However, in Guinea (West Africa), in Italy, Tunisia and occasionally in Algeria and Morocco, the 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil is produced. 

The main producer is Guinea, from which country the very best and richest oil comes. 
Apparently the high altitude (1200 to 1600 metres) of the plantations and of the distilleries in 
Guinea have some influence upon the chemical composition of the oil (compare geranium, 
lavender, linaloe seed oil, etc.). 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil is a pale yellow to greenish yellow or olive-amber colored liquid of very 
strong, fresh odor with a distinct bitter undertone, at times woody, in poorer oils grassy. The 
dryout should be very rich and sweet, slightly floral- fruity. The natural oil is not useful in 
flavors, see Lemon Petitgrain Oil, terpeneless. 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil contains up to 50% citral, and thus it finds application in citrus-types of 
colognes, in chypres (for refreshing notes, topnotes, etc.), fougeres, rose bases (can introduce 
very interesting topnotes), etc. But the particular bitter-fresh notes, the immensely rich and 
tenacious depth and undertone in the odor of this oil—these are due to minor constituents. 
The terpenes are partly responsible for the bitter-fresh notes since the terpeneless oil (see 
following monograph), does not present this particular effect. 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil blends excellently with geranium, lavandin rosemary, sage clary, etc., as 
well as with a wealth of synthetic perfume materials to which it imparts roundness and 
naturalness even at very low percentages. 

Lemon Petitgrain Oil is produced on a limited scale mainly due to lack of demand. Another 
reason is the remoteness of the producing areas in Guinea. When a customer asks a supplier 


264 


for a sample of lemon petitgrain oil, he will in most cases receive an Italian oil. These are 
generally poor and the customer loses interest in lemon petitgrain oil. 

Production could be increased to 100 metric tons per year, if a demand existed, but at present, 
only 2 to 5 tons are produced annually in Guinea, and far less in Italy. An Algerian oil, studied 
by the author, was quite similar in type to the Italian oils but also slightly superior in quality to 
the best Italian lemon petitgrain oils which are the most common as samples from European 
brokers. Adulteration takes place with lemongrass oil fractions, citral, lemon oil, petitgrain oil 
Paraguay, eucalyptus staigeriana oil, and various fractions from other essential oils. The author 
has not yet seen a poor oil coming directly from Guinea. See also Lemon Petitgrain 
Terpeneless, following monograph. 

Lemon Petitgrain, terpeneless. 

For flavoring purposes and for certain perfumery purposes, there are definite advantages to 
the removal of all or most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from Lemon Petitgrain Oil 
(see previous monograph). The best starting material is the Guinea oil which is by far the 
richest in oxygenated constituents (important odor and flavor materials). 

A very cautious fractionated distillation under vacuum, preferably lower than 1 mm. Hg.- 
pressure in an all-glass still, may produce a satisfactory oil. It is usually necessary to interrupt 
the distillation when 35 to 45% by weight of the oil has distilled at a maximum still-head 
temperature of 30° C. (and not more than 50° C. pot temperature). The residue in the pot is 
then "washed" (extracted) with 70% ethyl alcohol (in distilled water) whereby the oxygenated 
components of the concentrated oil are dissolved and the sesquiterpenes are left undissolved. 
There are no waxes. The alcoholic solution is evaporated, and care is taken to see that the 
water does not carry over some of the aromatic materials. When alcohol and water are 
removed, the residue is Lemon Petitgrain, Terpeneless (and Sesquiterpeneless). 

This oil is an excellent flavor material, and does wonders when minute additions are made to a 
raspberry flavor. It has an unequalled freshness and an enormously rich sweetness; its power 
will surprise most "first-users". To introduce just that touch of freshness (without being 
perceptible per Se) which is so often needed in artificial fruit flavors, this oil is an excellent 
material. The suggested use level is accordingly just a trifle above the Minimum Perceptible 
which is approximately 0.005 to 0.020 mg%. 

In perfumes, the Terpeneless Lemon Petitgrain Oil will show its tenacity in high-class colognes, 
and it blends well with neroli oil, sage clary, bergamot, citronellol, cumin ketone, cyclamal, 
geraniol, heliotropine, hydroxycitronellal (eliminates the sickly-sweet chemical notes), linalool, 
linalyl acetate, etc. It gives fine topnote effects in muguet, rose, lilac, gardenia, etc. 

Terpeneless Lemon Petitgrain Oil is not commercially available as such, but it is produced by 
the individual users who can calculate on an average yield of 45 to 55% based upon genuine 
Guinea oils. 


265 


Leptospermum Citratum. 


Leptospermum Citratum Oil is obtained from a shrub belonging to the so-called "Ti-trees" (or 
"tea-trees"). See also the monographs on Melaleuca Oils. The shrub originated in Australia, 
and is now cultivated in Kenya, Belgian Congo and in the Union of South Africa. 

The essential oil is steam distilled from the small leaves of this slowly growing shrub; the yield 
of oil is not very large. Consequently, the farmers are not overly enthusiastic in undertaking 
the cultivation of this bush which does not yield a reasonable amount of leaves until it is about 
10 years old. The production of this essential oil is still at the "few-tons-per-year" level, with an 
estimated annual production of 15 metric tons, by far, the greatest amount comes from 
Eastern Belgian Congo and East Africa. 

Leptospermum Citratum Oil is a yellowish to dark olive or brownish yellow liquid with a very 
strong, fresh, sweet, yet somewhat sharp or pungent odor, reminiscent of lemongrass, lemon 
petitgrain and Java citronella oils in a sweet, well-balanced mixture. About 80 to 88% of the oil 
is made up of citral and citronellal, the former being slightly larger in quantity. However, it is 
not at all possible to achieve anything like the odor effect of Leptospermum Citratum Oil by 
simply mixing these two aldehydes in the calculated proportions. The power and diffusiveness 
of this oil is simply striking. It is an excellent base for detergent or soap-flake perfumes of the 
citronella- or lemongrass-lemon type. In minute quantities, it will impart a sweet freshness to 
colognes, fougeres, lavenders for soap, air fresheners, etc. The oil is quite stable in soap when 
correctly blended and fixed. 

Leptospermum Citratum Oil is difficult to obtain in ton-lots, and it is therefore frequently 
adulterated. Very logically, lemongrass oil, citronella oils (Java or Formosa types), eucalyptus 
citriodora oil, etc. are commonly used as adulterants; all of these reduce the strength of the 
true oil. 

It is interesting to observe that the "inevitable" methyl heptenone is present in this oil only in 
traces, judging from the odor. This makes the Terpeneless Leptospermum Citratum Oil a very 
pleasant smelling perfume material. By cautious "stripping" of the natural oil under good 
vacuum, 10 to 15% by weight is removed as top fractions. The distillation is discontinued. A 
little citral is lost, but the terpeneless oil turns out with a clean-sweet, intensely fresh odor, 
and even a pleasant taste. It apparently becomes more stable in respect to oxidation, and its 
area of application is greatly enlarged. 

As mentioned above, even if there is a strong demand, an increase in the production of this oil 
is only possible after many years of plantation work and the use of valuable soil. On the other 
hand, if there weren't a certain demand, the oil would definitely disappear from the market 
and we would be one highly interesting perfume material poorer. Once this oil is used in a 
formula, it is hard to replace. 

Licorice. 

Although without interest for perfumery, this product is one of the most important of the non- 
fruity flavor materials from nature. One of the more practical reasons as to why licorice finds 


266 


no use in perfumery is the physical reason that all licorice preparations are water-soluble; they 
are not alcohol- or oil-soluble. 

Licorice or, more correctly, Licorice Extract is produced from the rhizomes and roots of 
Glycyrrhiza Glabra, a leguminous plant. There are two main varieties of this plant: the Typica 
which is known commercially as "Spanish licorice", and the Glandulifera which is generally 
called "Russian licorice". The former comes from Spain and Italy, the latter from Turkey, 
U.S.S.R. and the countries around Asia Minor towards India. 

By extraction of the comminuted rhizomes and roots with boiling water, followed by 
evaporation of the aqueous extract, the well-known solid Licorice Extract is prepared. It is 
usually marketed in cylindrical bars (6 inches by % inch.) from Italy (Calabria), or in large, 
crude blocks of about 10 kilos (from Turkey). 

Licorice Extract is black and brittle, and has a sweet, mild odor somewhat different from that 
of the botanical starting material (the aqueous extract is often evaporated over an open fire 
and some caramellization of the extract may occur). Licorice extract has a very sweet taste, 
and a rich, "rootlike", slightly spicy-caramellic body of flavor. It leaves a faintly scratching 
feeling in the back of the mouth, and it is used in medicine for its mildly expectorant effect. 

The sweetness of Licorice is due to an acid, Glycyrrhizin, which is about 50 times as sweet as 
saccharose (household sugar). Glycyrrhizin is present in the root combined to ammonia. 
Unfortunately, the commercially available qualities of glycyrrhizin will color any aqueous 
solution in which they are used, strongly brown. Except for this drawback, Glycyrrhizin could 
be an interesting sweetener of negligible calorie value. 

Outside of medicine, licorice extract finds its major application in the candy industry, as a 
masking agent for bitter flavors and, to a minor extent, in the breweries where certain kinds of 
beer (porter, bass, etc.) are colored and at the same time flavored with licorice extract. The 
bitter herb extracts in the beer are masked by the licorice sweetness and flavor. Another effect 
enjoyed by the breweries is that Licorice Extract produces a very stable foam in carbonated 
beverages. (For this effect, licorice extract is also used in fire extinguishers). The tobacco 
industry uses tremendous amounts of licorice, particularly for pipe and chewing tobacco. 

It is worthwhile remembering that licorice extracts can not be used for flavoring in acid media. 
The Glycyrrhizin is inactivated as a sweetener by acids. This is a serious drawback since the 
masking of a bitter flavor is usually obtained by introducing a sour (acid) taste. The acid taste 
sensation is intensified in the presence of bitter tasting substances. The actual result is that the 
sour (acid) taste sensation arrives faster to the brain than does the bitter taste. This brief 
interval or delay is then utilized by the introduction of flavor materials such as sweeteners, etc. 

As mentioned above, only aqueous extracts come into consideration. If licorice root or 
rhizomes are extracted with ethyl alcohol, the resulting extract will have an acrid taste due to 
an oleoresin which is insoluble in water but partly soluble in alcohol. It seems to be customary 
in flavor literature to describe the odor of anise, fennel, etc. as "licorice-like". This is another 
typical example of association of two flavors: licorice is very often flavored (in candy, cough- 
syrup, etc.) with anise oil, anethole, etc., and the anisic flavor has become almost synonymous 


267 



with that of the name: Licorice. (Compare the similar error of: chocolate-vanillin, see also Odor 
Description in Part One of this work). Licorice does not smell of anise, nor does anise smell of 
licorice. They have a certain sweetness in common. Anyone who has ever tasted or smelled 
"Baracco" licorice extract bars from Calabria in Italy or chewed the rough, cubed blocks from 
Turkey will agree. 

The annual world production of Licorice Extract can be estimated only very roughly at many 
thousands of tons. 

Lilac. 

Next to rose and jasmin, the Lilac fragrance is probably the perfume which is most frequently 
"created" by the perfumer from synthetic and natural raw materials. Up to now, the essential 
oil-producing houses have been unable to offer a true, natural oil, derived from lilac flowers 
and representing these flowers satisfactorily in odor effect. Only a few houses in Grasse, 

France offer materials which are said to be derived exclusively from lilac flowers. But the 
author has still to meet one product which strikes him immediately as a true-to-nature, rich 
and powerful lilac absolute or lilac oil. The so-called Butaflor Lilas is one of the closest 
approaches and even that material is inferior to certain entirely artificial bases. 

The lilac. Syringa Vulgaris and other species of Syringa, is a shrub or a bushy tree, originating in 
Iran (Persia) and probably in other countries of the Middle East. The lilac was introduced in 
Europe in the Middle Ages, and is now one of the most common ornamental shrubs in gardens 
all over Europe: from Italy to Norway, from Greece to Scotland. It is characteristic of many 
plants that they yield their best fruits, flowers, growth, etc. when they are growing under the 
"borderline" of cold climate. It is as though nature gave these plants extra strength. In 
Denmark, the author has seen lilac bushes 60 years old, and over 10 meters high, and other 
lilacs whose petals measured an inch across, growing in Canada. Both places can boast of lilac 
flowers with exceptionally delightful and rich fragrance. England, too, is famous for her 
beautiful and very fragrant lilacs. The flowers bloom in several colors: from snow-white and 
creamy through all shades of "lilac color", red-blue, to the deepest purple lilac. There is a 
certain variation in the fragrance of lilac flowers of different color. 

An absolute has been prepared from the flowers of lilac by hydrocarbon solvent extraction and 
subsequent alcohol extraction of the produced concrete. According to all reports so far, the 
results have been very discouraging. A few products labelled Lilac are available today under 
the brand name of the special process used by the producer (Butaflor Lilac, etc.). As mentioned 
above, none of the existing lilac absolutes, etc. have anything exceptional to offer with respect 
to odor effect or power. These virtues can be obtained from an artificial lilac base. As in the 
case of Muguet (see Lily of the Valley), most perfumers think—and justly—that a good 
creation of an artificial lilac or muguet is far superior to the so-called natural extracts. 

An artificial lilac may be based upon synthetic materials to the extent of more than 90% by 
weight, and may still yield a more true-to-nature odor than any "absolute of lilac" does. 

Among the most common materials used in the construction of an artificial lilac fragrance are: 


268 


Amylcinnamic aldehyde methylanthranilate, anisalcohol, anisaldehyde, cassione, cyclamen 
aldehyde, dimethyl benzyl carbinol, dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate, dimethyl phenylethyl 
carbinylisobutyrate, heliotropine, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, hydroxy-citronellal, alpha ionone, 
indole, lilial, linalool, linalylcinnamate, iso cyclocitral, para methoxy phenylacetaldehyde, 
methyl hexyl acetaldehyde, para methyl phenylacetaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde 
dimethylacetal, phenylethyl alcohol, ar-methyl phenylethyl alcohol, phenylpropyl alcohol, beta 
methylcinnamic alcohol, alpha terpineol, etc. etc. Useful natural materials are: Jasmin 
absolute, rose de mai absolute, mimosa absolute (or concrete for soap perfumes), civet, sage 
clary concrete or absolute, ylang-ylang oil extra (or ylang-ylang concrete for soap perfumes), 
etc. 

In view of the above, it is inconceivable that natural extracts of lilac flowers will find any 
importance in perfumery unless extraction methods can be improved to the point where they 
will yield a superior product. 

See also Syringa. 

Lilium Candidum. 

The popular and very beautiful madonna lily or "White Lily", Lilium Candidum originated in the 
Middle Fast, and is now grown for its flowers in Europe, particularly in the south of France. 
Bulgaria also grows substantial amounts, and experimental batches of perfume oil have been 
produced there. 

Only rarely are surplus flowers treated in Grasse, France, to yield an Absolute of Lily (absolue 
de lys). According to private communications to the author, the maximum annual production 
of Lily Absolute in France has been about 2 kilos. These products were of dark orange-yellow 
color or pale amber color and very viscous liquids. The odor is usually delicately floral with a 
pronounced oily-waxy topnote. The balsamic-sweet body is reminiscent of narcissus and 
boronia, also faintly of karo-karounde. It is less green in odor than these but more fatty 
balsamic or cinnamic. There are notes which distinctly recall beta ionone, and the undertone is 
almost "jam"-like sweet, reminiscent of figs or plums. The odor is extremely tenacious and 
uniform, never pungent. It would offer interesting twists to jasmin or neroli fragrances, and it 
blends excellently with violet bases, cassie, mimosa, etc. The flowers of the madonna lily 
(erroneously called "Easter Lily") have a very sweet, heavy floral, honeylike fragrance with a 
short cresylic, ylang-ylang-like topnote and, at other times of the day, a suave, balsamic-sweet 
fragrance. 

A true Lilium Candidum Absolute would undoubtedly find application in high-class perfumes 
as an interesting modifier and "bouquetting" material for floral or aldehydic bases, perhaps 
even in the heavier perfume types. Small quantities of true absolute of lilium candidum can 
always be made available upon reasonable notice. The material is not regularly produced in 
France. 

A local variety of the lily is grown in Bermuda and other sunny west-Atlantic islands, and the 
flowers are treated by the enfleurage method in a perfume factory. Because a very large 


269 


amount of synthetic perfume materials is imported to these islands, the author prefers not to 
describe Bermudan Lily "pommade"-absolute as a natural perfume material. 

Lily of the Valley. 

Laymen or people outside the perfumery profession are often very surprised when they are 
told that lily of the valley is not one of the important raw materials. In fact, it is hardly 
commercially available as a natural perfume oil. There are various reasons for this: 

The cultivated Convallaria Majalis is considerably less fragrant than its wild growing relatives. 
The small, decorative plant grows wild in nearly all parts of Europe, and is found plentiful even 
in England and Scandinavia. However, the collection of individual flowers (which are very 
small), would demand a tremendous volume of hand labor which is not available at low cost in 
Europe. The yield of absolute by the conventional two-step extraction is not exactly low, but 
the product does not present to the perfumer either any strikingly unique notes, or a true-to- 
nature fragrance. As a matter of fact, in most cases, he can create an artificial lily-of-the-valley 
perfume base which is technically superior to the natural absolute, i.e. it performs better in a 
product than does the natural oil. 

Incidentally, next to rose, jasmin and lilac, the creation of a lily-of-the-valley perfume type is 
one of the first problems presented to the advanced apprentice-perfumer. The author admits, 
with much regret, that he may never have been faced with a true, uncut absolute of the lily-of- 
the- valley flower. The odors of the samples and products with which the author has had an 
opportunity to work were all very far from the natural flower odor. At their best, these 
absolutes were very pleasantly fragrant, with a delicate floral quality and a distinct touch of 
greenness, surrounded by a fresh, rosy-lemony body note. Butaflor Muguet is one such 
commercially available product. The above described notes are all quite natural, and probably 
belong in the absolute, but the entire "picture" of this bouquet was far from that of the live 
flower and far inferior. It seems to be common practise in France to extract the entire 
inflorescence of the lily-of-the-valley and not only the individual flowers. The absolute will 
inevitably show a high percentage of "green- stalk" extract which affects the odor perceptibly. 
If improved extraction techniques cannot present the perfumers with an absolute of "muguet" 
or "lily-of-the-valley" which is powerful, rich and superior to the artificial muguet bases, there 
is little or no future for Muguet Absolute. 

Among a great number of fashionable perfumes which are based mainly or entirely upon the 
"muguet" theme as a floral bodynote, are "Diorissimo", "Muguet des Bois", etc. The former is 
one of the most expensive perfumes on the market. 

Lime Oil. 

Commercially, we may define two types of Lime Oil: 

1) Expressed lime oil, which can be prepared in the same way that lemon oil, orange oil, 
etc. are prepared from their fruits (by hand or by machine). 

2) Distilled lime oil, which was the by-product (now often the main product) of the juice 
industry, similar to distilled sweet orange oil, but not obtained in quite the same way. 


270 


There are two main types of lime and several sub-varieties, but only one lime has any 
importance in lime oil industry: the so-called sour lime, also known as Mexican Lime or West 
Indian Lime, obtained from the small tree now called Citrus Aurantifolia, Type (earlier known 
as Citrus Medica, var. acida). The sweeter type of lime, another variety of Citrus Aurantifolia, 
is used only rarely for the production of essential oil. Yet another variety of the lime tree, 
Citrus Limetta, grows in Italy, and small lots of oil from the peel of its fruit occasionally enter 
the European market under the name of Limette Oil. 

The origin of the lime tree is not definitely known, but it is believed that the tree came from 
the Far East, probably from the East Indian archipelago where it is found on almost all the 
islands to South America's Pacific coast and the jungles inland. The tree was also brought in 
the opposite direction to East Africa, Arabia, Iran (hence the name "Persian lime"), Egypt and 
southern Europe. It is most likely, that the West Indian and Florida limes are descendants of 
lime seeds brought to the West Indies shortly after the discovery of America. The lime trees 
now grow abundantly in all these tropical and semi-tropical regions, wild, semi-wild and in a 
cultivated stage. 

Lime Oils are produced from unripe (green) fruits together with variable amounts of semi- ripe 
or fully ripe (yellow) limes (distilled lime oil), or exclusively from green limes (expressed lime 
oil). See the individual monographs on: 

Lime Oil, distilled. 

Lime Oil, expressed and 

Lime Oil, terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless. 

Lime Oil, distilled. 

Out of an annual world production of more than 400 metric tons of Lime Oils, the major part 
by far is Distilled Lime Oil. There are two ways of producing a distilled lime oil: 

1) By steam distillation of the crushed or comminuted peels, 

2) By distillation of the acid juice from the lime fruit presses. 

This juice will separate into three layers during a 2-4-week storage period in wooden tanks. 

The middle layer is lime juice and will usually be concentrated and canned. The upper layer is 
good juice, pulp and lime oil. The lower layer also contains some partly dissolved lime oil. This 
mixture is steam distilled cautiously, and the oil in the receiver is separated. 

During the evaporation of the good lime juice, significant amounts of lime oil are separated, 
and this oil is mixed with the steam distilled oil. Obviously, the treatment in boiling water of 
high acidity has a pronounced effect upon the flavor of the delicate essential oil, but, 
surprisingly enough, most people prefer the distilled lime oil over the (hand or machine) 
expressed one because of its "greater similarity to natural lime flavor". Thus, the distilled lime 
oil is by far the most important of the lime oils. 

Distilled Lime Oil is a pale yellow or almost water-white mobile liquid of sharp, fresh, 
terpenelike, somewhat perfumery-fruity citrus-type odor. The oil is very volatile (poor 
tenacity), but shows increasing sweetness on drying out, the notes becoming more orange- 


271 


like, less lemon-like. As pointed out above, the general impression is that the odor of this oil is 
very reminiscent of the odor of fresh limes when they are halved and squeezed. In the author's 
opinion, however, the odor of distilled lime oil is considerably more "paint-can- like" or harsh- 
terpeney than that of the scratched peel of a green lime fruit. But when a halved lime fruit is 
squeezed in the preparation of limeade, the very acid juice is flavored with squirts from the 
peel; this mixture of acid juice and peel oil has a flavor very different from that of the oil alone. 
The most modern method developed so far for the production of distilled lime oil uses super¬ 
heated steam and vacuum simultaneously; thus it is possible to distil halved, juice-exhausted 
fruits directly without adding water and at a comparatively low temperature. However, the 
conventional method of distilling the expressed juice from the whole fruit is still the most 
economical method: it requires less complicated equipment, and the operation itself requires 
less skill or technical knowhow. 

A general description of Distilled Lime Oil would be rather superficial since there are 
numerous types and qualities on the market. For flavor use, a thorough evaluation of the 
flavor in the end product is recommended. There is a distinct difference between the oils 
distilled from the acid juice and those distilled from the juiceless, chipped peels. 

The flavor quality of lime oil is dependant upon the content of so-called oxygenated 
constituents (as distinguished from the hydrocarbons = terpenes which form the bulk of the 
oil). Citral and some of the aliphatic aldehydes (C-8 to C-10), linalool, geraniol, terpineol, 
borneol and their esters supply the characteristic notes. The freshness, however, is 
undoubtedly due partly to the terpenes, among which limonene and natural dipentene 
actually have pleasant odors. Needless to say that if the oil is not fresh and if the terpenes are 
perceptibly decomposed or oxidized, the oil is worthless no matter how good the oxygenated 
components are. It seems that methyl anthranilate is found in expressed lime oil only (see the 
following monograph). 

Distilled Lime Oil is used as a flavoring agent in soft drinks, candy and many kinds of food 
products. Terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless lime oil (see this monograph) is preferred for soft 
drinks for its superior solubility and stability. The Cola- type of carbonated beverages probably 
absorb the majority of all lime oils. The suggested use level of Distilled Lime Oil is 1.00 to 8.00 
mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is about 0.30 to 0.60 mg%. 

In perfumes, the Expressed Lime Oil is often preferred since the terpeney note of the distilled 
oil is a note rarely wanted in perfumery. The peculiar freshness of the expressed oil has a 
unique effect in certain types of colognes, chypres, etc. 

See monographs of Lime Oil, Expressed and Lime Oil, Terpeneless and Sesquiterpeneless. 

Lime Oil, expressed. 

A much smaller item than the distilled lime oil is the oil that is expressed by hand or machine 
from the peel of unripe, green limes. Only a very limited amount of this type of lime oil is 
produced, and the production is mainly carried out in the West Indies where Grenada, 
Montserrat and other islands specialize in expressed lime oil. 


272 


The uneven and very small size of lime fruits make machine expression of the oil a difficult 
operation. As a sort of a "happy medium" between hand pressing and distilling, the Mexican 
lime oil is often produced by centrifuging the liquid (pulp and oil) from the entire fruit in 
modern, high-speed centrifuges, the oil thus being separated quickly from the acid juice. This 
oil is obviously distinctly different from hand-pressed "ecuelled" oil since it has been in contact 
with large amounts of an acid liquid. These two types of cold-processing of lime oil give lower 
yields of oil than does the distillation process. Accordingly, expressed lime oils are more 
expensive than distilled lime oils. 

Hand- or machine-pressed lime oil is a yellowish green, olive-green or dark green mobile liquid 
of intensely fresh, rich and sweet, peel-like odor, perhaps more lemon-like than the odor of 
distilled lime oil, but also mellower and somewhat "perfumery". Thus, it does not reproduce 
the odor of the lime juice, and this may be the reason why many people think that the distilled 
oil bears a closer resemblance to the odor of lime than does the cold-processed, expressed 
oils. 

In perfumes, where the cost is of minor importance since the concentration of lime oil always 
will be very low, the expressed oil is generally preferred. It gives interesting modifications to 
neroli in cologne bases, chypre bases, etc. and it lends a delightful topnote to modern 
aldehydic perfumes, etc. The author finds it particularly interesting in combination with 
cyclamal, lilial or similar floral aldehydes. It blends well not only with all other citrus oils, but 
also with citronella oil and its derivatives, lavender, lavandin, rosemary, sage clary, etc. In 
general, it is a fine top- note ingredient for "over-sweet" perfume types. In ambre bases, it 
produces quite intriguing notes which, in spite of their remoteness from the ambre type, lend 
a pleasant effect. The tenacity of the fragrance of expressed lime oil is quite outstanding. It 
exceeds by far that of the distilled lime oil and it is even superior to that of terpeneless, 
sesquiterpeneless lime oil. The natural fixatives in the oil are derivatives of coumarin, and their 
spicy herbaceous and sweet-balsamic odor is distinctly perceptible in the dryout of expressed 
lime oil even after several days on a perfume blotter. 

The Expressed Lime Oil is rarely used in flavors, although it has the typical peel flavor. It has 
also excellent masking effect on protein- or garlic-like food odors. Anyone who has enjoyed 
"Paw-Paw with lime" in British colonies, or the Islam specialty "samoussa" along with a 
quarter-section of an unpeeled green lime fruit, will admit that the peel flavor in combination 
with the acid juice has a tremendous masking effect in food where either bland taste (the paw¬ 
paw, also called papaya) or unpleasant flavor notes from cooked, chopped meat with garlic 
and spices (the "samoussa") profit from the refreshing addition of lime peel-and-juice flavor. 
The effect is similar to that of Lemon Oil with its acid juice being used as a masking flavor for 
off-flavors in seafood (see Lemon Oil). 

Expressed Lime Oil blends particularly well with Lemon Oil in flavor compositions. The 
combination of the two flavors has become one of the most popular flavors in carbonated 
beverages and sherbet ice, hard candy, etc. In general, lime oil is a good modifier for lemon oil 
and vice versa. This use of a related flavor as a modifier resembles the use of spearmint oil in 
peppermint flavors (and vice versa). 


273 



The author suggests a use level of 0.60 to 2.50 mg% for Expressed Lime Oil. The Minimum 
Perceptible is about 0.10 to 0.20 mg%. These figures show, that the oil is not a very powerful 
flavor material and that the superior perfume effect of Expressed Lime Oil as compared to 
terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless lime oil is not reflected in the flavor effect of expressed lime 
oil. Expressed lime oil is rarely processed into a terpeneless oil, although it would seem 
reasonable to do so in view of the much lower content of "residue" in expressed oil as 
compared to distilled oil. But the annual production of expressed oil remains very low, perhaps 
only a few tons. 

Expressed lime oil may be adulterated with additions of distilled lime oil, lemon oil, terpenes 
from lime oil or other citrus oils and, rarely, with turpentine, pine oil fractions, dipentene, etc. 
The small amounts of anthranilates in expressed lime oils give these oils a comparatively high 
specific gravity which is easily lowered by the addition of monoterpenes. Unfortunately, 
modern instrumental analysis has made it possible to perform an even more skilful 
adulteration of lime oil, but a thorough organoleptic evaluation will usually tell the buyer when 
he has a good and natural oil. 

The numerous varieties of lime fruits on the market indicate that wide variations must be 
expected in the types of lime oils offered. Lime oil is now the main product (economically); 
previously, it was only a by-product. Consequently, more attention is paid to the quality of 
lime oil, and it is beyond doubt that the quality has improved significantly during the past 
decades. Production of lime juice offers many problems, and the waste is enormous due to the 
fermentation of the sugar-and-acid-containing juice in the tropical climates. 

Expressed Lime Oil represents a comparatively rare example of natural occurrence of 
anthranilates and aldehydes in the same oil. This combination is often avoided in perfumery 
because of the color-intensification and odor-change by the formation of the so-called "Schiff's 
bases". 

Lime Oil, terpeneless and sesquiterpeneless. 

Terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lime oil is prepared from distilled lime oil, rarely from 
expressed lime oil, by the conventional methods of deterpenation. See Terpeneless Oils, Part 
One of this work and Lemon Oil, Terpeneless and Sesquiterpeneless, Part Two of this work. 
The author would certainly prefer to work with a terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lime oil from 
Expressed Lime Oil. The virtually deterpenated lime oil is a pale yellow or almost colorless 
liquid of a powerful, sweet-fruity, grape-like, somewhat perfumery odor, reminiscent of neroli 
or terpeneless petitgrain oil on the dryout. 

The terpeneless fraction constitutes only a very small part of the lime oil, and the terpeneless 
oil thus becomes quite expensive. The separated terpene fractions find little use in perfumery. 
They are often mixed with other terpenes under the name of "citrus terpenes", but they also 
find their way back to lime oil as an adulterant (diluent). The flavor value of lime terpenes is 
negligible. 

Terpeneless, Sesquiterpeneless Lime Oil is used extensively in flavors, particularly in 
carbonated beverages where its superior stability, good solubility and richness of body is 


274 


greatly appreciated. Trace amounts of cyclamal can give very interesting twists to a lime flavor 
based upon terpeneless lime oil. For hard candy, etc., the natural, distilled lime oil is often 
preferred for its lower cost and for its greater similarity to the lime-juice + lime- peel flavor 
picture. In the popular lemon-lime flavor combination for soft drinks, however, a 
comparatively large proportion of terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless lime oil is needed to produce 
a pleasant balance, sufficiently different from straight lemon flavor. Recent statistics show that 
lemon-lime flavor is second in popularity next to cola flavor in the U.S.A. and several other 
markets. In the cola-type of flavor which is the most popular all over the world, lime is 
combined with cinnamon, orange and other natural flowers. Terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless 
lime oil blends excellently with bitter orange oil and it produces interesting modifications in 
grape, gooseberry, red currant, mandarin, "tutti-frutti" and many other types of fruit flavor. 
The suggested use level is 0.05 to 0.10 mg% and the Minimum Perceptible is as low as 0.005 to 
0.010 mg%. These figures reveal a great flavor power, but they do not tell about the lack of 
flavor body at this high solution. In this respect, the Expressed Lime Oil is superior. 

Linaloe Seed Oil. 

From the "seeds" (these fruits are berries) and husks of the Linaloe tree (see monograph on 
Linaloe Wood Oil), an essential oil can be steam distilled, often producing a very attractive 
yield. While the linaloe tree grows wild in Mexico and probably originates from that area, the 
seeds are not distilled in Mexico in any great amounts. When trees are felled so that the wood 
may be distilled, it is not a good policy also to distil the seed with which new trees may be 
produced after 20 to 30 years of growing. 

Shortly after 1900, English settlers in India brought linaloe seeds along with seeds of many 
other interesting Central- and South American plants to their Fareastern estates. In the fertile 
Mysore province, great plantings were laid out, and not many years later, the first 
experimental distillations of Linaloe Seed Oil were undertaken in India. Thus, the trees 
continue to grow, and the harvesting of seeds can even take place earlier than the cutting of 
wood for distillation. 

Furthermore, in India, the Husks from the linaloe fruits are distilled, and they yield oil in 
abundance. Linaloe Seed-and-Husk Oil is quite similar in odor type to Linaloe Wood Oil, but it 
is somewhat harsher, with a slightly bitter topnote. The more husks included in the distillation, 
the higher content of Linalyl-Acetate in the oil will be. It is even claimed that Linaloe Husk Oil, 
if steam distilled under reduced pressure, e.g. 250 mm. Hg. (a recent and interesting 
development in distillation technique), consists almost entirely of linalyl acetate, an ester 
which apparently is hydrolyzed in the ordinary steam distillation; compare steam distillation of 
lavender at high altitude (low atmospheric pressure!). 

A linaloe leaf-and-twig oil is also distilled in India. This oil consists almost entirely of linalool 
(about 50%) and linalyl acetate (about 40%). Oils of this composition have very little if anything 
at all, to offer to the perfume industry in countries where linalool-bearing oils are freely 
available at low cost, or where synthetic linalool is produced at competitive price. 
Consequently, these Indian oils are rarely exported. It serves no purpose to describe individual 
samples of these oils since they vary substantially according to the ratio of seed, husks or twigs 


275 


used in the distillation. The oils are almost colorless and present typical linalool-linalyl acetate 
odors with more or less pronounced terpene-like topnote. The topnote is generally lighter, less 
"rubberlike", less myrcenelike than the topnote of Brazilian or Peruvian bois de rose oils. 

Linaloe Seed Oil is used locally in India in the same way as bois de rose oil is used elsewhere, 
while the Linaloe Husk Oil is a local (Indian) source of natural isolated linalyl acetate. The 
annual production of these oils is steadily increasing and is presently estimated to be in excess 
of 10 metric tons. 

Linaloe Wood Oil. 

Linaloe wood oil, also called Mexican Linaloe Oil, is steam distilled from the wood of old and 
deliberately damaged trees of Bursera species, particularly Bursera Delpechiana. It is a 
common practice to include the fruits of the tree in the distillation since this increases the 
yield of oil considerably (see Linaloe Seed Oil, previous monograph). 

Distillation of linaloe wood oil takes place in the central and western parts of southern Mexico 
where the trees grow wild or replanted, partly self-propagated. The essential oil can be 
considered partly a pathological product since the oil content in undamaged trees is too low 
for an economical exploitation. Occasionally, wood from damaged (incised, lacerated, etc.) 
trees is shipped to the U.S.A. or Europe to be distilled. Experiments have shown that the oil 
yield in a modern still is far better than that from local stills. 

Linaloe Wood Oil is a pale yellow or almost colorless liquid occasionally turbid or dirty; its 
color may be pale orange when it is kept in poor containers (iron, rust, dirt, moisture). The 
odor of this oil is sweet-woody and floral, with a more or less green and oily topnote according 
to the quality of the oil. Very good oils are rare, and they show little or no pungent notes in the 
top, but have a sweet, delicate floralness which remains fairly constant and uniform 
throughout all stages of evaporation. In perfumery, therefore, good grades of linaloe wood oil 
can be used as blenders or even bases in floral perfumes, e.g. muguet, lilac, apple blossom, 
freesia, rose, sweet pea, etc., while the oil can find general application as a modifier for 
numerous floral and floral-woody perfume types. 

Linaloe Wood Oil has been exposed to persistent adulteration in the years when the oil 
reached its greatest popularity, i.e. before the intense competition offered by Brazilian and 
Peruvian Bois de Rose Oil and Formosan Ho Leaf Oil (see these monographs). With the 
abundance of these linalool-bearing oils, and with the appearance of low-cost synthetic 
Linalool in rapidly increasing quantities on the market, Mexican Linaloe Wood Oil has little or 
no hope of a bright future. The yields from the primitive Mexican stills are poor, and the 
necessity of felling entire old trees to produce an essential oil is certainly less practical than 
that of distilling leaves which can be stripped from live trees year after year. 

Seeds from Mexican linaloe trees were brought to India early in the twentieth century. See 
monograph on Linaloe Seed Oil. 


276 


Linseed Oil Absolute. 


Among a wealth of unusual products which are often produced only upon demand, we must 
include the alcohol-extraction product of raw Linseed Oil. This kind of perfumery material 
represents the results of various perfumers' study of natural flowers and their fragrance. In 
their intense search for notes with which they can duplicate certain of nature's fragrances, the 
perfumers often have to use materials other than the conventional flower extracts or straight 
synthetic chemicals. If a perfumer feels that there is a garlic-like note in a rose-base which he 
must duplicate, he will not hesitate to study the garlic- type odors available in his laboratory or 
from a well-furnished supply-house: for example, absolute of asafoetida. 

Linseed Oil Absolute is obviously an example of just such a situation. When perfumers tried to 
duplicate the finer shades of lily, lilac, orange flower, jasmin, tuberose, gardenia, etc., they 
found that the conventional amyl cinnamic aldehyde was not satisfactory. Modifications with 
hexyl cinnamic aldehyde, undecanolide, etc. did not solve the problem. Rancid castor oil has 
notes similar to the unwanted notes in amyl cinnamic aldehyde (poor grade ACA, heptanal- 
odor, amyl nonenal-odor, etc.). Beeswax absolute (see monograph) does not lend the natural 
fatty-greasy odor of the flower petals. But Linseed Oil (raw, but not rancid!) definitely has 
notes like those of the flower waxes, notes which are particularly distinguishable in the 
"enfleurage"-type absolutes. 

Linseed Oil is hydraulically expressed from the seeds of Linum Usitatissimum. This small plant 
originated in western Asia and is widely cultivated all over the world. Argentina, Canada, India, 
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. are main producers of linseed. The raw (crude) linseed oil is a yellow, oily 
liquid of faint odor. It oxidizes easily upon exposure to air. The oil consists mainly of the 
glyceryl esters of oleic, stearic, myristic, palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Linseed oil is 
slightly soluble in cold ethyl alcohol. 

Only raw (i.e. unboiled and unoxidized) linseed oil can be used for preparation of absolute. 
Poppyseed Oil has a similar odor, but is not nearly as freely available as linseed oil. 

Linseed Oil Absolute is a yellowish to light amber colored, oily liquid of mild, fatty-oily odor, 
reminiscent of the odor of freshly expressed linseed oil (after proper ageing). The odor is also 
reminiscent of the slightly fishy-animal-like odor of fresh cod liver oil and of a refined oleic 
acid. 

The absolute is not commercially available, but it is prepared upon request. Some consumers 
prefer to produce their own linseed oil absolute. The use of this material is limited to the 
above flower oil duplications and similar perfumery problems. 

Lippia Carviodora. 

English botanists have been busy in East Africa where the flora of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika 
and Somaliland has been thoroughly investigated. The author found the labiate Lippia 
Carviodora growing wild in Kenya, but the plant is also cultivated experimentally to facilitate 
harvesting and distillation of the essential oil. 


277 


Oil of Lippia Carviodora is steam distilled from the flowering tops of the plant, but if increased 
production becomes important, the leaves undoubtedly will also be distilled since their oil is 
almost identical to that obtained from the flowers. 

The oil is pale yellow to brownish-yellow, rather mobile, and possessing an odor which can 
hardly be described without the use of the term Caraway. Except for dill seed oil, no other 
essential oil is so strikingly similar to caraway as the oil from Lippia Carviodora. It is an obvious 
source of a caraway-spearmint type of flavor oil for African countries (chewing gum, 
toothpaste, etc.), and may also find some application in perfumery since this oil is surprisingly 
stable in soaps. It has great odor-power, and equals caraway oil in this respect. Its flavor is less 
refined, but through rectification, the author believes this drawback could be removed. 

Production of lippia carviodora oil is still on an experimental scale, but the oil should have a 
solid future in Africa's huge, local markets. The oil is not offered as a regular item by European 
or American essential oil houses. It has nothing in particular to offer in countries where 
spearmint, caraway and synthetic carvone is freely available. 

See also Lippia Daunensis. 

Lippia Daunensis. 

For many decades, Italian scientists and botanists have investigated the flora of East Africa, 
particularly that of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and Somali- land. They found the labiate Lippia 
Daunensis among the more interesting perfume plants. A comprehensive report on the 
findings and the results of the analytical work with respect to this and other East African plants 
can be found in the Italian periodical: Rivista Italiane Essenze, Profumi, Vol. 38,1956, page 
506. 

The author has no personal experience with the essential oil of Lippia Daunensis, but finds it 
interesting enough to warrant mention since various other Lippia species have attained a 
degree fame: 

Lippia Citriodora— see: Verbena Oil, and 
Lippia Daunensis (East African carvone source). 

The two oils are described in this book. 

Lippia daunensis oil is steam distilled from the flowering tops of the plant which grows wild 
and very abundantly in Somaliland. The oil is yellow and its odor reminded the author of the 
above Italian periodical of tagette ("marigold") and wormwood, later, also of tobacco. It 
apparently has a dark-foliage type of Compositae-fragrance. Other authors may have confused 
this oil with the Kenya oil of Lippia Carviodora (see monograph). 

Oil of Lippia Daunensis may very well find a future in the African perfume industry, but the oil 
does apparently not present odor characteristics of sufficient interest to the European and 
American perfume houses. 


278 


Litsea Cubeba. 


The Chinese “May Chang" tree of the laurel family has been known for its fragrant flowers, 
fruits and leaves for a long time. But it was not until the early 1950's that the essential oil 
steam- distilled from the small, pepperlike fruits (for which the name Cubeba probably was 
attached to the botanical name) became more widely known, although it is still not available in 
all countries of the world. 

The small tree, Litsea Cubeba, grows in Eastern Asia, former Indochina, and is cultivated to a 
minor extent in Formosa and Japan. Today, China produces substantial quantities of this oil, 
the annual output probably exceeding 50 metric tons, and still increasing. Only a small part of 
the production is exported. The oil is irregularly available in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, 
and it offers strong competition to lemongrass oil, even in the cost. 

Oil of Litsea Cubeba is a pale yellow, mobile oil of intensely lemon-like, fresh and sweet odor, 
with a soft and sweet-fruity, uniform dryout. There are few or no "fatty-grassy" methyl 
heptenone notes detectable. This is where the oil of litsea cubeba has a definite advantage 
over lemon- grass oil. The citral contents of the two oils are almost equal. However, 
lemongrass oil has a superior odor-tenacity due to its "heavy" sesquiterpene-part, with a tone- 
out of sweet and moderately pleasant notes. Furthermore, the oil of Litsea Cubeba has also a 
pleasant taste, and a rectified oil could be used in flavor work as a modifier for lemon and lime 
flavors, and as a general freshener in fruit flavors. For use in perfumes, litsea cubeba oil could 
replace lemon- grass oil to a certain degree, but the Chinese oil would probably find better use 
in artificial verbena type bases, colognes, household sprays, air fresheners, etc. It blends well 
with all the citrus oils, petitgrain oils, rosemary oil, lavandin, camphor- sassafras oils, ocotea 
pretiosa oil, bois de rose oil, decyl alcohol, geraniol, citronellol, nerol and countless other 
natural and synthetic perfume materials. The oil has very little fixative power and needs clever 
blending and fixation for successful use in soap perfumes. 

Oil of Litsea Cubeba serves as a source of Citral in China. A related tree, Litsea Citrata, is 
planted as a windbreaker in Chinese tea-groves. The leaves of this tree yield an essential oil 
upon distillation. This oil contains certain amounts of citral, but not enough for economic 
isolation of this material. The literature often confuses the two oils or the two trees which are 
considered distinctly different species according to authoritative botanical works. It is very 
likely, however, that the Chinese name "May-Chang" was originally applied to the Litsea 
Citrata. 


Longoza Absolute from Concrete. 

Probably originating in Malaya and East India, the decorative plant of the Zingiberaceae (ginger 
family), Hedychium Flavum, was brought to Madagascar and the surrounding islands by early 
immigrants. The flowers, known under the English name of Garland or Butterfly Lilies, were 
used for decorations and perfuming. These names are still used by the English in India. It has 
been claimed that the "False Cardamom", Aframomum Angustifolium, was also the source of 
longoza flowers. The author was unable to find aframomum angustifolium in Madagascar, 
Nossi-Be or Reunion, but he found hedychium flavum profusely growing partly wild in all the 
three of these areas (1955/1956). The fruits are a delicacy of the native children. 


279 


In Nossi-Be, the tiny perfume island off the northwest coast of Madagascar, longoza flowers 
are treated with petroleum ether to yield a concrete which is shipped to France to be 
processed to an absolute. The annual production of Longoza Concrete in Nossi-Be is about 30 
to 50 kilos. Production in Reunion and on the Madagascan mainland had been abandoned at 
the time of the author's last visit (1955/1956). Little is known about production in India, but 
according to private communications received by the author, there is no regular production of 
a pure Longoza extract in India today. A production was commenced in 1958 in Formosa 
where the concrete and the absolute are produced locally. Small quantities of Formosan 
concrete and absolute of longoza have been offered in Europe and the U.S.A. since 1959. 

Longoza Concrete is a chocolate-brown, waxy, almost solid mass. It yields about 50% of an 
alcohol-soluble absolute. 

Longoza Absolute from Concrete is a dark brown or orange-brown, very viscous liquid; at 
times, it can hardly be poured at room temperature. The odor is extremely rich, sweet-floral, 
deep-fruity-honey-like, with a peculiar spicy and vanilla-tuberose-like undertone. Its tenacity 
and penetrating power in perfume compositions is often underestimated. Fractions of one 
percent in a perfume base may change the entire performance and overall characteristics of 
the fragrance. The green-floral, lily-like note in the odor of longoza absolute is often enhanced 
unexpectedly when the absolute is used in mixed floral compositions. It blends well with 
orange flower absolute, jasmin, tuberose(!?), narcissus (for pronounced green-floral notes), 
ylang-ylang, benzyl acetate, isojasmones, cassione, isoeugenol, undecanolide, phenylethyl 
phenylacetate, Peru balsam oil, phenylethyl cinnamate, amyl cinnamate, veratraldehyde, 
linalyl cinnamate and numerous other sweet-floral, balsamic or honeylike perfume materials. 
Longoza Absolute is one of the best natural tools in the hand of the experienced perfumer 
who wants to duplicate the tuberose fragrance. It is amusing, however, to find in the 
perfumery literature certain formulas where tuberose absolute is recommended as a 
substitute for longoza! The present cost of longoza absolute is only a few percent of the cost of 
tuberose absolute (if and when this is available). In other words, longoza absolute is a 
relatively inexpensive flower oil (1959: about $ 85.— to $ 100.— per lb.). 

Longoza Absolute from Concrete can be used in flavors with a quite interesting effect and very 
good results. It will lend a certain naturalness and rich undertone to artificial vanilla flavors, 
particularly those intended for chocolate. The absolute blends excellently with vanillin, "ethyl" 
vanillin, anisyl alcohol, castoreum tincture, methyl anisate, etc., materials often used in 
artificial vanilla flavors. Its enormous power compensates for its cost and poor availability, but 
although "a little goes a long way" the material is far too scarce to become a current item in 
the "large" ice cream flavor formulas. The average use level is about 0.10 to 0.30 mg% and the 
Minimum Perceptible is 0.03 to 0.05 mg%. 

Unfortunately, Longoza Absolute is very often adulterated, and since only a few French houses 
supply this material, the true absolute suffers due to the poor impression left with customers, 
whose first experience with this material may be unpleasant due to their receiving a heavily 
adulterated longoza absolute. The oddest materials are used in this fraud: cyclamenaldehyde, 
amyl phenylacetate, vanillin, methyl benzoate, Peru balsam, vanilla extracts, St. John's bread 
extracts, etc. etc. Only an organoleptic examination of the material will screen the true longoza 


280 



from the adulterated ones. This is a case where buying the concrete as directly from the 
source as possible may be the only solution for a would-be consumer of this rare material. 

On the other hand, longoza absolute is an excellent material for adulterating other, more 
expensive flower absolutes, e.g. tuberose and gardenia. But here again, its poor availability 
puts a certain limit to large scale adulteration. 

Longoza Absolute has no substitute, and it will probably remain on the list of only a few 
suppliers. It would be interesting, however, to see this material become more readily available 
and to study the endless field of application of this outstanding perfume and flavor material. 

Louro Brasileiro. 

Among a wealth of trees belonging to the family of Lauraceae in South America, Louro 
Brasileiro and Louro Nhamuy (see following monograph) may possibly have some future in the 
perfumery field. Louro Brasileiro is a tree whose wood is steam distilled to yield an essential 
oil of some local interest to the Brazilian soap perfumery market. The oil is rarely, if ever, 
offered outside Brazil. Production could easily be increased to meet almost any demand, but it 
seems inconceivable that this oil will ever attain much interest in large scale perfumery outside 
its country of origin. 

Oil of Louro Brasileiro is a pale yellow or almost colorless, somewhat viscous liquid. Its odor is 
dry and woody with a brief, oily-green, almost cuminic topnote. The dryout of this tenacious 
odor is faintly cedar-cubeb-like. It can be used as a blender in general, and it contributes very 
little odor to the perfumes in which it is incorporated. In view of its rather uninteresting odor, 
it is not likely that this oil will find many enthousiasts outside of Brazil. The annual production 
is at present less than 5 metric tons. 

Louro Nhamuy. 

This oil, also known as Louro Inhamuy, has in itself probably little or no interest for the 
practising perfumer. But investigations made a decade ago (see Yves-Rene Naves' bulletin 
from the Givaudan Research Laboratories in Geneva, Oct. 5,1951, bulletin No. 245) show that 
the distillation of Brazilian bois de rose oil used to be carried out with little consideration given 
to the correct botanical species. Other trees growing nearby were felled and occasionally 
admixed with the "bois de rose" (see monograph) in the native stills at Manaus, Brazil. Among 
the trees suspected in connection with this contamination was Louro Nhamuy, whose 
botanical name is Nectandra Elaiophora (or Aniba Elaiophora). Oil of louro nhamuy has been 
distilled in that area for more than 30 years. 

The oil is a pale yellow, mobile liquid of fresh and strongly terpene-like, sweet odor. There is 
little or no resemblance to the odor of true bois de rose oil, but the author finds that the odor 
of louro nhamuy oil has much in common with the odor of petitgrain monoterpenes and 
foreruns (from the production of terpeneless petitgrain oil). The sweet, bitter-leafy undertone 
and the freshterpenic bodynote is pleasantly rounded off by distinct notes of linalyl acetate 
type. 


281 


Oil of Louro Nhamuy is a possible source of contamination of the Peruvian bois de rose oil, 
too. This oil is shipped from Iquitos almost 2,400 miles on the Amazon river before it reaches 
the Atlantic Ocean. It is interesting to note that Brazilian bois de rose oil is shipped 900 miles 
on the same river. The Peruvian oil passes right by the Brazilian distilleries after 1,500 miles of 
river transportation. Yet, the Peruvian oil is usually slightly lower in cost! 

Louro Nhamuy Oil is still produced for local consumption in Brazil. It is not likely that the oil 
will find a market in the American or European perfume industry. 

Lovage Herb Oil. 

Probably the most powerful natural flavor material that the author has ever encountered in his 
studies is the essential oil of Lovage Herb. See monograph on Lovage Root Oil for details about 
the botanical origin, etc. 

Lovage Herb Oil is steam distilled from the freshly harvested overground parts of the lovage 
plant at full maturity. The oil is not produced on a commercial scale, but smaller lots are 
available from Yugoslavia, Hungary and Belgium. 

The oil is a colorless or very pale yellow to greenish-yellow, mobile liquid of extremely diffusive 
odor. The initial notes of its odor resemble those of lovage root oil, celery seed oil and mentha 
citrata oil. The undertone and dryout notes are extremely sweet-aromatic, sweet-floral, 
reminiscent of cardamom oil and bergamot oil. The celerylovage note is quite persistent 
throughout the stages of evaporation, and the tenacity is good. The flavor is even more 
interesting to study since it reveals all the virtues—and many of the components—of the oil at 
various stages of dilution. Although the author would recommend an average use level of 0.01 
to 0.06 mg% in neutral media, it is difficult to give exact figures in the case of an oil with a very 
peculiar flavor type. Its use is strictly limited to such flavor compositions where a lovage- 
celery-cardamom flavor will be accepted. The Minimum Perceptible of this oil is 
approximately 0.0001 to 0.0002 mg%. In other words, the flavor of this oil can be identified as 
lovage (lovage-type) flavor in the dilution of one part in more than 500 million parts of a 9 % 
sugar water at 10°C. In a previous publication, the author has pointed out the use of the flavor 
"power-factor" (Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics, April 1959, page 389—393). With a "power- 
factor" of over 100 (the minimum perceptible is at least 100 times lower than the "pleasant 
average" use level), the oil of Lovage Herb is unique as a most penetrating flavor. 

The oil can find use in numerous types of food flavor, meat sauces, seasonings, pickle flavors, 
etc. The author has used the oil experimentally in an artificial cardamom oil, and it is very likely 
that the oil can find a wider field of application. Its use in perfumery would be very limited, and 
it would take more than the average of experience and skill to incorporate this oil successfully 
in a perfume for cosmetic purposes. 

See also Lovage Root Oil. 

Lovage Oleoresin 

See also Lovage Oil. Quite frequently, lovage extracts are sold under the label, "Lovage Oil". 
The yield is higher, and the product is superior as a flavor material when lovage roots are 


282 


extracted rather than steam distilled. There seems to be a tendency towards general 
acceptance of lovage extracts as "lovage oil". In all cases, unless otherwise stated, the Root is 
the botanical starting material. By extraction of the roots with petroleum ether, ethyl alcohol, 
rectified gasoline, benzene or acetone, various extracts are produced. Petroleum ether yields 
less extract, but a lighter colored one. Benzene must be removed completely from the extract 
prior to its being used in food. 

Lovage Oleoresin is usually a very viscous, dark brown or dark amber colored liquid of 
intensely sweet, rich and spicy-aromatic, warm odor, reminiscent of celery, angelica, tonka, 
etc., with a slightly musky-woody undertone. Although quite similar to the essential oil in odor 
characteristics, the extract is much "heavier" in type, presenting little or no "lift" or topnote, 
yet, it has comparatively good diffusive power. (Compare angelica root oil and angelica root 
absolute). The flavor of lovage oleoresin is more pungent than that of the oil and, here again, 
the reduced topnote effect influences the overall flavor effect. 

In perfumery, Lovage Root Oleoresin or Lovage Root Absolute is used sparingly in heavy, 
Oriental bases, fougeres, spice blends, new mown hay bases, etc. 

In flavors, it may replace the root or the abandoned tincture in the flavoring of meat sauces, 
seasonings, pickles, salts, etc. The suggested use level is about 0.03 to 0.10 mg%, and the 
Minimum Perceptible is close to 0.008 mg%. These figures vary considerably according to the 
type of oleoresin, type of solvent used, etc. The power of this material is easily 
underestimated, and great experience is needed to enjoy fully the effects of this extremely 
tenacious odor and powerful flavor in perfume and flavor creation. 

Lovage Oleoresin and Lovage Absolute are occasionally adulterated with the materials 
mentioned under Lovage Oil (see following monograph). The annual production is very limited, 
but it has been steadily increasing beyond the 100-kilo mark. 

Lovage Root Oil. 

Previously known as Lovage Oil, this very interesting and extremely potent material is 
produced by steam distillation of the comminuted roots of Levisticum Officinale, a man-size 
herb related to angelica and pimpinella. The herb grows wild in central and southern Europe 
and is cultivated in numerous countries: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Holland, 
Hungary, Yugoslavia, etc. It belongs to the group of medicinal plants commonly cultivated by 
the monks in medieval times all over Europe. At this point, it should be stated that the product 
which is commercially labelled Lovage Oil often is an extracted product (compare: chamomile, 
myrrh, costus, etc.). The extracted product has been described in the previous monograph (see 
Lovage Oleoresin). 

Lovage Oil is an amber to olive-brown colored liquid of very powerful and rich, spicy-warm, 
fresh-aromatic, intensely sweet and "root-like" odor, suggestive of celery, angelica, licorice 
extract, deertongue oleoresin, etc. The flavor is slightly pungent, but only in high 
concentrations. The warm-spicy and "soup-like" celery note is predominant; the intensity is 
striking. Lovage Oil is used in perfumes in minute amounts to produce "special effects", or to 
lend warm background notes in spicy or Oriental bases. It gives interesting effects with rose 


283 


bases and in carnation compositions, it blends excellently with costus, galbanum, macrocyclic 
musks, opopanax, coumarin derivatives, oakmoss products, bay leaf oil, lavandin absolute, 
isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamic alcohol, flouve oil (particularly in flavor 
compositions), etc. In flavors, it gives rich body to essences for alcoholic beverages (liqueurs of 
the D. 0. M. and similar types), and it is an excellent additive in spicy compounds for 
seasonings, pickles, meat sauces, etc. It gives interesting combinations with flouve oil, 
deertongue and bergamot oil for tobacco flavoring. The suggested use level (food flavors) is 
about 0.02 to 0.08 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is approximately 0.0005 to 0.0010 
mg%. In respect to penetrative odor, this oil ranks among the most powerful of all natural 
materials. 

Lovage Root Oil is occasionally adulterated with the essential oil from lovage seed or herb (see 
Lovage Herb Oil), or it can be "bouquetted" with synthetic additives such as Cyclotene 
(hydroxymethyl-cyclopentenone), Maraniol (4-methyl-7- ethoxy coumarin), or with n-butyl 
phthalide and n-butylidene phthalide, synthetically prepared constituents of the natural 
lovage root oil. These synthetic materials are commercially available. 

The annual world production of Lovage Root Oil is less than one metric ton. 

Lupulin. 

See also monographs on Hop Absolute and Hop Oil. 

Lupulin is the glandular trichomes from the strobiles of the Hops. It constitutes the most 
important part of hops with respect to flavor. Various flavoring materials are prepared from 
lupulin. The intensely yellow, dustlike, yet sticky substance, Lupulin, is extracted with volatile 
solvents to produce an oleoresin, or, in the case of alcohol-extraction, a tincture. The Lupulin 
Oleoresin is particularly rich in the typical bitter flavor materials for which beer is so well 
known. However, these bitter substances are hardly at all distillable, and are not present in 
distilled flavor concentrates. 

The very large and comprehensively described every-day flavors (beer, cocoa, coffee, fruits, 
tea, etc.) will not be discussed in this work; but hops and lupulin can be used in a multitude of 
flavors other than beer. When lupulin is extracted with ethyl alcohol, and subsequently 
washed with weak alcohol and, finally, with water, a cloudy tincture is produced. This tincture 
can be distilled to produce a 45%, 50% or 60% alcoholic, clear tincture known as Lupulin 
Aromadistillate (see Aromadistillate, Part One of this work). This product is an extremely 
interesting flavor material. It lends a rich, natural body to many fruit flavors, particularly apple, 
and it blends well with the spicy flavors, e.g. as a modifier in ginger ale flavors, or in the 
complex flavors where sweet or bitter orange are among the carriers. 

Lupulin Oleoresin is very rarely used as such, but it might find application in flavors or 
perfumes, e.g. in combination with Armoise, Wormwood Absolute, etc. Lupulin is 
commercially available in many grades, and it takes considerable experience to select good 
from poor quality. The quality of Lupulin is heavily impaired by ageing or poor storage 
conditions. 


284 


M 


Mace Extract. 

Because of the considerable amount of odorless alcohol-soluble matter (ballast materials) 
contained in nutmegs (see Nutmeg Extract), mace (the dried arillodes) has been suggested as 
a starting material for the production of aromatic extracts. Mace does not contain significant 
amounts of fixed oil or other odorless matter, soluble in hot alcohol. On the other hand, it 
should be kept in mind that for every ton of dried nutmegs harvested, there are only 50 or 60 
kilos of dried mace. But the demand is rather small for perfumery use, and the perfume 
industry can afford to be particular in such cases. 

The dried comminuted mace is extracted with alcohol. After removal of the solvent under 
gentle vacuum, a viscous, orange-red or brownish- amber colored liquid is produced in a yield 
of 12 to 14 percent of the dry arillode. Since this is a product of hot extraction, it is not a true 
absolute, but it is generally called Mace Extract. It is soluble in almost any perfume or flavor 
material. The odor is fresh and spicy with a warm, rich and almost balsamic undertone. There 
are no sharp or pungent terpene-like notes or "rubber-like" top- note such as can be 
experienced with nutmeg oil. Its flavor is warm, slightly pungent at higher concentrations, 
sweet and aromatic-spicy with an excellent masking effect. The power seems immediately 
rather moderate since there is no "lift" from monoterpenes in this product. Suggested use 
level is 2 to 4 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.30 to 0.80 mg%. 

In flavor work, it gives a very close reproduction of the natural spice; it may even be classified 
as an improved edition of the natural spice with respect to organoleptic performance and 
overall attractiveness. It is furthermore one of the most concentrated forms of the 
nutmeg/mace flavor. It has the great advantage over the essential oils of nutmeg and mace in 
that it contains less terpenes, and accordingly is more stable in aqueous and acid flavor media, 
a condition under which nutmeg and mace are frequently used (pickles, sauces, seasonings, 
etc.). With lime oil, cinnamon bark oil, bitter orange oil, cardamom oil, ginger oil, etc., it 
produces the most delightfully rich aromatic-spicy flavor blends, and its excellent masking 
effect is known and utilized in the food industry (cabbage odors, etc.). 

In perfumery, mace extract finds some use along with other spicy and warm-aromatic 
materials for "men's colognes", after-shaves, fougeres, chypres, in modern fantasy lotion 
perfumes, etc. It blends well with geraniol, nerol, lavandin absolute, oak- moss products, 
linalool, coriander oil, sage clary oil, terpineol, petitgrain oil, lime oil, mandarin oil, rosemary 
oil, etc. 

Mace Extract is also available as an Ultrasonic Extract, and this material, too, seems to have a 
good future in the perfume and flavor industries. Due to the special method of production, 
however, the ultrasonic extract is generally more suitable for flavors than for perfumes. 

See also Nutmeg Extract and Nutmeg Oil. 


285 


Machilus Oil. 


Machilus oil is distilled from the wood of Machilus Kusanoi, a Formosan tree of the genus 
Lauraceae. The oil is produced in Japan, occasionally in Formosa. 

The main constituent of this oil is Eudesmol (see also Cryptomeria Japonica, Atractylis 
Concrete, Araucaria Oil, etc.). The wood oil of machilus is amber-colored or pale olive-green, 
viscous or almost solid. The odor is slightly spicy-woody, tobacco-like or cigarbox-like, 
somewhat earthy, mild, but tenacious. There is some resemblance to the odor of araucaria, 
guaiacwood, atractylis, etc.; it is, however, milder and less peppery than the latter. 

Machilus Wood Oil could find use as a fixative in perfumes for soap, or to speak generally, 
where a woody fixative is called for. The oil blends well with oakmoss, ionones, linalool, 
cedarwood oils and cedarwood derivatives, sandalwood oil, citrus oils, clove oils, pine needle 
oils, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol, etc. Its limited availability may restrict its use to that of a local 
soap perfume fixative. 

An essential oil distilled from the leaves of the same tree and labelled Hayata Oil was 
submitted to the author. This oil was almost colorless, and its odor was strongly reminiscent of 
that of camphor oil (sassafras type), pine oil and pine needle oil. If available in larger 
quantities, the Hayata Oil or Machilus Leaf Oil could find use in soap perfumery, or as a source 
of Safrole, etc. Hayata Oil is produced in Formosa (irregularly) and on the Chinese mainland. 
The oil resembles Hinoki Leaf Oil in respect to odor (see Chamaecyparis Obtusa forma 
formosana) and the two oils are often confused in markets outside their countries of origin. 

Magnolia. 

To the best of the author's knowledge, there are no true, natural Magnolia foyer products 
commercially available for perfumery use. But since various products under the label Magnolia 
Absolute or the like are occasionally offered by a few perfume material suppliers, a few lines 
will discuss Magnolia. 

Out of a wealth of magnolia species, only a few come into consideration as possible perfume 
plants: Magnolia Grandiflora is a tree indigenous to the southeastern states of the U.S.A., but 
cultivated quite commonly in southern Europe for its beautiful flowers. Experimental batches 
of magnolia oil and Magnolia Absolute have been prepared in Italy. The flowers of this 
magnolia have an extremely delicate, sweet fragrance, reminiscent of rose, violet and orange 
flowers or, in the opinion of others, like rosa canina, the common hedgerose (dogrose, 
hiprose). In Japan and China, various magnolias are cultivated as ornamental trees and shrubs. 
To the author's knowledge, these magnolias are not exploited for perfume oil production. 

The northeast-American Tulip Tree, the beautiful Liriodendron Tulipifera, best known for its 
wood ("whitewood"), produces a wealth of characteristic cup-shaped, yellow flowers of a 
faint, but very pleasant odor. The tree is occasionally called Magnolia when offered for sale in 
European tree nurseries. It does belong to the same family, but it is not a magnolia species, 
and it is not used as a perfume plant. Other perfume plants of the genus Magnoliaceae are 
Champaca and Star Anise (see monographs). 


286 


An essential oil has been distilled from the leaves of Magnolia Grandiflora in China and 
experimentally in Italy. The Michelia Leaf Oil, see Champaca, is produced from the leaves of a 
related tree in China. 

Mandarin Oil. 

Unless otherwise specified, this name refers to the essential oil expressed from the peel of the 
true mandarin, which we will call the “European type" of mandarin in this monograph. See also 
Tangerine. The two trees are both botanically Citrus Reticulata varieties, originating in south 
China and other Fareastern areas. The mandarin arrived in Europe in 1805, and in the U.S.A. 
about 40 years later. In Europe, the fruit developed into the small, ellipsoidic Mandarin while 
in the U.S.A., the fruit remained quite similar to the Chinese original; however, it was re¬ 
named Tangerine in the United States. 

Mandarin Peel Oil is produced in Italy, Spain, Algeria and Cyprus, and in smaller quantities in 
Greece and the Middle East. The Brazilian mandarins are slightly different, and yield a different 
oil. The Brazilian production was 2 metric tons in 1958. This oil is rarely exported. 

The mandarin peels are expressed either by hand or by machine in Europe. Mandarin Peel Oil 
is an orange-brown to dark yellowish-brown or olive-brown, occasionally lemon yellow (certain 
types of handpressed oil), mobile liquid of intensely sweet, not very fresh odor, occasionally 
with an amine-like, "fishy" topnote and usually with a rich neroli-like, floral undertone. Upon 
extreme dilution e.g. in ethyl alcohol, the oil shows a beautiful bluish fluorescence which fades 
significantly when the solution has aged. This effect, and the peculiar "perfume-like" odor 
type, is explained by the presence of about one percent of methyl-N-methyl-anthranilate in 
the oil. This material is erroneously called dimethyl anthranilate and is a common perfumery 
chemical, produced synthetically on a large scale. The "fishy" or amine-like topnote in the 
mandarin peel oil could be due to the anthranilate which, in acid media, occasionally produces 
this type of odor in essential oils. 

Mandarin peel oil is used mainly in flavors where it gives interesting modifications with sweet 
and bitter orange oils, grapefruit oil, lime oil, etc. in flavor compositions for soft drinks, candy, 
etc. The terpeneless or sesquiterpeneless mandarin peel oil is preferred as the main flavor 
material in certain types of liqueur (see below). Mandarin peel oil is an excellent blender- 
intensifier for sweet orange oil in flavors where its rich body compensates for drawbacks in 
certain types of sweet orange oil. The average use level for "straight" mandarin peel oil (the 
effect is considerably intensified in combination-flavors with other citrus oils) is about 3.00 to 
10.0 mg%, and the Minimum Perceptible is 0.30 to 0.60 mg%. 

In perfumery, mandarin peel oil is used sparingly in colognes as a modifier for other citrus oils, 
in neroli bases, in fantasy "moss" notes, or as particular note for "special" effects. In this 
respect, however, the mandarin-petitgrain oil (see monograph) is superior by far. 

Mandarin peel oil is also offered as a "five-fold" oil. This oil is usually produced by simple 
concentration in vacuum. The concentrated oil is, accordingly, very dark and its solubility in 
alcohol only slightly improved. Its flavor is about three (note: 3) times as strong as the flavor of 
the natural mandarin peel oil. 


287 


Terpeneless and Sesquiterpeneless Mandarin Peel Oil is produced as described in Part One of 
this book (Terpeneless Oils). These oils are usually prepared by the consumer; they are rarely 
offered commercially by the raw material supply houses. The total removal of the terpenes 
from the mandarin oil changes its odor and flavor characteristics beyond recognition. The 
flavor of the terpeneless, sesquiterpeneless oil is extremely "perfume-like" and its odor type 
approaches that of orange flowers. 

Mandarin Aroma (see Aromas in Part One of this book) is prepared as described, and is used 
for liqueurs or soft drinks since it gives a more true-to-nature flavor than do the evaporated 
(concentrated) oils, and since it presents a good solution to the problem of insoluble terpenes 
in the natural oil. 

Mandarin Peel Oil is produced in steady amounts of 20 to 50 metric tons per year, but it can 
still be difficult to buy large quantities of the oil immediately prior to the European harvest 
(late fall). 

Mandarin-Petitgrain Oil. 

A very interesting essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves, twigs and occasionally from 
the small, undeveloped fruits of the mandarin tree, "European type" (see Mandarin Oil). Only 
Italy, Spain and, at times, Algeria produce small quantities of this oil. Spain supplies the best 
and richest oil, by far; Italy supplies perhaps a larger quantity. The Guinea (West African) 
mandarin petitgrain oil is derived from a tree which closely resembles the American tangerine. 

Mandarin Petitgrain Oil is a dark olive-green liquid of intensely sweet, rich, deep-fruity, grape¬ 
like, floral odor in which a distinct mustiness is characteristic, and a plum-grape-like fruity 
undertone lends a peculiar and very powerful, perfumery sweetness. Like the peel oil, the 
petitgrain oil of mandarin also produces fluorescence in alcoholic dilution. Methyl-N- 
methylanthranilate makes up more than 50% of a good Spanish mandarin petitgrain oil. 

Oils that are distilled exclusively from the leaves with no unripe fruits admixed contain fewer 
terpenes, and are more valuable flavor and perfume materials. 

Mandarin petitgrain oil is used in small quantities as a modifier in various citrus flavors, grape 
flavors, and occasionally in gooseberry, apple, "tutti-frutti", etc. A deterpenized oil is 
sometimes preferred, but this oil lends practically no freshness and must be backed up by 
sweet orange, lemon or grapefruit so that some terpenes may be reintroduced in the flavor. 
For perfumes, the mandarin petitgrain oil is equally interesting, e.g. in fougeres, Oriental 
bases, chypres and in modern aldehydic perfume types. It lends excellent body and undertone 
in neroli bases, and it is worthwhile noting that methyl-N-methylanthranilate does not discolor 
or form condensation products in the presence of aldehydes (compare: Schiff's bases with 
methyl anthranilate). In pine fragrances, the mandarin petitgrain oil produces a most attractive 
effect of natural forest sweetness with oakmoss, pine needle oils, fir needle absolute, 
coumarin derivatives, aldehydes, etc. Unfortunately, the oil is not available in very large 
quantities. The annual production is limited to about 2 metric tons. Spain produced 300 kilos in 
1957. 


288 


Manevoro Oil. 


Not widely known, and rarely offered in more than 10-kilo lots, Manevoro Oil is an essential 
oil, produced by steam distillation of a Madagascan herb of the genus Labiatae. Manevoro is a 
term which is native for "crocodile herb". The plant grows wild in the shady forests of 
northwestern Madagascar and the off-shore island of Nossi-Be. The plant is not cultivated, and 
the author knows of no other place where this plant is to be found. 

The leaves of the wild growing plant are steam distilled in Nossi-Be, and the distillation waters 
are extracted with petroleum ether in order to avoid the loss of the oil. The specific gravity of 
manevoro oil is close to 1.00, and the oil easily forms emulsion with water. The combined oil 
phases are washed with alcohol to remove resins and waxes, and, after filtration and 
evaporation of the alcohol in vacuum, the Manevoro oil is obtained. It is a pale amber to dark 
amber or brownish-colored, somewhat viscous liquid of sweet-woody, very rich and somewhat 
herbaceous odor, reminiscent of patchouli, orris, costus, Atlas cedar and sage clary concrete. 
The dryout on a blotter shows an increasing sweetness and a rich, "tobacco-like", herbaceous 
undertone with a tremendous tenacity and great diffusive power. 

Manevoro Oil can find application in high-class perfumes of the "powdery" type, in aldehydic 
bases, ambre-colognes, etc. It blends excellently with the above mentioned materials and with 
labdanum products, styrax, cinnamic alcohol, nitromusks, heliotropine, methylionones, cedar- 
wood derivatives, vetiver, citrus oils, helichrysum oil, cypress oil, juniperberry oil, cardamom, 
ginger, black pepper oil, etc. The usual concentration of manevoro oil in a perfume base may 
be around 0.2 to 0.5 percent, and overdosage is very easily reached. 

Less than twice the price of geranium oil and about six to eight times the price of patchouli oil, 
the manevoro oil cannot be classified as an expensive oil when its strength is taken into 
consideration. At present, the annual production of Manevoro Oil is only about 50 to 100 kilos. 

Maple. 

Although it is a rather local specialty and not very widely applicable as a flavor material, Maple 
Syrup deserves some attention for its truly unique flavor character. 

Only the two species (Acer Saccharum and Acer Nigrum) from among hundreds of maples 
known are of commercial interest to syrup production. In springtime they produce a sap which 
contains up to 6 percent sugar. The balance is water, apart from minute traces of certain 
organic compounds which lend a typical flavor to the evaporated syrup. The sap is boiled down 
to a point—learned by experience—where it will stay liquid after cooling and yet not grow 
mold. 

Until a few years ago, little was known about the apparently powerful materials which were 
the flavor principles of maple syrup. Synthetic flavor chemicals like Cyclotene (hydroxy- 
methylcyclopentenone), Maraniol(4-methyl-7-ethoxycoumarin), various butylidene phthalides, 
or natural materials such as fenugreek, flouve, celery seed, lovage, etc. had been used both in- 
and outside America to imitate the flavor. Maple syrup is derived from a mere 2 million trees 
in upstate New York, Vermont, Maine and parts of south-eastern Canada, and it is hardly 


289 


known outside the United States. There is only one crop per year, and a true maple syrup is 
hardly available in the months immediately prior to the new tapping (March-April). 

para-Coniferaldehyde (= 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic aldehyde), also known as "Maple 
Aide- hyde", is apparently a natural oxidation product from coniferyl alcohol, which is gamma- 
hydroxyisoeugenol. This alcohol is widely prevalent in nature, e.g. in the form of a glycoside 
(abietin), a parent substance of the so-called lignin-vanillin. Coniferyl benzoate and coniferyl 
cinnamate are the main constituents of Siam benzoin and Sumatra benzoin, respectively. para- 
Coniferaldehyde may be one of the "key" materials by which reproduction of maple flavor 
may be effected. Unfortunately, this chemical has not yet been successfully synthesized. 

Maple Syrup is used extensively in the U.S.A. with pancakes, wafers, for confectionery, 
tobacco and on ice cream, etc. The consumption in the U.S.A. alone goes far beyond the 
production of natural maple syrup, and perhaps five or ten tons of artificial maple syrup is sold 
for each ton of natural syrup produced. The artificial syrup is base upon sugar syrup with the 
addition of the above mentioned natural and synthetic flavor materials. 

Marigold Absolute. 

Also called Calendula absolute, Marigold Absolute is extracted from the ligulate florets of 
Calendula Officinalis, known as "Marigold", "Marybud" or "Hollygold" in the United States of 
America. There is, however, some confusion with respect to the term "marigold" since it has 
been applied to various other plants of the Compositae family, e.g. Tagetes, etc. Tagetes will 
be described under its proper name. 

The calendula absolute from the true calendula officinalis is probably produced only in France, 
but it is sold in English speaking countries under the name of Marigold. 

The absolute is a very dark greenish-brown, very viscous liquid of an intensely bitter- 
herbaceous odor. Little is known about its constituents, but as a perfumery material, it has 
certain interesting and unique notes. Since the plant grows commonly all over Europe, 
cultivated in the northern part, an increased production could easily be effected. 

Its very peculiar note and intense color, however, limits the use of "marigold" to fancy 
perfume types, modern aldehydic-herbaceous types where the green "crushed-stalk" note 
may be called for. Marigold Absolute introduces certain natural notes in chrysanthemum 
fragrances, and it gives interesting effects with oakmoss, mate extract, tea leaf extract, cypriol, 
iso cyclo citral, etc. Traces of the absolute can be useful in hyacinth, lilac, gardenia, reseda, 
moss-bases, etc. 

See also Tagetes, under which Tagetes Glandulifera is discussed, and Tagetes Patula under 
which heading the Indian "genda" is mentioned. 

Marjoram Oil, sweet. 

The poultry seasoner, the dried herb of Origanum Majorana, also called Majorana Hortensis 
when cultivated is well known to housewives all over the world. The plant is probably 
originated in the eastern Mediterranean countries, and is now cultivated in central and 


290 


southern Europe (Bulgaria, etc.) as well as in North Africa. The plant grown in the United States 
is used as a culinary herb and not for the production of essential oil. It should be mentioned at 
this point that the outstanding majority of all so-called marjoram oil used in the U.S.A. and 
elsewhere is Spanish Wild Marjoram (see the following monograph), derived from a 
completely different plant. 

Sweet Marjoram Oil is steam distilled from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant 
(origanum majorana). Distillation takes place in France, Tunisia, Morocco, Italy, Hungary, 
Bulgaria, Poland, Germany and experimentally in Turkey. French and Tunisian oils are 
considered among the best. 

Sweet marjoram oil is a pale yellow or pale amber colored, rather mobile liquid of a warm- 
spicy, aromatic-camphoraceous and woody odor, reminiscent of nutmeg and cardamom. The 
flavor is spicy-warm, aromatic and somewhat bitter. It serves little or no purpose to mention 
an average use level or a Minimum Perceptible since the author has experienced huge 
differences in flavor strength among the various qualities of oils commercially offered. For 
those who are familiar with the odor of Melaleuca Alternifolia (see monograph), it is 
interesting to note the similarity in odor between this oil and sweet marjoram oil. 

Sweet marjoram oil is used in spice compounds for the flavoring of meat-sauces, canned foods, 
vinegars, etc., and occasionally in perfumery to introduce a fresh, slightly medicinal-aromatic, 
warm note in fougeres, colognes, Oriental bases, etc. As mentioned above, the annual 
production of sweet marjoram oil is very limited, and there is no strong demand for this oil. 
Adulteration takes place, usually with terpineol and fractions from the production of 
turpentine-terpineol, or with the oil of melaleuca alternifolia. Plain mislabelling is also 
common in the sense that Spanish, wild marjoram oil, or mixtures of this oil and the sweet 
marjoram oil, origanum oil, etc. are labelled "oil of marjoram, sweet" 

Marjoram Oil, wild (Spanish). 

One of the most confused areas of botanical perfumery nomenclature is that of Calamintha — 
Marjoram — Origanum — Thyme — Verbena. For many decades, outstanding authors and 
authorities have done their best to straighten out this confusion, but some suppliers continue 
to mislabel their materials, overlooking all the efforts made to establish correct names. We 
meet this sad fact with respect to resinoids also. 

The so-called "Wild" Marjoram is the common garden herb, Origanum Vulgare, cultivated all 
over the world. An essential oil is distilled from this plant in southern U.S.S.R., Bulgaria and 
Italy. 

See also Origanum and Thyme. 

Spanish Wild Marjoram Oil is water-and-steam distilled from the flowering herb of Thymus 
Masticina and other Thymus species with similar odor. The plant grows wild in Spain and is 
distilled locally. The production of this oil is quite significant, and fluctuates between 5 and 20 
metric tons per year. 


291 


Spanish (wild) marjoram oil is an orange-amber to pale orange-yellow colored, mobile liquid of 
strong, fresh, slightly sweet-spicy, aromatic, but predominantly eucalyptus-like, 
camphoraceous odor. Its flavor is warm, slightly burning, bittersweet, occasionally with a cool, 
aromatic-medicinal aftertaste. Huge variations in the qualities of different lots of this oil make 
it meaningless to report any suggested use level concentration. The oil is used extensively as a 
flavoring agent in meat sauces, mixed spices for soups, etc., but has, in the author's opinion, 
little or nothing in common with Sweet Marjoram Oil (see previous monograph). Frankly, the 
author cannot see how in the world the former can be used as a substitute for the latter. But 
this is just another case of a "matter of opinion" which is everyday fare for perfumers and 
flavorists. 

Spanish Wild Marjoram Oil can hardly expect to find much application in perfumery. Its effects 
and constitution do not offer any particular value to recommend it to the perfumer 

Mastic. 

Mastic or Mastix is a natural oleo-resin, produced in the very small tree, Pistacia Lentiscus, as 
a physiological (voluntary) material. In order to obtain the oleoresin, however, it is necessary 
to make incisions in the trunk. The exuded oleoresin soon solidifies (resinifies), and becomes 
hard and brittle. 

Mastic is produced in various Mediterranean countries, but most of the world production 
comes from the small Greek island of Chios, just offshore from Izmir in Turkey. Smaller 
quantities are collected in Algeria, Morocco and the Canary islands. 

The dry mastic, as we know it, has only a faint, balsamic-turpentine-like odor, but it does 
contain a small amount of essential oil which can be obtained by steam distillation of the 
oleoresin. 

Mastic Oil is a pale yellow, mobile liquid or turpentine-like, fresh-balsamic odor. The oil is 
scarce and comparatively expensive. It is occasionally used in citrus colognes, lavender- 
fougeres, etc. as a topnote ingredient, lending a certain naturalness and bitter-balsamic 
tonality to these perfume types. The oil is also used in certain types of liqueur flavor. 

By extraction of the Mastic with alcohol or a hydrocarbon solvent, various types of Mastic 
Resinoid are produced. These are merely soluble versions of the mastic itself. Hydrocarbons 
will dissolve up to 98% of natural mastic, while ethyl alcohol dissolves about 85%. The latter 
solvent produces a resinoid which is safer for use in perfumes where a separation could cause 
trouble later on. 

Mastic Resinoid (known in France as "resinoide lentisque") is a pale amber colored, hard and 
brittle mass with an odor quite similar to that of natural mastic. It is an interesting perfume 
material and a good fixative, e.g. for mimosa compounds where it introduces a certain "twig- 
odor" effect. It can also be used in straight floral bases to produce a bitter-woody, natural 
undertone and a good fixation. 


292 


Mastic Resinoid and Mastic Oil are scarce materials, but they are available in sufficient 
quantities to meet present demands. The natural mastic is used extensively in pharmaceutical 
and technical preparations, varnishes for dentists, etc. 

Mate. 

Known to the natives for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years, and to the greater part of the 
present population of South America, Mate is an everyday tonic. It is prepared from the leaves 
of Ilex Paraguayensis and other Ilex species. These trees grow wild and cultivated in Argentina, 
Brazil, Paraguay and other Latin-American countries. The cultivated trees are usually pruned to 
bush-size to facilitate picking of the leaves. The forests where the trees grow are known as 
"yerbales", and the leaves are called "yerba mate". The leaves are dried, usually over a 
smoldering fire of certain woods. The smoke from the fire enhances the dry-smoky flavor 
which derives from phenolic and tannic materials in the leaves. The dry leaves are either cut or 
ground to a coarse powder which are the commercial forms of Mate. The pot from which the 
infusion is usually taken (through a special straw) is called Mate (the original, local name), 
hence the name of the leaves. 

Only recently, the perfumers became interested in mate. Tinctures, then extracts, resinoids or 
absolutes were produced although such preparations are not regularly offered commercially. 
An essential oil has been produced, but the yield is very small and the odor of the oil is less 
interesting than that of the extracted products. Mate Absolute is prepared by extraction of the 
dry leaves with petroleum ether. The resulting concrete is subsequently extracted with 
alcohol. A completely solvent-free Mate Absolute is a semi-solid, sticky, very dark green mass. 
It is customary to leave sufficient alcohol or other (occasionally nonvolatile) solvent in the 
extract as to make it pourable at room temperature. Other producers or consumers will make 
a strong tincture of mate leaves (20% of the weight of the alcohol). 

Mate Absolute has a very peculiar, rich-herbaceous, dry-leafy, woody-foliage like and 
somewhat phenolic or smoky, medicinal odor, resemblin that of the leaves. A decolorized 
extract of mate is commercially available, but only part of the color is actually removed. 
Anhydrol Mate and Resinoine Incolore Mate are distilled extracts of mate. These products are 
pale of color and yet present the most characteristic notes of the odor of mate extracts. Mate 
extracts are used in perfumery to introduce a pronounced greenness in floral bouquets. The 
green notes of mate are free from the sharpness which usually accompanies the "green" odor 
materials (beta-gamma-hexenol, nonadienal, amyl heptin carbonate, methyl phenyl carbinyl 
acetate, etc.). Mate absolute or tincture blends well with orange flower bases, jasmin, 
oakmoss, coumarin and its derivatives, lavender absolute, narcissus, arnica absolute, tea leaf 
extracts, de-thujonized wormwood oil, chamomile, manevoro oil, cananga oil, castoreum 
products, spice oils, etc.—quite a varied field of application. In the reproduction of natural 
fragrances or substitutes of natural perfume materials, mate absolute can often add the 
missing notes to the match (duplication). In fougeres, new mown hay, hay or meadowsweet 
fragrances, it lends a rich body and herbal undertone of unique tenacity. 


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Since the leaves are so abundant and low in price, there is no problem of availability of Mate 
perfume products. It may, however, still be necessary for the consumer to prepare them from 
the botanical material since the finished extracts are rarely offered. 

A west-American plant, Eriodictylon Californicum, also called Mountain Balm, is sometimes 
sold under the name of Yerba Santa. It has no relationship to the Latin American Yerba Mate. 
The Californian plant has been used for some time in the pharmaceutical industry since an 
extract from its leaves has the ability of masking effectively the bitter taste of quinine in 
pharmaceutical preparations, etc. 

Matico Oil. 

The leaves of Piper Matico and a number of other Matico species of the genus Piperaceae 
have been used in medicine for a long time, and still appear in a number of Pharmacopoeias 
and Codex'es. 

The trees grow wild in many parts of South America, particularly in Brazil and Peru. Distillation, 
if it takes place at all, is not performed in the countries of origin. Brazil has no commercial 
production of Matico Oil, and the matico leaves collected in South America come from a 
number of species of matico trees, often without designation. 

The almost universal feature of the odor of matico leaves, regardless of their origin, is a strong, 
camphoraceous, pepperlike or minty odor with a pronounced woody undertone. The oil, when 
it was available, never attained any significant importance in perfumery or flavor work. 

The Matico Oils occasionally offered in the market today, are usually dark green, olive-green, 
dark amber or brownish colored, somewhat viscous liquids. The oils turn darker on ageing or 
upon exposure to daylight, air or iron. 

Matico oil can be produced upon request. The botanical material is at hand, but it is not always 
easy to determine the exact species of Matico used. Thus, it may be difficult to get a uniform 
quality of oil. Matico Oil has little or no application in flavor work. 

Mawah Oil. 

See monographs on Geranium African. 

Like many other "geranium" plants, the Pelargonium Graveolens has a tendency towards 
hybridizing into local varieties. This has happened to most of the pelargoniums introduced (or, 
more correctly, re-introduced) in Africa. 

Late in the 19th century, the ancestor of the Mawah plant, a variety of Pelargonium Radula, 
came to Kenya, East Africa, but it has been only during the past few decades that the settlers 
have bothered with distillation of this decorative plant. It is now cultivated or grows semiwild 
in the highlands of the Masai people, between Nairobi and Lake Victoria, toward the border of 
Tanganyika. About 5 to 8 metric tons of essential oil is steam distilled annually from cultivated 
plants in this area. 


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Mawah Oil is greenish-yellow to dark olive or pale brownish of color. Its odor is somewhat 
bitter-harsh, leafy-woody, slightly earthy, but later toning out in a much more pleasant rosy, 
"geranium" type of odor. The dryout note is, however, more similar to that of palmarosa than 
to ordinary African geranium oil. 

Mawah Oil is not a substitute for geranium oil. It can only be used for what it is: a powerful, 
but coarse, woody-leafy, floral-rosy and quite stable perfume oil. It is useful in soap perfumes 
if the typical and highly diffusive topnote of true geranium oil is not needed. The oil blends 
excellently with all the usual perfume materials as needed in rose compounds for soap, etc. 

Mawah Oil is available in Europe, and occasionally also in the U.S.A., but production originates 
exclusively in Kenya as described above, and is very limited. The oil may be adulterated with 
palmarosa oil, fractions from geraniol and citronellol production, geranium terpenes, etc. and 
Mawah Oil itself has been used in the adulteration of various African geranium oils. The latter 
fraud is rare, and quite easily detected. 

Melaleuca Alternifolia. 

Melaleuca Alternifolia is one of the smaller "tea- trees" from southeastern Australia. Its leaves 
are collected and water- or steam distilled locally. Until now, the oil has not been produced 
outside Australia, although the tree, a native of Australia, can easily be cultivated elsewhere, 
propagated from seed. The annual production of the oil is only between 10 and 30 tons, but 
this amount seems to be sufficient at present. The true figure for the annual production may 
be considerably lower since the above figures may very well refer to the total annual 
production of all so-called tea-tree oils. 

Oil of Melaleuca Alternifolia is a pale yellowish- green or almost water-white mobile liquid of a 
warm-spicy, aromatic-terpenic odor, reminiscent of nutmeg, cardamom and sweet marjoram, 
but with a strong emphasis on the terpinene- and terpinenol-notes (odor of the foreruns from 
rectification of synthetic terpineol). The flavor is warm- aromatic, somewhat burning, spicy and 
yet fresh, faintly camphoraceous, slightly bitter. 

The oil has served as an antiseptic for many decades, but only recently has it been proven 
scientifically, that the oil really possesses an outstanding germ-killing effect and high 
penetration power. The oil is sold locally and abroad under trade names, such as "Ti-Trol" or 
"Melasol", etc. as a germicide, gargle, skin-disinfectant, spray, etc. 

In perfumery, however, the oil has been gathering increasing interest for its warm-spicy, 
aromatic and fresh character, a type of fragrance, which has become particularly popular since 
the introduction of spicy colognes and after-shaves for men, etc. The oil is non-toxic and does 
not irritate the skin. Nutmeg oil cannot claim the same advantages or virtues. 

Oil of Melaleuca Alternifolia blends well with lavandin oil, lavender, isobornylacetate, clove 
oils, rosemary oil, oakmoss products, cananga oil, amylsalicylate, coumarin, geraniol and nerol, 
etc. The oil has been used as an adulterant for nutmeg oil and for sweet marjoram oil. If this oil 
were made regularly available in ton-lots, it would no doubt catch the interest of the larger 
perfume houses and perhaps become a favorite perfume material for the introduction of 
"new" notes in certain lines of perfumery. 


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Melaleuca Bracteata. 


Belonging to the group of so-called "tea-trees", the Australian tree, Melaleuca Bracteata has 
leaves and twigs which are distilled in Australia, and recently also in East Africa (Kenya). By 
steam distillation a yellowish to pale amber or pale olive-green oil is obtained. The odor is very 
delicate, sweet-woody, herbaceous, recalling the odor of dry tea-leaves. The "tea" note has 
nothing to do with the "tea-tree" name of these plants, but this fragrance is quite 
characteristic of this particular oil. The main constituent of the oil is Mathyl Eugenol. However, 
the synthetic or isolated methyl eugenol does not present the same peculiar odor of tea leaves 
as the one we find in melaleuca bracteata oil. It seems quite possible that small amounts of 
cinnamates in combination with methyl eugenol are responsible for the delicate and very 
pleasant odor of melaleuca bracteata oil. 

When this oil is available at all, it finds use in perfumery for the note described above, and the 
oil blends excellently with amylsalicylate, hydroxycitronellal, dimethyl phenylethyl carbinol, 
linalool, beta-gamma-hexenol (traces for "tea" notes), phenylethylalcohol, ionones and 
methylionones, mimosa absolute, sage clary oil or absolute, pine needle oil, juniperberry oil, 
ylang-ylang (best in minute traces), etc. Melaleuca bracteata oil will round off the sharp notes 
of synthetic ingredients, and produce an improved fixation and naturalness in the perfume. 
Like many other Australian trees, the melaleuca trees exist in several "physiological" forms 
which yield different essential oils. This fact affects the production of the individual melaleuca 
oils. 

Consequently, the oil of Melaleuca Bracteata is produced on a limited scale only, the total 
annual production being about two to five metric tons. With an increased interest and 
stronger demand, the production in Australia and East Africa could easily be intensified. This 
oil certainly deserves more attention in perfumery. 

Melaleuca Linariifolia. 

The oil of Melaleuca Linariifolia is of comparatively limited importance in perfumery. The tree 
is another Australian "tea-tree", very similar in appearance to melaleuca alternifolia (see 
monograph), but larger than this tree. 

Distillation takes place on the spot, i.e. in southeast Australia, where the leaves are water- or 
steam distilled. The tree is not cultivated on a commercial scale outside this area. 

Melaleuca linariifolia oil is a pale yellowish oil of strong camphoraceous-eucalyptus-like odor, 
with a warm-terpenic undertone. Somewhat similar to the oil of melaleuca alternifolia, the oil 
of melaleuca linariifolia is much more eucalyptus- like in odor and flavor, and it does not recall 
the odor of nutmeg. One could say that the odor type is a less aromatic one. 

At this point, however, it should be noted that various samples of oils, labelled Melaleuca 
Linariifolia may turn out quite differently on an odor evaluation. The author has seen samples 
which presented little or no eucalyptus note (cineole-like note) as well as other samples which 
were strong in this note. This non-uniformity of various lots of the oil may be partly 
responsible for the lack of interest in melaleuca linariifolia oil. 


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Generally, the oil could find application in air-fresheners, household-sprays, room-deodorants, 
lavender-perfumes, soap- and detergent perfumes, mouthwashes and gargles, etc. 

The oil is produced on a very limited scale, and is not regularly available in sizeable lots. It is 
very likely that the oil will slowly vanish from the perfumery market. 

Melaleuca Viridiflora, Variety "A”. 

Years ago, before the sesquiterpene alcohol Nerolidol was prepared synthetically, 
considerable time and energy was spent in the search for natural sources of this fine perfume 
material. Apart from cabreuva oil (see this monograph) only one essential oil yielded sufficient 
nerolidol to make isolation profitable: the oil of Melaleuca Viridiflora, variety "A". The 
ordinary melaleuca viridiflora tree yields Niaouli Oil (see this monograph). 

The fact that the two trees are physiological forms of the same botanical specimen means that 
the selection of the correct form requires expert botanical assistance. This explains the failure 
in the production of the above oil. 

Melaleuca Viridiflora, variety "A" grows in southeastern Australia among many other 
melaleuca species. Distillation of the leaves of this particular tree gives an oil consisting of 
about one-third linalool and two-thirds of Nerolidol. The latter can be separated in a fairly 
pure state by fractional distillation. In New Caledonia, the melaleuca viridiflora tree seems to 
grow only as the "type" which yields Niaouli Oil. Accordingly, the niaouli oil is not produced in 
Australia, but only in New Caledonia. 

The oil of melaleuca viridiflora, variety "A" is a pale yellow or almost water-white, somewhat 
oily liquid of soft, sweet-balsamic, woody and slightly floral odor. On drying out, it shows not 
only great tenacity, but also a very pleasant, floral-woody body, although of very faint odor. 
This oil is only occasionally available upon request with due notice to the Australian producers. 
With the appearance of low-cost synthetic nerolidol (1960-price is about $ 14.— per lb.) it 
seems conceivable that the oil of melaleuca viridiflora, variety "A" may disappear from the 
perfume market. The oil has little value and no particularly interesting notes to offer as such in 
perfumery. 

See also the monograph on: Cabreuva Oil, Niaouli Oil and Oleo Vermelho. 

Melilotus. 

Closely related to the clover are several species of Melilotus, among which Melilotus 
Officinalis and Melilotus Arvensis have particularly attracted the interest of the perfume- and 
flavor industries. The plants grow wild in most parts of Europe and Asia Minor; other species 
are found in the United States, Asia and Africa. The above two species are used for the 
extraction of a so-called Oleoresin Mellilotin, a petroleum ether or benzene extraction 
product of the dry flowers. Chlorinated aliphatic and olefinic hydrocarbons have also been 
used, e.g. methylene dichloride. Extraction takes place in England, France, Germany, and the 
U.S.S.R. 


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The above plants have very little odor or flavor when fresh, but upon drying, various chemical 
reactions (decomposition of glycosides) take place, and coumarin, coumarin derivatives and 
other odorous materials are set free. This drying or curing is quite frequently met, e.g. bitter 
almond, tonka, vanilla, liatris, wintergreen, woodruff, etc. 

The extract is theoretically a concrete (according to the definitions in Part One of this book), 
but it is usually called a "resinoid" or "oleoresin" perhaps on account of the fact that the 
manufacturers present the extract in a more or less liquid form. 

Melilot Extract (so-called Oleoresin) is a viscous, dark green liquid of a very sweet, 
herbaceousroot-like and rich odor. Although this odor is often described as "tobacco-like", the 
author of this book disagrees since the odor of melilot extract is an odor type which is 
artificially introduced in cured tobacco for the purpose of flavoring the tobacco with this sweet 
note. Coumarin, liatris, methylcoumarin, prune juice, flouve oil, etc. are all used in the 
flavoring of tobacco when the root-like coumarin notes are wanted. Unflavored tobacco leaves 
have no sweet odor, but rather a distinct amine-like, dry-herb odor. However, the coumarin- 
type odor has become more or less synonymous for tobacco odor for many people. 

Melilotus "Oleoresin" is used extensively in the flavoring of tobacco in countries where the 
use of coumarin-containing preparations is permitted in tobacco flavoring. It was used in the 
flavoring of cheese at one time, but substitutes have now replaced melilotus for this purpose. 

In perfumery, the "melillotin" is most useful in the new mown hay, fougere, lavender, pine and 
forest type fragrances where it is an excellent blender to "round off" the effects of sharp 
smelling synthetic materials. Melilotus extracts blend well with mate extracts, oakmoss, 
dimethyl benzyl carbinylacetate, amyl salicylate, labdanum products, fir needle absolute, 
lavandin and lavender oils, bois de rose oil, nerol, nitromusks and cinnamic alcohol (for 
"powdery" notes!), etc. 

An Absolute of Melilotus has been prepared, and it offers the advantage of producing no 
resinous or insoluble separations in alcoholic perfumes, etc. In connection with the above 
statements with respect to "tobacco odor", the reader may be interested in studying Georges 
Igolen's contribution to the problem in "Les Parfums de France", 1936, vol. 14, page 225. 
Obviously, the coumarin concentration in the Absolute of Melilotus is beyond the saturation 
point (compare absolute of tonka, etc.), but a high concentration of coumarin will remain in 
the liquid phase of the absolute which contributes distinctly to the so-called "tobacco-odor". 

The annual production of Melilotus extracts (all types) is declining, not because of any 
shortage of the abundant wild growing herb, but mainly because of the coumarin-ban in the 
most important fields of application for these materials. In perfumery, they continue to attract 
the interest of many perfumers, and only the intense deep-green color is a distinct 
disadvantage in perfumery application. This problem should be rather easily solved since many 
commercial lots of melilotus extract are colored artificially with chlorophyll in order to look 
more "natural". 

Lavandin concrete, synthetic coumarin, various methylcoumarins, etc. are known to be used as 
adulterants of melilotus extracts at the present time. 


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Melissa Oil. 


Melissa oil or Oil of Balm enjoys the reputation of being probably one of the most frequently 
adulterated essential oils of the perfumery trade. Melissa Oil, cedrat oil, verbena oil, 
wintergreen oil, etc.,—these oils are almost never genuine distillates of the botanical. It might 
be appropriate to quote from the definition of essential oils adopted by the Geneva Congress 
for the suppression of frauds: "Essential oils are the exclusive product of the extraction of the 
aromatic principles contained in the substances of vegetable origin of which they bear the 
name". 

See also Essential Oil in Part One of this book. 

Melissa Officinalis is a small plant of the genus labiatae, and it has been known for hundreds, 
probably thousands of years in central and southern Europe. The local name for the plant in 
many countries is "heart's delight", and infusions of the dried herb were supposed to cure 
heart diseases, melancolia, etc. Perfumers will no doubt recall a French perfume of the late 
1930's, put out by Nina Ricci and named "Cur-Joie", which means "heart's delight". This 
perfume certainly had a melissa-like, fresh topnote and lightness of floral fragrance. 

The herb is distilled in the south of France, Germany, and in Italy and Spain only rarely. 
However, the total production of genuine melissa oil is only a small fraction of the quantity 
commercially offered. The herb may be distilled with lemon oil, Spanish so-called verbena oil, 
lemon- grass oil, citronella oil, and various mixtures or fractions thereof. This process leads to 
commercial qualities of Melissa Oil, e.g. the "Lemon-Melissa", etc. It seems quite certain, 
however, that the extremely small yield of oil obtained by steam distillation of melissa herb is 
another and more acceptable reason (?) for—or explanation to— the conventional 
adulteration. 

The author has seen numerous melissa oils during the past 25 years, but he prefers to refrain 
from any further comments on the pure oil since he has no personal experience with the use 
of a guaranteed pure and genuine Melissa Oil. The plant itself has a very pleasant citral- 
citronellal type of fresh and sweet-herbaceous odor. 

Mentha Arvensis Oil. 

The essential oil, steam distilled from the dried herb of Mentha Arvensis immediately prior to 
the inflorescence of the plant, is known in the U.S.A. as "Mint Oil" or Cornmint Oil", while it is 
quite commonly called "peppermint oil" in other parts of the world. The latter term is 
definitely wrong and misleading. Only the plant mentha piperita (see monograph on 
Peppermint Oil) yields true peppermint oil. On the other hand, only in the U.S.A. is the control 
of production or import of Mentha Arvensis Oil sufficiently strict so that adulteration of true 
peppermint oil with "mint" oil is well-nigh impossible. This adulteration is extremely 
widespread in other parts of the world. 

There are several varieties of Mentha Arvensis, but the one which has attained greatest 
distribution is the variety Piperascens. The plant is found growing wild in China and parts of 
Japan, but is now cultivated on an enormous scale in Japan, Brazil, Formosa, less on the 


299 


Chinese mainland, and on a smaller scale in Argentina, India, western Australia, the Union of 
South Africa, Angola, etc. Japan, Brazil and Formosa are the main producers. The annual world 
production of Mentha Arvensis Oil (i.e. total oil, before dementholization) is about 3,000 
metric tons (1959, and has been increasing in spite of the very successful synthesis of Menthol 
from cheaper raw materials (piperitone, citronellal, and even pinene). 

The natural oil of mentha arvensis (forma piperascens) contains so much menthol that it will 
solidify at room temperature. By freezing the total oil, about 40% menthol is recovered, 
leaving the so-called "dementholized" oil which is liquid and still contains about 55% menthol. 
Part of this menthol, and most of the menthone in the dementholized oil can be further 
exploited by chemical treatment which converts the bitter- tasting menthone, a ketone, into 
various isomers of menthol. True 1-menthol can be isolated from the mixture, and the 
remainder can be sold as "liquid menthol". Thus, the oil of mentha arvensis is mainly a starting 
material in the production of menthol, one of the most important of all flavoring agents. 

A wealth of information on the subject of cultivation of the plant, distillation of oil, isolation of 
menthol, etc. has been published during the past decades, and the author sees no need to 
repeat such information here. It should be noted, however, that there is a distinct difference in 
the chemical composition of the mentha arvensis oils of different origin: 

The Chinese oil contains about 2 percent esters, calculated as menthylacetate, the Brazilian 
contains from 5 to 30 percent (in exceptional cases) of esters, and the Japanese mentha 
arvensis oil contains from 10 to 12 percent esters. 

The oil of Mentha Arvensis (dementholized) is a very common article exported from Japan, 
Formosa or Brazil. It is a pale yellow or almost colorless liquid of strong, fresh and somewhat 
bitter-sweet odor, to a certain degree reminiscent of the odor of peppermint oil. The 
undertone is somewhat harsh-woody and the dryout is bitterherbaceous. It produces a cool 
feeling on the mucous membranes in the nose and mouth cavities or upon direct contact with 
the skin. The flavor is cool, minty, somewhat rough and slightly bitter-green or sharp, less 
balsamic-herbaceous or sweet than the flavor